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Technical Paper

14 Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model for Roll Dynamics Study

2006-04-03
2006-01-1277
A vehicle model is an important factor in the development of vehicle control systems. Various vehicle models having different complexities, assumptions, and limitations have been developed and applied to many different vehicle control systems. A 14 DOF vehicle model that includes a roll center as well as non-linear effects due to vehicle roll and pitch angles and unsprung mass inertias, is developed. From this model, the limitations and validity of lower order models which employ different assumptions for simplification of dynamic equations are investigated by analyzing their effect on vehicle roll response through simulation. The possible limitation of the 14 DOF model compared to an actual vehicle is also discussed.
Technical Paper

A Case Study in Remote Connectivity to Automotive Communication Networks

2001-03-05
2001-01-0069
This paper describes a case study led by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) of Dayton, OH USA and Dearborn Group Inc. to prove the feasibility of employing Telematics technologies to the vehicle test and measurement industry. Many test functions can be automated through the use of secure wireless technologies. For example, vehicle data can be dynamically monitored on the vehicle and data meeting pre-determined criteria could be downloaded via the wireless communications center. Additionally, central, real-time wireless monitoring of vehicle fleets provides the vehicle fleet manager with the ability to manage multiple tests simultaneously, thus improving efficiencies and potentially reducing manpower costs and compressing test schedules.
Journal Article

A Comparative Study of Two ASTM Shear Test Standards for Chopped Carbon Fiber SMC

2018-04-03
2018-01-0098
Chopped carbon fiber sheet molding compound (SMC) material is a promising material for mass-production lightweight vehicle components. However, the experimental characterization of SMC material property is a challenging task and needs to be further investigated. There now exist two ASTM standards (ASTM D7078/D7078M and ASTM D5379/D5379M) for characterizing the shear properties of composite materials. However, it is still not clear which standard is more suitable for SMC material characterization. In this work, a comparative study is conducted by performing two independent Digital Image Correlation (DIC) shear tests following the two standards, respectively. The results show that ASTM D5379/D5379M is not appropriate for testing SMC materials. Moreover, the failure mode of these samples indicates that the failure is caused by the additional moment raised by the improper design of the fixture.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Two RVE Modelling Methods for Chopped Carbon Fiber SMC

2017-03-28
2017-01-0224
To advance vehicle lightweighting, chopped carbon fiber sheet molding compound (SMC) is identified as a promising material to replace metals. However, there are no effective tools and methods to predict the mechanical property of the chopped carbon fiber SMC due to the high complexity in microstructure features and the anisotropic properties. In this paper, a Representative Volume Element (RVE) approach is used to model the SMC microstructure. Two modeling methods, the Voronoi diagram-based method and the chip packing method, are developed to populate the RVE. The elastic moduli of the RVE are calculated and the two methods are compared with experimental tensile test conduct using Digital Image Correlation (DIC). Furthermore, the advantages and shortcomings of these two methods are discussed in terms of the required input information and the convenience of use in the integrated processing-microstructure-property analysis.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Burn Characteristics and Exhaust Emissions from Off-Highway Engines Fueled by E0 and E85

2004-01-16
2004-28-0045
Ethanol fuel has received renewed attention in recent years because of its oxygenate content and its potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from spark ignition engines. The economic impact on farm industry has been one of the drivers for its use in engines in the U.S. Although ethanol, in various blends, has been used in automotive engines for almost a decade the fuel has seldom been utilized in off-highway engines where the fuel systems are not well controlled. This investigation was conducted to evaluate exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics of E85 fuel in an off-highway engine used in farm equipment. A single-cylinder, four-stroke, spark ignition engine equipped with a carburetor was used to investigate combustion and exhaust emissions produced by gasoline and blends of gasoline and ethanol fuels. The engine fuel system was modified to handle flow rates required by the engine. A variable size-metering orifice was used to control air-to-fuel ratios.
Journal Article

