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Technical Paper

Diesel and CNG Transit Bus Emissions Characterization by Two Chassis Dynamometer Laboratories: Results and Issues

Emissions of six 32 passenger transit buses were characterized using one of the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories, and the fixed base chassis dynamometer at the Colorado Institute for Fuels and High Altitude Engine Research (CIFER). Three of the buses were powered with 1997 ISB 5.9 liter Cummins diesel engines, and three were powered with the 1997 5.9 liter Cummins natural gas (NG) counterpart. The NG engines were LEV certified. Objectives were to contrast the emissions performance of the diesel and NG units, and to compare results from the two laboratories. Both laboratories found that oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter (PM) emissions were substantially lower for the natural gas buses than for the diesel buses. It was observed that by varying the rapidity of pedal movement during accelerations in the Central Business District cycle (CBD), CO and PM emissions from the diesel buses could be varied by a factor of three or more.
Technical Paper

Effect of Diesel Fuel Chemistry on Regulated Emissions at High Altitude

The effect of diesel cetane number, total aromatic content T90, and fuel nitrogen content on regulated emissions (HC, CO, NOx, and PM) from a 1991 DDC Series 60 engine were measured Emissions tests were conducted using the EPA heavy-duty transient test (CFR 40 Part 86 Subpart N) at a laboratory located 5,280 feet (1609 m) above sea level. The objective of this work was to determine if the effect of fuel chemistry at high altitude is similar to what is observed at sea level and to examine the effect of specific fuel chemistry variables on emissions. An initial tea series was conducted to examine the effect of cetane number and aromatics. Transient emissions for this test series indicated much higher (50 to 75%) particulate emissions at high altitude than observed on the same model engine and similar fuels at sea level.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Composition and Altitude on Regulated Emissions from a Lean-Burn, Closed Loop Controlled Natural Gas Engine

Natural gas presents several challenges to engine manufacturers for use as a heavy-duty, lean burn engine fuel. This is because natural gas can vary in composition and the variation is large enough to produce significant changes in the stoichiometry of the fuel and its octane number. Similarly, operation at high altitude can present challenges. The most significant effect of altitude is lower barometric pressure, typically 630 mm Hg at 1600 m compared to a sea level value of 760 mm. This can lower turbocharger boost at low speeds leading to mixtures richer than desired. The purpose of this test program was to determine the effect of natural gas composition and altitude on regulated emissions and performance of a Cummins B5.9G engine. The engine is a lean-burn, closed loop control, spark ignited, dedicated natural gas engine. For fuel composition testing the engine was operating at approximately 1600 m (5,280 ft) above sea level.
Technical Paper

Effect of Thermal Treatments and Carbon Potential on Bending Fatigue Performance of SAE 4320 Gear Steel

This project investigated the effect of carburizing carbon-potential and thermal history on the bending fatigue performance of carburized SAE 4320 gear steel. Modified-Brugger cantilever bending fatigue specimens were carburized at carbon potentials of 0.60, 0.85, 1.05, and 1.25 wt. pct. carbon, and were either quenched and tempered or quenched, tempered, reheated, quenched, and tempered. The reheat treatment was designed to lower the solute carbon content in the case through the formation of transition carbides and refine the prior austenite grain size. Specimens were fatigue tested in a tension/tension cycle with a minimum to maximum stress ratio of 0.1. The bending fatigue results were correlated with case and core microstructures, hardness profiles, residual stress profiles, retained austenite profiles, and component distortion.
Journal Article

Expanding the Experimental Capabilities of the Ignition Quality Tester for Autoigniting Fuels

This paper reports the development of new fuel ignition quality and combustion experiments performed using the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT). Prior SAE papers (961182, 971636, 1999-01-3591, and 2001-01-3527) documented the development of the IQT constant volume combustion chamber experimental apparatus to measure ignition qualities of diesel-type fuels. The ASTM International test method D6890 was developed around the IQT device to allow the rapid determination of derived cetane number (DCN). Interest in chemical kinetic models for the ignition of diesel and biodiesel model compounds is increasing to support the development of advanced engines and fuels. However, rigorous experimental validation of these kinetic models has been limited for a variety of reasons. Shock tubes and rapid compression machines are typically limited to premixed gas-phase studies, for example.
Technical Paper

