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Technical Paper

2-D Imaging of Fuel Vapor Concentration in a Diesel Spray via Exciplex-Based Fluorescence Technique

To measure the fuel vapor concentration in an unsteady evaporating spray injected into nitrogen atmosphere, the exciplex-forming method, which produces spectrally separated fluorescence from the liquid and vapor phase, was applied in this study. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the qualitative and quantitative applicability of the technique in a high temperature and high pressure atmosphere during the fuel injection period. One is to examine the thermal decomposition of TMPD dopant at a high temperature and a high pressure nitrogen atmosphere during a short period of time. The other is to calibrate the relationship between fluorescence intensity and vapor concentration of TMPD at different vapor temperatures. And then, the qualitative measurement of fuel vapor concentration distributions in diesel sprays was made by applying the technique.
Technical Paper

2-D Imaging of Soot Formation Process in a Transient Spray Flame by Laser-induced Fluorescence and Incandescence Techniques

In order to investigate the soot formation process in a diesel spray flame, simultaneous imaging of soot precursor and soot particles in a transient spray flame achieved in a rapid compression machine was conducted by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and by laser-induced incandescence (LII) techniques. The 3rd harmonic (355nm) and the fundamental (1064nm) laser pulses from an Nd:YAG laser, between which a delay of 44ns was imposed by 13.3m of optical path difference, were used to excite LIF from soot precursor and LII from soot particles in the spray flame. The LIF and the LII were separately imaged by two image-intensified CCD cameras with identical detection wavelength of 400nm and bandwidth of 80nm. The LIF from soot precursor was mainly located in the central region of the spray flame between 40 and 55mm (270 to 370 times nozzle orifice diameter d0) from the nozzle orifice. The LII from soot particles was observed to surround the soot precursor LIF region and to extend downstream.
Technical Paper

2-D Soot Visualization in Unsteady Spray Flame by means of Laser Sheet Scattering Technique

The two-dimensional distribution of a soot cloud in an unsteady spray flame in a rapid compression machine(RCM) was visualized using the laser sheet scattering technique. A 40 mm x 50 mm cross section on the flame axis was illuminated by a thin laser sheet from a single pulsed Nd:YAG laser(wavelength 532 nm). Scattered light from soot particles was taken by a CCD camera via a high speed gated image intensifier. The temporal variation of the scattered light images were presented with the injection pressure as a parameter. The results showed that scattered light was intense near the periphery of the flame tip and that the scattered light becomes weaker significantly and disappears fast after the end of injection as injection pressure is increased. This technique was also applied to the visualization of the two-dimensional distribution of liquid droplets in the non-evaporating spray to correlate it with the soot concentration distribution.
Technical Paper

4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicle Modeling and Simulation of Special Conditions

This paper introduces the characteristics of the 4 wheel independent driving/4 wheel independent steering (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicle (EV). Models of Subsystems and the vehicle are constructed based on Matlab/simulink. The vehicle model allows the inputs of different drive torques and steer angles of four wheels. The dynamic characteristics of drive motors and steer motors are considered, and also it can reflect the vehicle longitudinal dynamics change due to the increase of the mass and inertia of the four wheels. Besides, drive mode selection function that is unique to this type vehicle is involved. Simulations and analyses of crab, oblique driving and zero radius turning which are the special conditions of 4WID/4WIS EV are conducted. The results show that the model can reflect the dynamic response characteristics. The model can be used to the simulation analyses of handling, stability, energy saving and control strategies verification of 4WID/4WIS EVs.
Technical Paper

A 3D DNS Investigation on the Flame-Wall Interactions and Heat Loss in a Constant Volume Vessel

A direct numerical simulation of turbulent premixed flames in a constant volume vessel is conducted to understand flame-wall interactions and heat loss characteristics under the pressure rising condition. The contribution of the burnt region to the total heat flux is more significant compared to the reaction region. The velocity profiles indicate inward and outward motions. The profile of the turbulent kinetic energy is damped by the wall, and no distinct turbulence production is observed. Since the turbulence is weakened in the burnt region, the effect of near wall turbulence to the total wall heat flux is considered to be limited.
Technical Paper

A Braking Force Distribution Strategy in Integrated Braking System Based on Wear Control and Hitch Force Control

A braking force distribution strategy in integrated braking system composed of the main braking system and the auxiliary braking system based on braking pad wear control and hitch force control under non-emergency braking condition is proposed based on the Electronically Controlled Braking System (EBS) to reduce the difference in braking pad wear between different axles and to decrease hitch force between tractors and trailers. The proposed strategy distributes the braking force based on the desired braking intensity, the degree of the braking pad wear and the limits of certain braking regulations to solve the coupling problems between braking safety, economical efficiency of braking and the comfort of drivers. Computer co-simulations of the proposed strategy are performed.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of a Semi-Active Inerter and a Semi-Active Suspension