A Comprehensive Validation Method with Surface-Surface Comparison for Vehicle Safety Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-0221
Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) models have proven themselves to be efficient surrogates of real-world systems in automotive industries and academia. To successfully integrate the CAE models into analysis process, model validation is necessarily required to assess the models’ predictive capabilities regarding their intended usage. In the context of model validation, quantitative comparison which considers specific measurements in real-world systems and corresponding simulations serves as a principal step in the assessment process. For applications such as side impact analysis, surface deformation is frequently regarded as a critical factor to be measured for the validation of CAE models. However, recent approaches for such application are commonly based on graphical comparison, while researches on the quantitative metric for surface-surface comparison are rarely found.
Journal Article

A Corrected Surrogate Model Based Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Method under Uncertainty

2017-03-28
2017-01-0256
Vehicle weight reduction has become one of the most crucial problems in the automotive industry because that increasingly stringent regulatory requirements, such as fuel economy and environmental protection, must be met. The lightweight design needs to consider various vehicle attributes, including crashworthiness and stiffness. Therefore, in essence, the vehicle weight reduction is a typical Multidisciplinary Design Optimization problem. To improve the computational efficiency, meta-models have been widely used as the surrogate of FE model in the multidisciplinary optimization of large structures. However, these surrogate models introduce additional sources of uncertainties, such as model uncertainty, which may lead to the poor accuracy in prediction. In this paper, a method of corrected surrogate model based multidisciplinary design optimization under uncertainty is proposed to incorporate the uncertainties introduced by both meta-models and design variables.
Technical Paper

A Data Mining and Optimization Process with Shape and Size Design Variables Consideration for Vehicle Application

2018-04-03
2018-01-0584
This paper presents a design process with data mining technique and advanced optimization strategy. The proposed design method provides insights in three aspects. First, data mining technique is employed for analysis to identify key factors of design variables. Second, relationship between multiple types of size and shape design variables and performance responses can be analyzed. Last but not least, design preference can be initialized based on data analysis to provide priori guidance for the starting design points of optimization algorithm. An exhaust system design problem which largely contributes to the improvement of vehicular Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) performance is employed for the illustration of the process. Two types of design parameters, structural variable (gauge of component) and layout variable (hanger location), are considered in the studied case.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Local Trajectory Planning and Tracking Method for UGV Based on Optimal Algorithm

2019-04-02
2019-01-0871
UGV (Unmanned Ground Vehicle) is gaining increasing amounts of attention from both industry and academic communities in recent years. Local trajectory planning is one of the most important parts of designing a UGV. However, there has been little research into local trajectory planning and tracking, and current research has not considered the dynamic of the surrounding environment. Therefore, we propose a dynamic local trajectory planning and tracking method for UGV driving on the highway in this paper. The method proposed in this paper can make the UGV travel from the navigation starting point to the navigation end point without collision on both straight and curve road. The key technology for this method is trajectory planning, trajectory tracking and trajectory update signal generation. Trajectory planning algorithm calculates a reference trajectory satisfying the demands of safety, comfort and traffic efficiency.
Technical Paper

A Feature-Based Responses Prediction Method for Simplified CAE Models

2019-04-02
2019-01-0516
In real-world engineering problems, the method of model simplification is usually adopted to increase the simulation efficiency. Nevertheless, the obtained simulation results are commonly with low accuracy. To research the impact from model simplification on simulation results, a feature-based predictive method for simplified CAE model analysis is proposed in this paper. First, the point clouds are used to represent the features of simplified model. Then the features are quantified according to the factors of position for further analysis. A formulated predictive model is then established to evaluate the responses of interest for different models, which are specified by the employed simplification methods. The proposed method is demonstrated through an engineering case. The results suggest that the predictive model can facilitate the analysis procedure to reduce the cost in CAE analysis.
Technical Paper