Formability of Type 304 Stainless Steel Sheet

Punch-stretch tests to determine formability of type 304 stainless steel sheet were conducted using a hemispherical dome test. Sheets of 19.1 mm width and 177.8 mm width were stretched on a 101.6 mm diameter punch at punch rates between 0.042 to 2.12 mm/sec with three lubricant systems: a mineral seal oil, thin polytetrafluoroethelyne sheet with mineral seal oil, and silicone rubber with mineral seal oil. The resulting strain distributions were measured and the amount of martensite was determined by magnetic means. Increasing lubricity resulted in more uniform strain distributions while increased punch rates tended to decrease both strain and transformation distributions. High forming limit values were related to the formation of high and uniformly distributed martensite volume fractions during deformation. The results of this study are interpreted with an analysis of the effects of strain and temperature on strain induced martensite formation in metastable austenitic stainless steels.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Embrittlement Susceptibility of Case Hardened Steel Fasteners

This work establishes the relationship between core hardness, case hardness, and case depth on susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of case hardened steel fasteners. Such fasteners have a high surface hardness in order to create their own threads in a mating hole, and are commonly used to attach bracketry and sheet metal in automotive applications. While case hardened fasteners have been studied previously, there are currently no processing guidelines supported by quantitative data for fastener standards. Through sustained load embrittlement testing techniques, the susceptibility of case hardened steel tapping screws to internal and environmental hydrogen embrittlement is examined. Further characterization of the fastener samples through microhardness testing, microstructure review, and fracture surface examination allows the investigation of susceptibility thresholds. It is shown that core hardness is the primary consideration for susceptibility.
Technical Paper

In-Use Emissions from Natural Gas Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles

The objective of the work described here is to test the performance of closed-loop controlled, heavy-duty CNG engines in-use, on fuels of different methane content; and to compare their performance with similar diesel vehicles. Performance is measured in terms of pollutant emissions, fuel economy, and driveability. To achieve this objective, three buses powered by closed-loop controlled, dedicated natural gas engines were tested on the heavy-duty chassis dynamometer facility at the Colorado Institute for Fuels and High Altitude Engine Research (CIFER). Emissions of regulated pollutants (CO, NOx, PM, and THC or NMHC), as well as emissions of alde-hydes for some vehicles, are reported. Two fuels were employed: a high methane fuel (90%) and a low methane fuel (85%). It was found that the NOx, CO, and PM emissions for a given cycle and vehicle are essentially constant for different methane content fuels.
Technical Paper

Interplanetary Rapid Transit to Mars

A revolutionary interplanetary rapid transit concept for transporting scientists and explorers between Earth and Mars is presented by Global Aerospace Corporation under funding from the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) with support from the Colorado School of Mines, and Science Applications International Corporation. We describe an architecture that uses highly autonomous spaceships, dubbed Astrotels; small Taxis for trips between Astrotels and planetary Spaceports; Shuttles that transport crews to and from orbital space stations and planetary surfaces; and low-thrust cargo freighters. In addition we discuss the production of rocket fuels using extraterrestrial materials; aerocapture to slow Taxis at the planets; and finally describe a number of trade studies and their life-cycle cost results.
Technical Paper

Optimized Carburized Steel Fatigue Performance as Assessed with Gear and Modified Brugger Fatigue Tests

The effectiveness of three different techniques, designed to improve the bending fatigue life in comparison to conventionally processed gas-carburized 8620 steel, were evaluated with modified Brugger bending fatigue specimens and actual ring and pinion gears. The bending fatigue samples were machined from forged gear blanks from the same lot of material used for the pinion gear tests, and all processing of laboratory samples and gears was done together. Fatigue data were obtained on standard as-carburized parts and after three special processing histories: shot-peening to increase surface residual stresses; double heat treating to refined austenite grain size; and vacuum carburizing to minimize intergranular oxidation. Standard room-temperature S-N curves and endurance limits were obtained with the laboratory samples. The pinions were run as part of a complete gear set on a laboratory dynamometer and data were obtained at two imposed torque levels.
Technical Paper

