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Technical Paper

A Control Algorithm for Low Pressure - EGR Systems Using a Smith Predictor with Intake Oxygen Sensor Feedback

Low-pressure cooled EGR (LP-cEGR) systems can provide significant improvements in spark-ignition engine efficiency and knock resistance. However, open-loop control of these systems is challenging due to low pressure differentials and the presence of pulsating flow at the EGR valve. This research describes a control structure for Low-pressure cooled EGR systems using closed loop feedback control along with internal model control. A Smith Predictor based PID controller is utilized in combination with an intake oxygen sensor for feedback control of EGR fraction. Gas transport delays are considered as dead-time delays and a Smith Predictor is one of the conventional methods to address stability concerns of such systems. However, this approach requires a plant model of the air-path from the EGR valve to the sensor.
Journal Article

A Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Strategy with a Disturbance Observer for Spark Ignition Engines with External EGR

This research proposes a control system for Spark Ignition (SI) engines with external Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) based on model predictive control and a disturbance observer. The proposed Economic Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (E-NMPC) tries to minimize fuel consumption for a number of engine cycles into the future given an Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) tracking reference and abnormal combustion constraints like knock and combustion variability. A nonlinear optimization problem is formulated and solved in real time using Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) to obtain the desired control actuator set-points. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based observer is applied to estimate engine states, combining both air path and cylinder dynamics. The EKF engine state(s) observer is augmented with disturbance estimation to account for modeling errors and/or sensor/actuator offset.
Journal Article

A Real-Time Model for Spark Ignition Engine Combustion Phasing Prediction

As engines are equipped with an increased number of control actuators to meet fuel economy targets they become more difficult to control and calibrate. The large number of control actuators encourages the investigation of physics-based control strategies to reduce calibration time and complexity. Of particular interest is spark timing control and calibration since it has a significant influence on engine efficiency, emissions, vibration and durability. Spark timing determination to achieve a desired combustion phasing is currently an empirical process that occurs during the calibration phase of engine development. This process utilizes a large number of stored surfaces and corrections to account for the wide range of operating environments and conditions that a given engine will experience. An obstacle to realizing feedforward physics-based combustion phasing control is the requirement for an accurate and fast combustion model.
Technical Paper

A Review of Spark-Ignition Engine Air Charge Estimation Methods

Accurate in-cylinder air charge estimation is important for engine torque determination, controlling air-to-fuel ratio, and ensuring high after-treatment efficiency. Spark ignition (SI) engine technologies like variable valve timing (VVT) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) are applied to improve fuel economy and reduce pollutant emissions, but they increase the complexity of air charge estimation. Increased air-path complexity drives the need for cost effective solutions that produce high air mass prediction accuracy while minimizing sensor cost, computational effort, and calibration time. A large number of air charge estimation techniques have been developed using a range of sensors sets combined with empirical and/or physics-based models. This paper provides a technical review of research in this area, focused on SI engines.
Journal Article

Assessment of Cooled Low Pressure EGR in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

The use of Low Pressure - Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is intended to allow displacement reduction in turbocharged gasoline engines and improve fuel economy. Low Pressure EGR designs have an advantage over High Pressure configurations since they interfere less with turbocharger efficiency and improve the uniformity of air-EGR mixing in the engine. In this research, Low Pressure (LP) cooled EGR is evaluated on a turbocharged direct injection gasoline engine with variable valve timing using both simulation and experimental results. First, a model-based calibration study is conducted using simulation tools to identify fuel efficiency gains of LP EGR over the base calibration. The main sources of the efficiency improvement are then quantified individually, focusing on part-load de-throttling of the engine, heat loss reduction, knock mitigation as well as decreased high-load fuel enrichment through exhaust temperature reduction.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Model-Based Knock Prediction Methods for Spark-Ignition Engines

