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Journal Article

A Springback Compensation Study on Chrysler 300C Stamping Panels Using LS-DYNA®

2008-04-14
2008-01-1443
Springback compensation studies on a few selected auto panels from the hot selling Chrysler 300C are presented with details. LS-DYNA® is used to predict the springback behavior and to perform the iterative compensation optimization. Details of simulation parameters using LS-DYNA® to improve the prediction accuracy are discussed. An iterative compensation algorithm is also discussed with details. Four compensation examples with simulation predictions and actual panel measurement results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of LS-DYNA® predictions. An aluminum hood inner and a high strength steel roof bow are compensated, constructed and machined based on simulation predictions. The measurements on actual tryout panels are then compared with simulation predictions and good correlations were achieved. Iterative compensation studies are also done on the aluminum hood inner and the aluminum deck lid inner to demonstrate the effectiveness of LS-DYNA® compensation algorithm.
Technical Paper

An Application of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Method in Large-Scale I-Beams Bending Test

2018-04-03
2018-01-1218
AASHTO I-Beam is a standard structural concrete part for bridge sections. The flexural performance of an AASHTO I-Beam is critical for bridge design. This paper presents an application of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Method in full-scale AASHTO I-Beam flexural performance study. A full-scale AASHTO I-Beam pre-stressed with steel strands is tested by three-point bending method. The full-scale AASHTO I-Beam is first loaded from 0 kips to 100 kips and is then released from 100 kips to 0 kips. A dual-camera 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used to measure the deflection and strain distribution during the testing. From the DIC results, the micro-crack generation progress during the loading progress can be observed clearly from the measured DIC strain map. To enable such a large-scale DIC measurement, the used DIC setup is optimized in terms of the optical imaging system and speckle pattern size.
Technical Paper

Correlations Among Monotonic Tensile Properties and Simple Approximations that Predict Strain-Controlled Fatigue Properties of Steels

2013-04-08
2013-01-1213
In this study, a new nonlinear correlation between Brinell hardness and ultimate tensile strength is proposed. The correlation factor in this case is higher than that found in the current literature. The ultimate tensile strength is replaced by an equivalent hardness expression in the Modified Universal Slopes Method. This change results in fatigue parameters that are predicted using hardness, true fracture ductility, and modulus of elasticity. This new fatigue life prediction approach is compared with the original Modified Universal Slopes method and experimental data in literature. This method is valid for steel with hardness that ranges from 150HB to 660HB. The results show that this method provides better approximations of the strain-life curves when compared with the Modified Universal Slopes and experimental data.
Journal Article

Distortion and Residual Stresses in Nitrocarburized and Carbonitrided SAE 1010 Plain Carbon Steel

2008-04-14
2008-01-1421
The focus of this study was to determine the residual stress and retained austenite profiles for carbonitrided and nitrocarburized SAE 1010 plain carbon steel and to relate these profiles to one another and to the distortion resulting from heat treatment. Navy C-ring specimens were used for the purpose of this study and X-ray diffraction techniques were used to measure both residual stress and retained austenite. The findings from this research are then applied to a manufacturing application involving the surface hardening of a thin shelled, plain carbon steel automotive component.
Journal Article

Effect of Operational Testing and Trim Manufacturing Process Variation on Head Injury Criterion in FMVSS 201 Tests

2008-04-14
2008-01-1218
This paper analyzes the difference in impact response of the forehead of the Hybrid III and THOR-NT dummies in free motion headform tests when a dummy strikes the interior trim of a vehicle. Hybrid III dummy head is currently used in FMVSS201 tests. THOR-NT dummy head has been in development to replace Hybrid III head. The impact response of the forehead of both the Hybrid III dummy and THOR dummy was designed to the same human surrogate data. Therefore, when the forehead of either dummy is impacted with the same initial conditions, the acceleration response and consequently the head Injury criterion (HIC) should be similar. A number of manufacturing variables can affect the impacted interior trim panels. This work evaluates the effect of process variation on the response in the form of Head Injury Criterion (HIC).
Technical Paper