Predicting the Radius of a Sheet Bent Around Drawbeads

Drawbeads in production stamping dies often have insufficient penetration of the male bead into the female cavity. With insufficient penetration, the actual bending radii of the sheet metal are larger than the geometrical radii of the drawbead. The actual bending radii in the sheet directly affect the force that restrains sheet movement. To predict the restraining stress due to a drawbead, it is necessary to know the actual bending radii in the sheet as it passes though the drawbead. Data from a previous study are used to develop empirical regression equations for predicting measured radii of the sheet that is bent around the radii in a drawbead. A physical model for the evolution of the sheet radii as the drawbead closes is proposed. This model is consistent with the empirical equations and the mechanics of the sheet bending process.
Technical Paper

Rapid Deactivation of Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engine Exhaust Oxidation Catalysts

Methane emissions from lean-burn natural gas engines can be relatively high. As natural gas fueled vehicles become more prevalent, future regulations may restrict these emissions. Preliminary reports indicated that conventional, precious metal oxidation catalysts rapidly deactivate (in less than 50 hours) in lean-burn natural gas engine exhaust. This investigation is directed at quantifying this catalyst deactivation and understanding its cause. The results may also be relevant to oxidation of lean-burn propane and gasoline engine exhaust. A platinum/palladium on alumina catalyst and a palladium on alumina catalyst were aged in the exhaust of a lean-burn natural gas engine (Cummins B5.9G). The engine was fueled with compressed natural gas. Catalyst aging was accomplished through a series of steady state cycles and heavy-duty transient tests (CFR 40 Part 86 Subpart N) lasting 10 hours. Hydrocarbons in the exhaust were speciated by gas chromatography.
Technical Paper

Response to Hydrogen Charging in High Strength Automotive Sheet Steel Products

The influences of laboratory-induced hydrogen on the tensile deformation and fracture behavior of selected sheet steels including conventional DQSK and HSLA steels as well as newer DP and TRIP grades were evaluated. The effects of cold work, simulated paint baking, and natural aging were considered. Hydrogen effects were observable by increased flow stress, decreased ductility, altered neck geometry, and altered fracture mechanisms. Differences among the steels and conditions were observed and interpreted on the basis of microstructure, fracture behavior, and theories of hydrogen embrittlement.
Technical Paper

Tensile Properties of Steel Tubes for Hydroforming Applications

With the increased use of tubular steel products, especially for automotive hydroforming applications, there is increased interest in understanding the mechanical properties measured by tensile tests from specimens of different orientations in the tube. In this study, two orientations of tensile specimens were evaluated -- axial specimens with and without flattening and flattened circumferential specimens. Three steels were evaluated -- two thicknesses of aluminum killed drawing quality (AKDQ) steel and one thickness of high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel. Mechanical property data were obtained from the flat stock, conventional production tubes and quasi tubes. Quasi tubes were produced from the flat stock on a 3-roll bender, but the quasi tube was not welded or sized.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Diesel Sulfur Content and Oxidation Catalysts on Transient Emissions at High Altitude from a 1995 Detroit Diesel Series 50 Urban Bus Engine

Regulated emissions (THC, CO, NOx, and PM) and particulate SOF and sulfate fractions were determined for a 1995 Detroit Diesel Series 50 urban bus engine at varying fuel sulfur levels, with and without catalytic converters. When tested on EPA certification fuel without an oxidation catalyst this engine does not appear to meet the 1994 emissions standards for heavy duty trucks, when operating at high altitude. An ultra-low (5 ppm) sulfur diesel base stock with 23% aromatics and 42.4 cetane number was used to examine the effect of fuel sulfur. Sulfur was adjusted above the 5 ppm level to 50, 100, 200, 315 and 500 ppm using tert-butyl disulfide. Current EPA regulations limit the sulfur content to 500 ppm for on highway fuel. A low Pt diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was tested with all fuels and a high Pt diesel oxidation catalyst was tested with the 5 and 50 ppm sulfur fuels.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Life-Cycle Costs and Environmental Profile of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Fuel

The use of a soy-based diesel fuel (biodiesel) has potential advantages over the use of a conventional petroleum diesel fuel including: Reduced dependence on foreign petroleum Lowering of greenhouse gas emissions Less air pollution and related public health risks in urban areas A life cycle study performed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Office of Energy and Ecobalance (completed in May 1998) helped to quantify the environmental benefits of the “cradle-to-grave” production and use of biodiesel. The study showed, for example, that substituting 100% biodiesel for petroleum diesel in urban buses reduced the life cycle emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) by 78%. The study also pointed out some trade-offs of using biodiesel including increased life cycle hydrocarbon and NOx emissions.