A Fitting Algorithm for Determination of Minimum Zone Form Tolerances

1996-05-01
961642
In this paper, a new algorithm, named Nonlinear Optimization Method (NOM) has been mathematically and computationally developed for several geometric elements. The initial condition of the NOM is obtained by LSM, then the minimum zone is optimized in accordance with tolerancing principles in ANSI Y14.5.1M. The results are verified to be the Minimum Zone Evaluation (MZE) for the inspected geometric features. The algorithm, together with its computational realization programs, are proved to be considerably reliable and robust for practical applications.
Technical Paper

A Maximum Incompatibility Constrained Collaborative Optimization Method for Vehicle Weight Reduction

2018-04-03
2018-01-0585
Collaborative optimization is an important design tool in complex vehicle system engineering. However, there are many problems yet to be resolved when applying the conventional collaborative optimization method in vehicle body weight reduction, such as convergence difficulties and low optimization efficiency. To solve these problems, a maximum incompatibility constrained collaborative optimization method is proposed in the paper. First, the 1-norm equality constraints expression of the system level is used to replace the traditional 2-norm inequality constraints. Then, a maximum incompatibility is selected from modified inequality constraints to improve optimization efficiency. Finally, an overall compatibility constraint is introduced to decrease the influence caused by the initial point. A mathematical example is used to verify the effectiveness and stability of the proposed method.
Technical Paper

A Modular Designed Three-phase ~98%-Efficiency 5kW/L On-board Fast Charger for Electric Vehicles Using Paralleled E-mode GaN HEMTs

2017-03-28
2017-01-1697
Most of the present electric vehicle (EV) on-board chargers utilize a conventional design, i.e., a boost-type Power Factor Correction (PFC) controller followed by an isolated DC/DC converter. Such design usually yields a ~94% wall-to-battery efficiency and 2~3kW/L power density at most, which makes a high-power charger, e.g., 20kW module difficult to fit in the vehicle. As described in this paper, first, an E-mode GaN HEMT based 7.2kW single-phase charger was built. Connecting three such modules to the three-phase grid allows a three-phase >20kW charger to be built, which compared to the conventional three-phase charger, saves the bulky DC-bus capacitor by using the indirect matrix converter topology. To push the efficiency and power density to the limit, comprehensive optimization is processed to optimize the single-phase module through incorporating the GaN HEMT switching performance and securing its zero-voltage switching.
Technical Paper

A Real-Time Computer System for the Control of Refrigerant Flow

1997-02-24
970108
This paper presents a real-time computer system for the control of refrigerant flow in an automotive air conditioning system. This is an experimental system used to investigate the potential advantages of electronic flow control over conventional flow control (using an orifice tube or thermal expansion valve). Two features of this system are presented. First, the system organization is described. Second, the control and interface software are presented. The emphasis is on the software. The system is organized as a closed loop control system. The inputs to the controller are measurements of the refrigerant system. In particular, thermocouples are used to measure the refrigerant temperature before and after the evaporator. The analog thermocouple signals are converted to digital form by an off-the-shelf, portable, data acquisition system (DAQ). Via a parallel port link, these digital measurements are transfered to a laptop computer.
Technical Paper

A Rear Spoiler of a New Type that Reduces the Aerodynamic Forces on a Mini-Van

2006-04-03
2006-01-1631
The Low Mass Vehicle (LMV) that is a minivan designed to compete with the Toyota Echo but with 30% less mass has been used for the research in the Institute for Advanced Vehicle Systems. To reduce the aerodynamic forces on the LMV, the present authors have developed a rear spoiler of a new type based on the principles of fluid dynamics and through numerical computations. This new spoiler has been developed in such a way that the aerodynamic drag as well as lift on vehicles having a bluff back can be reduced when the new spoiler is attached to them. Numerical simulations show that the aerodynamic drag and lift on the LMV moving at 30 m/s reduce by 5 % and more than 100 %, respectively, when the new spoiler is attached to it.
Technical Paper

A Research on the Body-in-White (BIW) Weight Reduction at the Conceptual Design Phase