Effect of Temperature on Weld Strength in Chrome Moly Space Frames

2006-12-05
2006-01-3648
Chromium Molybdenum Steel (AISI 4130), commonly referred to as “Chrome Moly”, is one of the most popular materials used in the construction of tubular space frames and chassis components for racing applications. Its high strength, light weight and comparably low material cost make the reasons for its popularity quite obvious. However, there is one problem that is commonly overlooked: maintaining the strength component of Chrome Moly in areas exposed to high levels of heat followed by rapid cooling during welding. This paper seeks to better understand the affects of cooling due to welding on the strength of Chrome Moly tubing.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Influence of Pressure Wheel Design on Heat Dissipation for a Laser Robotic End of Arm Tooling

2018-04-03
2018-01-1235
The initiative of this paper is focused on improving the heat dissipation from the pressure wheel of a laser welding assembly in order to achieve a longer period of use. The work examines the effects of different geometrical designs on the thermal performance of pressure wheel assembly during a period of cooling time. Three disc designs were manufactured for testing: Design 1 – a plain wheel, Design 2 – a pierced wheel, and Design 3 – a wheel with ventilating vanes. All of the wheels were made of carbon steel. The transient thermal reaction were compared. The experimental results indicate that the ventilated wheel cools down faster with the convection in the ventilated channels, while the solid plain wheel continues to possess higher temperatures. A comparison among the three different designs indicates that the Design 3 has the best cooling performance.
Technical Paper

Mechanical and Thermophysical Properties of Magnesium Alloy Extrusions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0410
Magnesium alloy extrusions offer potentially more mass saving compared to magnesium castings. One of the tasks in the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) ?Magnesium Front End Research and Development? (MFERD) project is to evaluate magnesium extrusion alloys AM30, AZ31 and AZ61 for automotive body applications. Solid and hollow sections were made by lowcost direct extrusion process. Mechanical properties in tension and compression were tested in extrusion, transverse and 45 degree directions. The tensile properties of the extrusion alloys in the extrusion direction are generally higher than those of conventional die cast alloys. However, significant tension-compression asymmetry and plastic anisotropy need to be understood and captured in the component design.
Journal Article

Microstructural Effects on Residual Stress, Retained Austenite, and Case Depth of Carburized Automotive Steels

2008-04-14
2008-01-1422
SAE 8620 and other steels are typically used in the carburized condition for powertrain applications in the automotive industry, i.e., differential ring gears, camshafts, and transmission gears. Although current recommended carburizing practice involves normalizing the steel prior to carburizing, elimination of this normalizing treatment could lead to significant cost reductions. This research examines whether the normalizing process prior to carburizing could be eliminated without negatively affecting part performance. This study focused on the effects of the initial microstructure on the residual stress, retained austenite, and effective case depths of carburized SAE 8620 and PS-18 steels.
Journal Article

Residual Stresses and Dimensional Changes in Ferritic Nitrocarburized Navy C-rings and Prototype Stamped Parts Made from SAE 1010 Steel

2009-04-20
2009-01-0425
Nitrocarburizing is an economical surface hardening process and is proposed as an alternative heat treatment method to carbonitriding. The focus of this study is to compare the size and shape distortion and residual stresses resulting from the ferritic nitrocarburizing and gas carbonitriding processes for SAE 1010 plain carbon steel. Gas, ion and vacuum nitrocarburizing processes utilizing different heat treatment temperatures and times were performed to compare the different ferritic nitrocarburizing processes. Navy C-Ring specimens and prototype stamped parts were used to evaluate size and shape distortion. X-ray diffraction techniques were used to determine the residual stresses in the specimens. Overall, the test results indicate that the nitrocarburizing process gives rise to smaller dimensional changes than carbonitriding, and that the size and shape distortion can be considerably reduced by applying appropriate ferritic nitrocarburizing procedures.
Technical Paper

Shrinkage Analysis of a Constrained Thin Walled Injection Molded Component Using a Traditional Flatbed Scanner and Photometric Techniques

2008-04-14
2008-01-1447
A study was performed to determine the effects of varying the wall thickness and material glass fiber concentration for parallel and perpendicular shrinkage rates for a constrained thin-walled box shaped component. An analysis of the shrinkage for the bottom portion of a 3 dimensional constrained thin walled injection molded component was performed using measurements made from bitmap images of the components that were obtained from a traditional flatbed scanner. The shrinkage rates were determined by comparing mold cavity hatch lines to the correlating transposed hatch lines on the plastic molded component. The perpendicular and parallel shrinkage rates were determined and are discussed as a function of thickness and glass fiber content. A wide range of processing control factors was used in the study.
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