Inerters have become a hot topic in recent years, especially in vehicle, train, and building suspension systems. The performance of a passive inerter and a semi-active inerter was analyzed and compared with each other and it showed that the semi-active inerter has much better performance than the passive inerter, especially with the Hybrid control method. Eight different layouts of suspensions were analyzed with a quarter car model in this paper. The adaptation of dimensionless parameters was considered for a semi-active suspension and the semi-active inerters. The performance of the semi-active inerter suspensions with different layouts was compared with a semi-active suspension with a conventional parallel spring-damper arrangement. It shows a semi-active suspension, with more simple configuration and lower cost, has similar or better compromise between ride and handling than a semi-active inerter with the Hybrid control.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Testing and Evaluation Approach for Autonomous Vehicles

Performance testing and evaluation always plays an important role in the developmental process of a vehicle, which also applies to autonomous vehicles. The complex nature of an autonomous vehicle from architecture to functionality demands even more quality-and-quantity controlled testing and evaluation than ever before. Most of the existing testing methodologies are task-or-scenario based and can only support single or partial functional testing. These approaches may be helpful at the initial stage of autonomous vehicle development. However, as the integrated autonomous system gets mature, these approaches fall short of supporting comprehensive performance evaluation. This paper proposes a novel hierarchical and systematic testing and evaluation approach to bridge the above-mentioned gap.
Technical Paper

A Control Oriented Simplified Transient Torque Model of Turbocharged Diesel Engines

Due to the high cost of torque sensors, a calculation model of transient torque is required for real-time coordinating control purpose, especially in hybrid electric powertrains. This paper presents a feedforward calculation method based on mean value model of turbocharged non-EGR diesel engines. A fitting variable called fuel coefficient is defined in an affine relation between brake torque and fuel mass. The fitting of fuel coefficient is simplified to depend only on three variables (engine speed, boost pressure, injected fuel mass). And a two-layer feedforward neural network is utilized to fit the experimental data. The model is validated by load response test and ETC (European Transient Cycle) transient test. The RMSE (root mean square error) of the brake torque is less than 3%.
Technical Paper

A Control Strategy Based on Exact Linearization for Electromagnetic Valve Actuation

Electromagnetic Valve Actuation (EVA) is considered to be a potential substitute of conventional valvetrains for automotive engines. However, valve quiet-seating (soft-landing) is difficult to be achieved. The EVA system and hence its’ mathematic model is nonlinear. Therefore, when linear control is used for EVA, firstly, the model has to be linearized at an equilibrium point through Taylor expansion. Consequently, the linearized model and control are valid only for a small range around the equilibrium point. This paper presents a control strategy for the whole transition of EVA, which combines exact linearization with Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR). Firstly, the nonlinear EVA model is transformed to be linear in a new coordinate by using exact linearization, so the nonlinear model is not involved. Then the exact-linearized model is used for the EVA control with LQR.
Technical Paper

A Cycle-to-Cycle Variation Extraction Method for Flow Field Analysis in SI IC Engines Based on Turbulence Scales

To adhere to stringent environmental regulations, SI (spark ignition) engines are required to achieve higher thermal efficiency. In recent years, EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) systems and lean-burn operation has been recognized as key technologies. Under such operating conditions, reducing CCV (cycle-to-cycle variation) in combustion is critical to the enhancement of overall engine performance. Flow-field CCV is one of the considerable factors affecting combustion in engines. Conventionally, in research on flow fields in SI engines, the ensemble average is used to separate the measured velocity field into a mean component and a fluctuation component, the latter of which contains a CCV component and a turbulent component. To extract the CCV of the flow field, previous studies employed spatial filter, temporal filter, and POD (proper orthogonal decomposition) methods.
Technical Paper

A DNS Study on Global and Local Flame Structures In Thin Reaction Zones

Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of methane-air turbulent premixed flame propagating in homogenous isotropic turbulence are conducted to investigate local and global flame structure in thin reaction zones. GRI-Mech 3.0 is used to represent methane-air reactions. The equivalence ratio of unburned mixture is 0.6 and 1.0. For a better understanding of the local flame structure in thin reaction zones, distributions of mass fractions of major species, heat release rate and temperature are investigated. To clarify effects of turbulence on the local and global flame structures, the statistical characteristics of flame elements are also revealed.
Technical Paper

A Design Guide for Wet Multiple Plate Clutches on Forklift Truck Transmissions Considering Strength Balance between Friction Material and Mating Plate

Wet multiple plate clutches consist of friction plates, on which a friction material is bonded, and mating plates that are plain metal plates. Since the frequency and the range of load in the field of forklift trucks vary widely and are more severe than those for passenger cars, the wet multiple plate clutches on forklift trucks are often damaged. Damaged clutches that were returned from the field typically had 3 types of symptoms: 1.Only the friction material was damaged, 2.Only the mating plates were deformed, 3.Both symptoms were observed. It was clear that the cause of these symptoms depended on the difference of the operating application and the strength criteria of each part. This showed that a design guide for wet multiple plate clutches considering the strength balance between the two parts according to the work application was required. The relevant flow chart of this design process was proposed.
Technical Paper