Knock-limited engine operation is one of the most important constraints on fuel efficiency and performance that must be considered during the design, control algorithm development and calibration of spark-ignition engines. This research evaluates the accuracy of model-based knock prediction routines and their applicability for control-oriented applications over various engine operating conditions using commercial fuels. Two common methods of knock prediction, a generalized chemical kinetics model and an empirical induction-time correlation, are evaluated and compared against experimental data. The experimental investigation is conducted using a naturally aspirated 3.6L V6 engine, retrofitted with cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). Data are acquired from spark timing sweeps under knocking conditions at different engine speeds and loads in an engine dynamometer cell.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Aging Effect on Three-Way Catalyst Oxygen Storage Dynamics

The Three Way Catalyst (TWC) is an effective pollutant conversion system widely used in current production vehicles to satisfy emissions regulations. A TWC’s conversion efficiency degrades over time due to chemical and/or thermal mechanisms causing the catalyst to age. This reduction in conversion efficiency must be accounted for to ensure full useful life emissions compliance. This paper presents an experimental study of the aging impact on TWC performance. Four TWCs differentiated by their age, given in terms of miles driven, were tested. It is shown that the dynamics of oxygen storage are substantially affected by aging of the TWC. A previously developed physics-based oxygen storage model [1] is subsequently used to incorporate the effect of aging on the total Oxygen Storage Capacity (OSC). Parameter identification results for the different age catalysts show that total oxygen storage capacity decreases substantially with aging and is insensitive to operating conditions.
Journal Article

Chassis Dynamometer as a Development Platform for Vehicle Hardware In-the-Loop “VHiL”

This manuscript provides a review of different types and categorization of the chassis dynamometer systems. The review classifies the chassis dynamometers based on the configuration, type of rollers and the application type. Additionally the manuscript discusses several application examples of the chassis dynamometer including: performance and endurance mileage accumulation tests, fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions, noise, vibration and harshness testing (NVH). Different types of the vehicle attachment system in the dynamometer cell and its influences on the driving force characteristics and the vehicle acoustic signature is also discussed. The text also highlights the impact of the use of the chassis dynamometer as a development platform and its impact on the development process. Examples of using chassis dynamometer as a development platform using Vehicle Hardware In-the-Loop (VHiL) approach including drivability assessment and transmission calibrations are presented.
Journal Article

Determining Three-Way Catalyst Age Using Differential Lambda Signal Response

The duration over which a three way catalyst (TWC) maintains proper functionality during lambda excursions is critically impacted by aging, which affects its oxygen storage capacity (OSC). As such, emissions control strategies, which strive to maintain post TWC air-to-fuel ratios at the stoichiometric value, will benefit from an accurate estimation of TWC age. To this end, this investigation examines a method of TWC age estimation suitable for real-world transient operation. Experimental results are harvested from an instrumented test vehicle equipped with a two-brick TWC during operation on a chassis dynamometer. Four differently aged TWCs are instrumented with wideband and switch-type Lambda sensors upstream (Pre TWC location), and downstream (Mid location) of first catalyst brick.
Journal Article

Impacts of Adding Photovoltaic Solar System On-Board to Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles Towards Meeting 2025 Fuel Economy CAFE Standards

The challenge of meeting the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards of 2025 has led to major developments in the transportation sector, among which is the attempt to utilize clean energy sources. To date, use of solar energy as an auxiliary source of on-board fuel has not been extensively investigated. This paper is the first study at undertaking a comprehensive analysis of using solar energy on-board by means of photovoltaic (PV) technologies to enhance automotive fuel economies, extend driving ranges, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and ensure better economic value of internal combustion engine (ICE) -based vehicles to meet CAFE standards though 2025. This paper details and compares various aspects of hybrid solar electric vehicles with conventional ICE vehicles.
Technical Paper

Integrated Engine States Estimation Using Extended Kalman Filter and Disturbance Observer