2014-04-01
2014-01-0743
Vehicle weight reduction has become one of the essential research areas in the automotive industry. It is important to perform design optimization of Body-in-White (BIW) at the concept design phase so that to reduce the development cost and shorten the time-to-market in later stages. Finite Element (FE) models are commonly used for vehicle design. However, even with increasing speed of computers, the simulation of FE models is still too time-consuming due to the increased complexity of models. This calls for the development of a systematic and efficient approach that can effectively perform vehicle weight reduction, while satisfying the stringent safety regulations and constraints of development time and cost. In this paper, an efficient BIW weight reduction approach is proposed with consideration of complex safety and stiffness performances. A parametric BIW FE model is first constructed, followed by the building of surrogate models for the responses of interest.
Technical Paper

A Similarity Evaluation Metric for Mesh Based CAE Model Simplification and Its Application on Vehicle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1332
To obtain higher efficiency in analysis process, simplification methods for computer-aided engineering (CAE) models are required in engineering. Current model simplification methods can meet certain precision and efficiency requirement, but these methods mainly concentrate on model features while ignoring model mesh which is also critical to efficiency of the analysis process and preciseness of the results. To address such issues, an integrated mesh simplification and evaluation process is proposed in this paper. The mesh is simplified to fewer features (e.g. faces, edges, and vertices) through edge collapsing based on quadric error metric. Then curvatures and normal vectors which are the objects to be evaluated are extracted from the original and simplified models for comparison. To obtain accurate results, the geometric information of mesh nodes and elements are both considered in this evaluation process. The proposed method is implemented on a vehicle crash test.
Technical Paper

A Simplified Three-Dimensional Finite Element Model of Serpentine Belt and its Application into a Belt Driving System

2015-04-14
2015-01-0451
The serpentine belt's multi-scale problems in geometric size, which gives rise to a very large number of element and deeply low calculating efficiency, always bring obstacles when predicting the dynamic response of a serpentine belt driving system using three-dimensional finite element model (FEM). In this paper, a simplified finite element model is built which can accurately present the original serpentine belt's geometric characteristics such as cross-area and moment of inertia, as well as material characteristics such as stiffness and damping, etc. This simplified model is then used in a three-dimensional belt-drive model to simulate the dynamic characteristics of the belt-drive system. The results show that the tension fluctuation for the original serpentine belt and the simplified belt are in good agreement with each other which confirms that the simplified belt model can be used to predict the engine front end accessory drive system (EFEADS)'s dynamic characteristics.
Technical Paper

A Structural Stress Recovery Procedure for Fatigue Life Assessment of Welded Structures

2017-03-28
2017-01-0343
Over the decades, several attempts have been made to develop new fatigue analysis methods for welded joints since most of the incidents in automotive structures are joints related. Therefore, a reliable and effective fatigue damage parameter is needed to properly predict the failure location and fatigue life of these welded structures to reduce the hardware testing, time, and the associated cost. The nodal force-based structural stress approach is becoming widely used in fatigue life assessment of welded structures. In this paper, a new nodal force-based structural stress recovery procedure is proposed that uses the least squares method to linearly smooth the stresses in elements along the weld line. Weight function is introduced to give flexibility in choosing different weighting schemes between elements. Two typical weighting schemes are discussed and compared.
Technical Paper

A Trajectory Planning and Fuzzy Control for Autonomous Intelligent Parking System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0032
This paper proposed a two-section trajectory planning algorithm. In this trajectory planning, sigmoid function is adopted to fit two tangent arcs to meet limited parking spaces by reducing the radius of turning. Then the transverse preview model is established and the path tracking errors including distance error and angle error are estimated. The weight coefficient is considered to distribute the impact factor of traverse distance error or traverse angle error in the total error. The fuzzy controller is designed to track the two-section trajectory in autonomous intelligent parking system. The fuzzy controller is developed due to its real-time and robustness in the parking process. Traverse errors and its first-order derivative are selected as input variables and the outer wheel steering angle is selected as the output variable in fuzzy controller. They are also divided into seven fuzzy sets. Finally, forty rules are decided to achieve effective trajectory tracking.
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