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Technical Paper

A Biomechanical Analysis of Head, Neck, and Torso Injuries to Child Surrogates Due to Sudden Torso Acceleration

This paper reports on the injuries to the head, neck and thorax of fifteen child surrogates, subjected to varying levels of sudden acceleration. Measured response data in the child surrogate tests and in matched tests with a three-year-old child test dummy are compared to the observed child surrogates injury levels to develop preliminary tolerance data for the child surrogate. The data are compared with already published data in the literature.
Technical Paper

A Crash Simulation of Instrument Panel Knee Bolster Using Hybrid III Dummy Lower Torso

This paper reports the analytical procedure developed for a simulation of knee impact during a barrier crash using a hybrid III dummy lower torso. A finite element model of the instrument panel was generated. The dummy was seated in mid-seat position and was imparted an initial velocity so that the knee velocity at impact corresponded to the secondary impact velocity during a barrier crash. The procedure provided a reasonably accurate simulation of the dummy kinematics. This simulation can be used for understanding the knee bolster energy management system. The methodology developed has been used to simulate impact on knee for an occupant belted or unbelted in a frontal crash. The influence of the vehicle interior on both the dummy kinematics and the impact locations was incorporated into the model. No assumptions have been made for the knee impact locations, eliminating the need to assume knee velocity vectors.
Technical Paper

A Technique to Predict Thermal Buckling in Automotive Body Panels by Coupling Heat Transfer and Structural Analysis

This paper describes a comprehensive methodology for the simulation of vehicle body panel buckling in an electrophoretic coat (electro-coat or e-coat) and/or paint oven environment. The simulation couples computational heat transfer analysis and structural analysis. Heat transfer analysis is used to predict temperature distribution throughout a vehicle body in curing ovens. The vehicle body temperature profile from the heat transfer analysis is applied as an input for a structural analysis to predict buckling. This study is focused on the radiant section of the curing ovens. The radiant section of the oven has the largest temperature gradients within the body structure. This methodology couples a fully transient thermal analysis to simulate the structure through the electro-coat and paint curing environments with a structural, buckling analysis.
Technical Paper

Additional Notes on Finite Element Models of Deformable Featureless Headform

Model characteristics of a finite element deformable featureless headform with one to four layers of solid elements for the headform skin are studied using both the LS-DYNA3D and FCRASH codes. The models use a viscoelastic material law whose constitutive parameters are established through comparisons of drop test simulations at various impact velocities with the test data. Results indicate that the one-layer model has a significant distinct characteristic from the other (2-to-4-layer) models, thus requiring different parametric values. Similar observation is also noticed in simulating drop tests with one and two layers of solid elements for the headform skin using PAM-CRASH. When using the same parametric values for the viscoelastic material, both the LS-DYNA3D and FCRASH simulations yield the same results under identical impact conditions and, thereby, exhibit a “functional equivalency” between these two codes.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of the SAE Recommended Design Changes to the Hybrid III Dummy Hip Joint

The SAE Large Male and Small Female Dummy Task Group has recommended a change to the Hybrid III dummy hip joint. This change was made because of a non-biofidelic interference in the current design that can influence chest accelerations. The modifications include a new femur casting shaft design and the addition of an elastomeric stop to the top of the casting. Static testing and Hyge sled tests were done to evaluate the modifications. Based on the results, the new design satisfied the requirements set by the SAE task group and reduced the influence of hip joint characteristics on chest accelerations.
Technical Paper

Assessment Metric Identification and Evaluation for Side Airbag (SAB) Development

This paper discusses steps for identifying, evaluating and recommending a quantifiable design metric or metrics for Side Airbag (SAB) development. Three functionally related and desirable attributes of a SAB are assumed at the onset, namely, effective SAB coverage, load distribution and efficient energy management at a controlled force level. The third attribute however contradicts the “banana shaped” force-displacement response that characterizes the ineffective energy management reality of most production SAB. In this study, an estimated ATD to SAB interaction energy is used to size and recommend desired force-deformation characteristic of a robust energy management SAB. The study was conducted in the following three phases and corresponding objectives: Phase 1 is a SAB assessment metric identification and estimation, using a uniform block attached to a horizontal impact machine.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Magnetohydrodynamic Angular Rate Sensors in Measuring Ankle Rotations During Vehicle's Crash Tests

While testing vehicles for crash, particularly the offset frontal crash mode, new devices and techniques are needed to enhance the ability to measure rotations of certain vehicle components and dummy parts (or joints). The reason for this new demand is that the capabilities of existing techniques or devices in measuring rotations of small masses in confined areas are limited. Examples of the desired measurements are the rotations of dummy's feet and tibias as well as the rotations of the vehicle's toe-board during intrusion. These measurements help to understand dummy's ankle loads as a result of different intrusion rates. Furthermore, having these measurements is very beneficial to the validation of the computer models used in simulating the behavior of dummy's lower extremities in high intrusion crashes. Recent research demonstrated the use of an angular rate sensor, based on magnetohydrodynamic principles, on Hybrid-III dummies and cadavers.

