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Technical Paper

A Novel Three-Planetary-Gear Power-Split Hybrid Powertrain for Tracked Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1003
Tracked vehicles are widely used for agriculture, construction and many other areas. Due to high emissions, hybrid electric driveline has been applied to tracked vehicles. The hybrid powertrain design for the tracked vehicle has been researched for years. Different from wheeled vehicles, the tracked vehicle not only requires high mobility while straight driving, but also pursues strong steering performance. The paper takes the hybrid track-type dozers (TTDs) as an example and proposes an optimal design of a novel power-split powertrain for TTDs. The commercial hybrid TTD usually adopts the series hybrid powertrain, and sometimes with an extra steering mechanism, which has led to low efficiency and made the structure more complicated. The proposed three-planetary-gear power-split hybrid powertrain can overcome the problems above by utilizing the characteristics of planetary gear sets.
Technical Paper

ABS Control Algorithm Based on Direct Slip Rate for Hybrid Brake System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0830
The brake-by-wire system (BBW) is better match the new energy vehicle in the future direction of development. The electro-mechanical brake (EMB) is lack of the brake failure backup and need a high 42 V voltage for the power supply. This paper presents a new brake-by-wire hybrid brake system (HBS) with the electro-hydraulic brake (EHB) equipped on the front wheels and the EMB equipped on the rear wheels. The combination of these two brake-by-wire systems has advantages of both the EHB and EMB system. The EMB on the rear wheels totally removing the rear pipes and can be simply mounted. In addition, since the need of brake torque on the rear axle is relatively small, the power supply of EMB can be reduced to 12 V. Meanwhile, the EHB on the front wheels has the failure backup function through the hydraulic line. The HBS can quickly and accurately regulate four wheels brake force of vehicles which can well meet the requirement of antilock brake system (ABS).
Journal Article

An Indirect TPMS Algorithm Based on Tire Resonance Frequency Estimated by AR Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0459
Proper tire pressure is very important for multiple driving performance of a car, and it is necessary to monitor and warn the abnormal tire pressure online. Indirect Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) monitors the tire pressure based on the wheel speed signals of Anti-lock Braking System (ABS). In this paper, an indirect TPMS method is proposed to estimate the tire pressure according to its resonance frequency of circumferential vibration. Firstly, the errors of ABS wheel speed sensor system caused by the machining tolerance of the tooth ring are estimated based on the measured wheel speed using Recursive Least Squares (RLS) algorithm and the measuring errors are eliminated from the wheel speed signal. Then, the data segments with drive train torsional vibration are found out and eliminated by the methods of correlation analysis.
Technical Paper

Application of Slope Sensor in Hill-Start to AMT (Automated Manual Transmission) Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1108
In order to improve the drivability and reduce the clutch friction loss, low-cost slope sensor is used in hill-start control of AMT vehicles. After the power spectrum analysis of the original signal and the design of the digital filter, the angle of the slope is obtained with short enough delay and small enough noise. By using this slope angle information, slope resistance force can be calculated online so that the vehicle can be prevented from sliding backward and optimal launch control can be realized. The digital filter of slope angle signal and the optimal controller of dry clutch engagement are embedded in the TCU (Transmission Control Unit) of a micro-car Geely Panda. Real-vehicle experiments are carried out with optimal clutch controller, which shows that the hill-start with low-cost slope sensor and optimal clutch controller can provide successful vehicle launch with little driveline shock. In addition, it can also avoid backward sliding and engine over-speed effectively.
Technical Paper

Auxiliary Drive Control Strategy of Hydraulic Hub-Motor Auxiliary System for Heavy Truck

2016-09-27
2016-01-8113
To improve traditional heavy commercial vehicles performance, this paper introduces a novel hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system, which could achieve auxiliary driving and auxiliary braking function. Firstly, the system configuration and operation modes are described. In order to achieve coordinating control and distribution of the engine power between mechanical and hydraulic paths, the paper proposes an optimal algorithm based on enhance of vehicle slip efficiency and the results show that displacement of hydraulic variable pump relates with the transmission gear ratio. And then the hydraulic pump displacement controller is designed, in which the feedforward and feedback strategy is adopted. Considering the characteristics of hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system, a layered auxiliary drive control strategy is proposed in the paper, which includes signal layers, core control layers and executive layers.
Technical Paper