Accurate estimation of engine state(s) is vital for engine control systems to achieve their designated objectives. The fusion of sensors can significantly improve the estimation results in terms of accuracy and precision. This paper investigates using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to estimate engine state(s) for Spark Ignited (SI) engines with the external EGR system. The EKF combines air path sensors with cylinder pressure feedback through a control-oriented engine cycle domain model. The model integrates air path dynamics, torque generation, exhaust gas temperature, and residual gas mass. The EKF generates a cycle-based estimation of engine state(s) for model-based control algorithms, which is not the focus of this paper. The sensor and noise dynamics are analyzed and integrated into the EKF formulation. To account for ‘non-white’ disturbances including modeling errors and sensor/actuator offset, the EKF engine state(s) observer is augmented with disturbance state(s) estimation.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of Automotive “Smart” Thermal Management System Architectures

The functionality and performance of an internal combustion (spark or compression ignition) engine's thermal management system can be significantly enhanced through the application of mechatronics technology. The replacement of the conventional thermostat valve and mechanical coolant pump in the heating/cooling system by a servo-motor driven smart valve and variable flow pump permits powertrain control module regulated coolant flow through the engine block and radiator. In this paper, a dynamic mathematical model will be created for a 4.6L spark ignition engine to analyze various thermal management system architectures. The designs to be studied include the factory configuration, a smart valve upgrade, and the smart valve combined with a variable flow pump and radiator fan. Representative results are presented and discussed to demonstrate improvements in the engine warm-up time, temperature tracking, and component power consumption.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of an Optical Soot Sensor for Modern Diesel Engines

It has been extensively evidenced that modern diesel engines generate a considerable amount of soot nanoparticles. Existing soot sensors are not suitable for such nanoparticles. Current standard gravimetric techniques are extremely insensitive to fine soot particles. Soot diagnostics developed for research purposes, e.g., laser induced-incandescence, do not provide quantitative characterization, and expanded practical applications of these techniques are hardly conceivable. This paper addresses this emerging need for monitoring nano-sized soot emissions. Here, we investigated the use of polarization modulated scattering (PMS) for soot sensing in engine environments. The technique involves 1) measuring laser scattering by soot particles at multiple angles while varying the polarization states of the incident laser beam, 2) determining multiple elements of the Mueller matrix from the measured signals, and 3) inferring properties of the soot particles from these elements.
Technical Paper

Physics-Based Exhaust Pressure and Temperature Estimation for Low Pressure EGR Control in Turbocharged Gasoline Engines

Low pressure (LP) and cooled EGR systems are capable of increasing fuel efficiency of turbocharged gasoline engines, however they introduce control challenges. Accurate exhaust pressure modeling is of particular importance for real-time feedforward control of these EGR systems since they operate under low pressure differentials. To provide a solution that does not depend on physical sensors in the exhaust and also does not require extensive calibration, a coupled temperature and pressure physics-based model is proposed. The exhaust pipe is split into two different lumped sections based on flow conditions in order to calculate turbine-outlet pressure, which is the driving force for LP-EGR. The temperature model uses the turbine-outlet temperature as an input, which is known through existing engine control models, to determine heat transfer losses through the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Linear Approximation Error for Model Predictive Control of Spark-Ignited Turbocharged Engines

Modern turbocharged spark-ignition engines are being equipped with an increasing number of control actuators to meet fuel economy, emissions, and performance targets. The response time variations between engine control actuators tend to be significant during transients and necessitate highly complex actuator scheduling routines. Model Predictive Control (MPC) has the potential to significantly reduce control calibration effort as compared to the current methodologies that are based on decentralized feedback control strategies. MPC strategies simultaneously generate all actuator responses by using a combination of current engine conditions and optimization of a control-oriented plant model. To achieve real-time control, the engine model and optimization processes must be computationally efficient without sacrificing effectiveness. Most MPC systems intended for real-time control utilize a linearized model that can be quickly evaluated using a sub-optimal optimization methodology.