A Driving Simulator Study of Young Driver’s Behavior under Angry Emotion

The driving behaviors of young drivers under the influence of anger are analyzed by driving simulator in this paper. A total of 12 subjects are enrolled during the experiment. Standardized videos are utilized to induce the driver's anger emotion. And the driver's electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is collected synchronously and compared before and after emotional trigger, which prove the validity of emotional trigger. Based on the result, the driver's driving performance under the straight road and the curve under normal state and angry state are compared and analyzed. The results of independent sample t-test show that there are significant differences in the running time of straight sections and the standard deviation of steering wheel angle in curves between normal and angry states. In conclusion, the longitudinal and lateral operation of drivers is unstable in angry state and the driver will be more destructive to the regular driving behavior.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Model for Tire/Road Friction Estimation under Combined Longitudinal/Lateral Slip Situation

A new dynamic tire model for estimating the longitudinal/lateral road-tire friction force was derived in this paper. The model was based on the previous Dugoff tire model, in consideration of its drawback that it does not reflect the actual change trend that the tire friction force decreases with the increment of wheel slip ratio when it enters into the nonlinear region. The Dugoff model was modified by fitting a series of tire force data and compared with the commonly used Magic Formula model. This new dynamic friction model is able to capture accurately the transient behavior of the friction force observed during pure longitudinal wheel slip, lateral sideslip and combined slip situation. Simulation has been done under different situations, while the results validate the accuracy of the new tire friction model in predicting tire/road friction force during transient vehicle motion.
Technical Paper

A Fuzzy On-Line Self-Tuning Control Algorithm for Vehicle Adaptive Cruise Control System with the Simulation of Driver Behavior

Research of Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is an important issue of intelligent vehicle (IV). As we all known, a real and experienced driver can control vehicle's speed very well under every traffic environment of ACC working. So a direct and feasible way for establishing ACC controller is to build a human-like longitudinal control algorithm with the simulation of driver behavior of speed control. In this paper, a novel fuzzy self-tuning control algorithm of ACC is established and this controller's parameters can be tuned on-line based on the evaluation indexes that can describe how the driver consider the quality of dynamical characteristic of vehicle longitudinal dynamics. With the advantage of the controller's parameter on-line self-tuning, the computational workload from matching design of ACC controller is also efficiently reduced.
Technical Paper

A Gas Sampling Study on the Formation Processes of Soot and NO in a DI Diesel Engine

The concentrations of soot, NO and the other combustion products were measured by incylinder gas sampling in a DI diesel engine. The effects of injection timing, swirl ratio, and combustion chamber geometry on the formation and emission processes of soot and NO were studied. The following results were obtained: (1) Soot is promptly formed in the flame during the early combustion period where the equivalence ratio in the flame is high over 1.0. Thereafter almost all the formed soot is swiftly burnd up by oxidation during the middle combustion period. This process mainly determines the exhaust soot concentration. (2) NO is formed in the flame during the early and middle combustion period where the flame temperature is high over 2000 K. The highest NO concentration is observed at the flame tip swept by the air swirl. Though the concentration of the formed NO decreases by dilusion it nearly constant during the later combustion period.
Technical Paper

A Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator for Vehicle Adaptive Cruise Control Systems by Using xPC Target

A HIL simulator for developing vehicle adaptive cruise control systems is presented in this paper. The xPC target is used to establish real-time simulation environment. The simulator is composed of a virtual vehicle model, real components of an ACC system like ECU, electronic throttle and braking modulator, a user interface to facilitate simulation, and brake and accelerator pedals to make interactive driver inputs easier. The vehicle model is validated against data from field test. Tests of an ACC controller in the real-time are conducted on the simulator.
Journal Article

A Lane-Changing Decision-Making Method for Intelligent Vehicle Based on Acceleration Field

Taking full advantage of available traffic environment information, making control decisions, and then planning trajectory systematically under structured roads conditions is a critical part of intelligent vehicle. In this article, a lane-changing decision-making method for intelligent vehicle is proposed based on acceleration field. Firstly, an acceleration field related to relative velocity and relative distance was built based on the analysis of braking process, and acceleration was taken as an indicator of safety evaluation. Then, a lane-changing decision method was set up with acceleration field while considering driver’s habits, traffic efficiency and safety. Furthermore, velocity regulation was also introduced in the lane-changing decision method to make it more flexible.
Technical Paper

A Lightweight Dash Insulator Development and Engineering Application for the Vehicle NVH Improvement

A lightweight design method of vehicle dash insulators is proposed and investigated in this paper. The lightweight dash insulator, which is composed of double layers of cotton felt with different density and a layer of polyethylene (PE) film and has 55% decrease in weight, is developed and applied in a passenger car, instead of the traditional “heavy layer-soft layer” dash insulator. To evaluate the NVH performance of the lightweight dash insulator, the noise reduction (NR) level index is calculated by using SEA simulation and the sound pressure level and sound qualities in the vehicle are tested under the driving conditions for wide open throttle acceleration in third gear and 60km/h cruising in fourth gear. The simulation and test results show that the vehicle with the lightweight dash insulator has better NVH performance.