Automotive Safety

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Technical Paper

Automotive Vehicle Body Temperature Prediction in a Paint Oven

Automotive vehicle body electrophoretic (e-coat) and paint application has a high degree of complexity and expense in vehicle assembly. These steps involve coating and painting the vehicle body. Each step has multiple coatings and a curing process of the body in an oven. Two types of heating methods, radiation and convection, are used in the ovens to cure coatings and paints during the process. During heating stage in the oven, the vehicle body has large thermal stresses due to thermal expansion. These stresses may cause permanent deformation and weld/joint failure. Body panel deformation and joint failure can be predicted by using structural analysis with component surface temperature distribution. The prediction will avoid late and costly changes to the vehicle design. The temperature profiles on the vehicle components are the key boundary conditions used to perform structure analysis.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Assessment of a Rear-Seat Inflatable Seatbelt in Frontal Impacts

This study evaluated the biomechanical performance of a rear-seat inflatable seatbelt system and compared it to that of a 3-point seatbelt system, which has a long history of good real-world performance. Frontal-impact sled tests were conducted with Hybrid III anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and with post mortem human subjects (PMHS) using both restraint systems and a generic rear-seat configuration. Results from these tests demonstrated: a) reduction in forward head excursion with the inflatable seatbelt system when compared to that of a 3-point seatbelt and; b) a reduction in ATD and PMHS peak chest deflections and the number of PMHS rib fractures with the inflatable seatbelt system and c) a reduction in PMHS cervical-spine injuries, due to the interaction of the chin with the inflated shoulder belt. These results suggest that an inflatable seatbelt system will offer additional benefits to some occupants in the rear seats.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Design Considerations for Side Impact

Side impact collisions account for about 29% of all vehicle occupant fatalities and for about one-fifth of all the “harm” to vehicle occupants. This paper addresses many aspects of side impact induced injuries which vehicle planners and designers may choose to consider during the evolution of a vehicle design. The proposed NHTSA side impact test, side impact dummies, the biomechanics of different human body areas and general concepts for increased occupant protection are discussed from a theoretical point of view. It is believed that this paper or a future update of it, can only become a useful tool when there is general agreement that it reflects solid biomechanical direction which in turn, can be reflected in actual, practicable, responsible hardware design.
Technical Paper

Communication Requirements for Plug-In Electric Vehicles

This paper is the second in the series of documents designed to record the progress of a series of SAE documents - SAE J2836™, J2847, J2931, & J2953 - within the Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Communication Task Force. This follows the initial paper number 2010-01-0837, and continues with the test and modeling of the various PLC types for utility programs described in J2836/1™ & J2847/1. This also extends the communication to an off-board charger, described in J2836/2™ & J2847/2 and includes reverse energy flow described in J2836/3™ and J2847/3. The initial versions of J2836/1™ and J2847/1 were published early 2010. J2847/1 has now been re-opened to include updates from comments from the National Institute of Standards Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP), Smart Grid Architectural Committee (SGAC) and Cyber Security Working Group committee (SCWG).
Technical Paper

Communication between Plug-in Vehicles and the Utility Grid

This paper is the first in a series of documents designed to record the progress of the SAE J2293 Task Force as it continues to develop and refine the communication requirements between Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV) and the Electric Utility Grid. In February, 2008 the SAE Task Force was formed and it started by reviewing the existing SAE J2293 standard, which was originally developed by the Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Controls Task Force in the 1990s. This legacy standard identified the communication requirements between the Electric Vehicle (EV) and the EV Supply Equipment (EVSE), including off-board charging systems necessary to transfer DC energy to the vehicle. It was apparent at the first Task Force meeting that the communications requirements between the PEV and utility grid being proposed by industry stakeholders were vastly different in the type of communications and messaging documented in the original standard.
Technical Paper

Critical Comparisons of US and European Dynamic Side Impacts

Global engineering is increasingly becoming a practice within the automotive industry. Due to added engineering and manufacturing benefits, more and more new vehicles are being developed with common structure to meet the consumer needs in many local regions. While vehicle development and manufacturing process is becoming global, automotive safety regulations in various parts of the world have not been as uniform. A good example is the differing requirements for dynamic side impact protection of new vehicles. United States National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and European Union (EU) have each produced their own distinct test procedures such as, different barrier faces, impact configurations, and anthropomorphic test devices (dummies). Although both test procedures have the same final objective estimate occupant responses in side impacts, they differ greatly in execution and emphasis on occupant response requirements.
Technical Paper

