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Technical Paper

Application of Model Fuels to Engine Simulation

To address the growing need for detailed chemistry in engine simulations, new software tools and validated data sets are being developed under an industry-funded consortium involving members from the automotive and fuels industry. The results described here include systematic comparison and validation of detailed chemistry models using a wide range of fundamental experimental data, and the development of software tools that support the use of detailed mechanisms in engineering simulations. Such tools include the automated reduction of reaction mechanisms for targeted simulation conditions. Selected results are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Design and Fabrication of a Formula SAE Undertray

Aerodynamic packages can provide a significant performance benefit to Formula SAE cars, but design and development of a full aerodynamics package can be time-consuming and expensive. An undertray system can provide significant aerodynamic benefits at a lower cost than a full aerodynamics package with front and rear wings. To properly design and test an undertray, a robust program of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis and verification is needed. CFD analysis can be challenging, especially for large external flow problems like that of a full car. Due to this difficulty, careful meshing and setup of simulations is necessary to ensure accurate results. Much like analysis, fabrication of an aerodynamics package for a Formula SAE car is difficult. Fiberglass and carbon fiber layup processes are commonly used, but are prone to a variety of issues, and can be costly and time-consuming. Therefore, a thorough layup schedule and a careful manufacturing process is necessary.
Technical Paper

Effect of Thermal Treatments and Carbon Potential on Bending Fatigue Performance of SAE 4320 Gear Steel

This project investigated the effect of carburizing carbon-potential and thermal history on the bending fatigue performance of carburized SAE 4320 gear steel. Modified-Brugger cantilever bending fatigue specimens were carburized at carbon potentials of 0.60, 0.85, 1.05, and 1.25 wt. pct. carbon, and were either quenched and tempered or quenched, tempered, reheated, quenched, and tempered. The reheat treatment was designed to lower the solute carbon content in the case through the formation of transition carbides and refine the prior austenite grain size. Specimens were fatigue tested in a tension/tension cycle with a minimum to maximum stress ratio of 0.1. The bending fatigue results were correlated with case and core microstructures, hardness profiles, residual stress profiles, retained austenite profiles, and component distortion.
Technical Paper

Effects of Constituent Properties on Performance Improvement of a Quenching and Partitioning Steel

In this paper, a two-dimensional microstructure-based finite element modeling method is adopted to investigate the effects of material parameters of the constituent phases on the macroscopic tensile behavior of Q&P steel and to perform a computational material design approach for performance improvement. For this purpose, a model Q&P steel is first produced and various experiments are then performed to characterize the model steel. Actual microstructure-based model is generated based on the information from EBSD, SEM and nano-indentation test, and the material properties for the constituent phases in the model are determined based on the initial constituent properties from HEXRD test and the subsequent calibration of model predictions to tensile test results. The influence of various material parameters of the constituents on the macroscopic behavior is then investigated.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Embrittlement Susceptibility of Case Hardened Steel Fasteners

This work establishes the relationship between core hardness, case hardness, and case depth on susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of case hardened steel fasteners. Such fasteners have a high surface hardness in order to create their own threads in a mating hole, and are commonly used to attach bracketry and sheet metal in automotive applications. While case hardened fasteners have been studied previously, there are currently no processing guidelines supported by quantitative data for fastener standards. Through sustained load embrittlement testing techniques, the susceptibility of case hardened steel tapping screws to internal and environmental hydrogen embrittlement is examined. Further characterization of the fastener samples through microhardness testing, microstructure review, and fracture surface examination allows the investigation of susceptibility thresholds. It is shown that core hardness is the primary consideration for susceptibility.
Journal Article

Iterative Learning Control for a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation in a Test Cell

An iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm has been developed for a test cell electro-hydraulic, fully flexible valve actuation system to track valve lift profile under steady-state and transient operation. A dynamic model of the plant was obtained from experimental data to design and verify the ILC algorithm. The ILC is implemented in a prototype controller. The learned control input for two different lift profiles can be used for engine transient tests. Simulation and bench test are conducted to verify the effectiveness and robustness of this approach. The simple structure of the ILC in implementation and low cost in computation are other crucial factors to recommend the ILC. It does not totally depend on the system model during the design procedure. Therefore, it has relatively higher robustness to perturbation and modeling errors than other control methods for repetitive tasks.
Technical Paper

Optimized Carburized Steel Fatigue Performance as Assessed with Gear and Modified Brugger Fatigue Tests

The effectiveness of three different techniques, designed to improve the bending fatigue life in comparison to conventionally processed gas-carburized 8620 steel, were evaluated with modified Brugger bending fatigue specimens and actual ring and pinion gears. The bending fatigue samples were machined from forged gear blanks from the same lot of material used for the pinion gear tests, and all processing of laboratory samples and gears was done together. Fatigue data were obtained on standard as-carburized parts and after three special processing histories: shot-peening to increase surface residual stresses; double heat treating to refined austenite grain size; and vacuum carburizing to minimize intergranular oxidation. Standard room-temperature S-N curves and endurance limits were obtained with the laboratory samples. The pinions were run as part of a complete gear set on a laboratory dynamometer and data were obtained at two imposed torque levels.
Technical Paper

Predicting the Radius of a Sheet Bent Around Drawbeads

Drawbeads in production stamping dies often have insufficient penetration of the male bead into the female cavity. With insufficient penetration, the actual bending radii of the sheet metal are larger than the geometrical radii of the drawbead. The actual bending radii in the sheet directly affect the force that restrains sheet movement. To predict the restraining stress due to a drawbead, it is necessary to know the actual bending radii in the sheet as it passes though the drawbead. Data from a previous study are used to develop empirical regression equations for predicting measured radii of the sheet that is bent around the radii in a drawbead. A physical model for the evolution of the sheet radii as the drawbead closes is proposed. This model is consistent with the empirical equations and the mechanics of the sheet bending process.
Technical Paper

Removing Dust from Confined Air Volumes - A Toy Model

Most environments inhabited by living beings have dust. Much of that dust comes from the continuous flaking of our own skin and atmosphere borne particles of submicron size. Dust mites seem to play an important role in integrating fine scale dust, which they consume to grow, resulting in larger length scale dust. Dust continues to agglomerate and grow. Air filters are designed to remove dust and control dust agglomeration. We report a simple scaling law, based on kinematic simulations of dust filtration through a one dimensional idealized filter. The results reveal insights regarding how filters may clog in time. Our results may be of use to someone interested in designing customized air filters for optimum dust removal in an environment with a known dust distribution.
Technical Paper

Tensile Properties of Steel Tubes for Hydroforming Applications

With the increased use of tubular steel products, especially for automotive hydroforming applications, there is increased interest in understanding the mechanical properties measured by tensile tests from specimens of different orientations in the tube. In this study, two orientations of tensile specimens were evaluated -- axial specimens with and without flattening and flattened circumferential specimens. Three steels were evaluated -- two thicknesses of aluminum killed drawing quality (AKDQ) steel and one thickness of high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel. Mechanical property data were obtained from the flat stock, conventional production tubes and quasi tubes. Quasi tubes were produced from the flat stock on a 3-roll bender, but the quasi tube was not welded or sized.
Technical Paper

The Effective Unloading Modulus for Automotive Sheet Steels

In stamping advanced high strength steels (AHSS), the deviations from desired part geometry caused by springback from a radius, curl, twist, and bow are major impediments to successfully producing AHSS parts. In general, the conventional elastic modulus is used to quantify the strain that occurs on unloading. This unloading strain causes deviations from desired part geometry. Considerable evidence in the literature indicates that for tensile testing, the conventional elastic modulus does not accurately describe the unloading strain. The present study uses new data and results from the literature to examine the average slope of tensile stress strain curves on unloading. This slope is termed the effective unloading modulus. The results from this study quantitatively describe how the effective unloading modulus decreases with increasing strength, prestrain, and unloading time.