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Technical Paper

A Billion Engine Hours On Aluminum Bearings

HIGH load-carrying ability and fatigue strength, good embeddabiltty and conformability, and resistance to wear, seizure, and corrosion are factors that sold them on aluminum for bearings, the authors report. Bonded steel backing, they say, makes aluminum bearings even better. Retaining aluminum's good properties, it improves some of its bad points and gives such advantages as: Reduced bearing clearances, compared with those used with solid-aluminum bearings. No life limit in operation below 5000 psi fatigue stress value. Less sensitivity to high oil temperatures. Negligible wear (after 29,000 hr in one test). Simpler and less expensive bearing-locating designs. Special excellence for high-load, high-speed applications.
Technical Paper

Amplitude Distribution Analyzer for the Measurement of Gearing Load Spectra

Gearing load spectra data collected under actual working conditions help a designer predict the fatigue life of power train components. Considerable time was required in the past to collect and reduce these data to a form suitable for design use. A vehicle mounted instrumentation system consisting of a strain gaged shaft, a shaft encoder-slip ring assembly, and an amplitude distribution analyzer, was developed which performs load measurements. At the test's conclusion, it provides a spectrum analysis in printed histogram form.
Technical Paper

Caterpillar's Inertia Weld Process

A new friction welding process, Caterpillar Inertia Welding, is described in this paper. The two distinguishing characteristics of this form of welding are a continuously decreasing rotational velocity and a continuously changing torque at the weld interface. This enables the forging of many previously “difficult-to-weld” materials, such as superalloys. Such welds also exhibit excellent fatigue properties. Because this process produces high strength bonds in dissimilar materials, the designer is able to create composite parts using the special properties of each material in response to the needs of the design.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of the Caterpillar 7155 Semi-Automatic Heavy-Duty Truck Transmission

The heavy-duty truck industry has seen the need for a change in the concept of transmission design for many years. Several improvements have been made and others attempted, but greater improvement is needed to match the engine's delivery to the vehicle's demand. Driver performance can be improved and fatigue reduced by lowering the effort and skill required to make smooth, consistent starts and ratio changes. This paper discusses a solution to this need in the design and development of a semi-automatic, pneumatically controlled, constant mesh transmission.
Technical Paper

Surface Fatigue Research with the Geared Roller Test Machine

Fatigue failure of machine components subjected to high contact pressures is rapidly becoming recognized as a serious design limitation. Confusion has resulted from grouping three distinct types of contact fatigue failure under the term “pitting” A Geared Roller Test Machine is described that reproduced each of the three modes of failure. The stress-life relationships obtained for rollers tested under conditions of rolling plus sliding correlated well with actual gear performance. The sensitivity of the test to changes in material, micorstructure, and processing variables is demonstrated.