Development and Evaluation of a Proposed Neck Shield for the 5th Percentile Hybrid III Female Dummy

Frontal airbag interaction with the head and neck of the Hybrid III family of dummies may involve a nonbiofidelic interaction. Researchers have found that the deploying airbag may become entrapped in the hollow cavity behind the dummy chin. This study evaluated a prototype neck shield design, the Flap Neck Shield, for biofidelic response and the ability to prevent airbag entrapment in the chin/jaw cavity. Neck pendulum calibration tests were conducted for biofidelity evaluation. Static and dynamic airbag deployments were conducted to evaluate neck shield performance. Tests showed that the Flap Neck Shield behaved in a biofidelic manner with neck loads and head motion within established biofidelic limits. The Flap Neck Shield did not alter the neck loads during static or dynamic airbag interactions, but it did consistently prevent the airbag from penetrating the chin/jaw cavity.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of Age-Dependent FE Human Models of a Mid-Sized Male Thorax

The increasing number of people over 65 years old (YO) is an important research topic in the area of impact biomechanics, and finite element (FE) modeling can provide valuable support for related research. There were three objectives of this study: (1) Estimation of the representative age of the previously documented Ford Human Body Model (FHBM)~an FE model which approximates the geometry and mass of a mid-sized male, (2) Development of FE models representing two additional ages, and (3) Validation of the resulting three models to the extent possible with respect to available physical tests. Specifically, the geometry of the model was compared to published data relating rib angles to age, and the mechanical properties of different simulated tissues were compared to a number of published aging functions. The FHBM was determined to represent a 53-59 YO mid-sized male. The aforementioned aging functions were used to develop FE models representing two additional ages: 35 and 75 YO.
Technical Paper

Development of a Door Test Facility for Implementing the Door Component Test Methodology

This paper describes the development of an automated Door Test Facility for implementing the Door Component Test Methodology for side impact analysis. The automated targeting and loading of the door inner/trim panels with Side Impact Dummy (SID) ribcage, pelvis, and leg rams will greatly improve its test-to-test repeatability and expedite door/trim/armrest development/evaluation for verification with the dynamic side impact test of FMVSS 214 (Occupant Side Impact Protection). This test facility, which is capable of evaluating up to four (4) doors per day, provides a quick evaluation of door systems. The results generated from this test methodology provide accurate input data necessary for a MADYMO Side Impact Simulation Model. The test procedure and simulation results will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of a Finite Element Based Model of the Side Impact Dummy

Numerical simulation techniques are commonly used to assess the crash performance of automobiles and guide their design during the development stage. Mathematical models of vehicle structures, restraint systems and dummies are developed and verified under different test conditions to ensure an effective usage during their application in the study of a crash situation. This paper describes the development and validation of a finite element model of the US Department of Transportation (DOT) side impact dummy (SID). The geometry of the dummy parts is represented by shell and solid elements created from a digital scan of the dummy and the material properties are derived from quasi-static tests of each component. Springs and rigid bodies are added to represent the shock absorber and certain rigid parts such as the femur and ilium. The model verification is carried out by subjecting the dummy to twenty four impact conditions and comparing the simulations to test results.
Technical Paper

Driver Head Movements in Left Outside Mirror Viewing

Two field studies were conducted on public roads to measure driver head movements while using the left outside passenger car mirror. The first study measured the effects of mirror width in the presence or absence of overtaking traffic. Driver head movements during left lane-changing maneuvers were recorded from a lead vehicle equipped with a motion picture camera and a telephoto-zoom lens. Results showed that, in addition to the head turning motions, the drivers made on the average about 2.0 inches of lateral head movements while using one of the four left outside mirror sizes which ranged in width from 2.3 to 10.6 inches. The drivers were also found to make larger lateral head movements when no other vehicles were present in the mirror as compared to when an overtaking vehicle was present. The second study was conducted in no overtaking traffic with one mirror width and used an improved photographic technique.
Technical Paper

Dummy Models for Crash Simulation in Finite Element Programs

The development of combined finite element and spring / rigid mass crash simulation dummy models for automotive applications is described. In order to better understand the crash phenomena and occupant kinematics during vehicle crashes, recent developments have been focused on the use of finite element techniques in the simulation of both structure and structure / dummy interactions. The combination of spring /rigid mass modeling and finite element technique is used to develop models of fiftieth percentile Hybrid III and Side impact Dummies in a finite element program (RADIOSS). In general, the dummies are modeled with rigid masses and joints with techniques similar to those used in Crash Victim Simulation programs like MADYMO and CAL3D. Only selected components, like the Hybrid III dummy thorax and the SID pelvis and jacket, are modeled with finite element shell and brick elements to improve dummy / restraint system and dummy / structure interaction responses.