Co-Simulation Research of Integrated Electro-Hydraulic Braking System

2016-04-05
2016-01-1647
A program of integrated electro-hydraulic braking system is proposed, and its structural composition and working principle are analyzed. According to the structural and mechanical characteristics of all key components, through some reasonable assumptions and simplifications, a motor, a brake master cylinder, four brake wheel cylinders, solenoid valves and an ESP (Electronic Stability Program) algorithm model is set up and simulations of typical braking conditions are carried out based on the Matlab/Simulink. Finally, after the assembly of each sub-model is complete and combining a vehicle which is set up in CarSim software environment, simulation tests and comprehensive performance analysis of the active safety stability control for a vehicle in double lane change and single lane change situations are carried out respectively. According to the dynamic characteristic curves of system, the effects of different structural and control parameters on braking performance are analyzed.
Technical Paper

Configuration Analysis and Performance Comparison of Drive Systems for Pure Electric Vehicle

2015-04-14
2015-01-1165
Many kinds of drive systems can be adopted by a pure electric vehicle. In order to select the most suitable drive system, the configuration features of different drive systems were analyzed. After matching the drive systems in a pure electric vehicle, the dynamic performance comparison has been carried out; and on the basis of establishing the vehicle energy consumption model and taking the city driving cycle as an example, the economic comparison of these drive systems has been completed.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of the Transmission System for Electric Vehicles Considering the Dynamic Efficiency of the Regenerative Brake

2018-04-03
2018-01-0819
In this paper, gear ratios of a two-speed transmission system are optimized for an electric passenger car. Quasi static system models, including the vehicle model, the motor, the battery, the transmission system, and drive cycles are established in MATLAB/Simulink at first. Specifically, since the regenerative braking capability of the motor is affected by the SoC of battery and motors torque limitation in real time, the dynamical variation of the regenerative brake efficiency is considered in this study. To obtain the optimal gear ratios, iterations are carried out through Nelder-Mead algorithm under constraints in MATLAB/Simulink. During the optimization process, the motor efficiency is observed along with the drive cycle, and the gear shift strategy is determined based on the vehicle velocity and acceleration demand. Simulation results show that the electric motor works in a relative high efficiency range during the whole drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Novel Multiple-Disc Magneto-Rheological Clutch Applied in Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1133
In recent years, Magneto-rheological (MR) fluid has drawn a lot of attention for its applications in a variety of torque transmission devices, such as brakes, clutches and soft starters of mechanical equipment. Compared with the conventional clutch of vehicle, the novel MR clutch has the advantages of fast response with electronic signal, accuracy control and simple structure without mechanical wear in plates. Besides, MR clutch may be helpful to fast response of vehicle in some situation. Nowadays, most applications of MR fluids in the torque transmission field mainly are used in low-power situation. As far as we know, the proposed effective methods enhancing the output torque of MR devices will increase either the number of fluid gaps or the magnetic field in the MR fluid. This article presents a novel vehicle clutch utilizing magnetorheological fluid and multiple-disc structure.
Journal Article

Design of Anti-lock Braking System Based on Regenerative Braking for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-0816
In this article, the regenerative braking system is designed, which can realize the torque allocation between electric braking and hydraulic braking, where the cost function designed in this article considers factors of braking torque following effect, energy regenerative power, and hydraulic braking consumed power. In addition, a complete anti-lock braking system (ABS) is designed, which is based on regenerative braking. With the optimal slip ratio as control target, target wheel speed, control wheel speed, braking torque control strategy, and enable/disenable control logic of ABS are determined. By MATLAB/Simulink-DYNA4 co-simulation and real vehicle test, the feasibility and applicability of ABS based on regenerative braking are verified, under the condition of small severity of braking.
Technical Paper

Development and Research on Control Strategy of Advanced Electronic Braking Systems for Commercial Vehicle

2014-09-30
2014-01-2285
Electronic braking system (EBS) of commercial vehicle is developed based on Anti-lock Braking System (ABS), for the purpose of enhancing the braking performance. Based on the previous study, this paper aims at the development and research on the control strategy of advanced electronic braking system for commercial vehicle, which mainly includes braking force distribution and multiple targets control strategy. In the study of braking force distribution control strategy, the mass of vehicle and the axle loads will be calculated dynamically and the braking force of each wheel will be distributed regarding to the axle loads. The braking intention recognition takes the brake pad wear into account when braking uncritically, so it can detect a difference in the pads between the front and the rear axles. The brake assist strategy supports the driver during emergency braking and the braking distance is shortened by the reduction of the braking system response time.
Technical Paper

Fuzzy PID Based Optimization of Starting Control for AMT Clutch of Heavy-duty Trucks

2018-04-03
2018-01-1166
Starting control has become a troublesome issue in the developing field of the control system for heavy-duty trucks, due to the complexity of vehicle driving and the variability of driver's intention. The too fast clutch engagement may result in serious impact, influence on the comfort and fatigue life, and even the engine flameout, while the too slow clutch engagement may lead to long time of friction, the increased temperature, and accelerated wear of friction pair, as well as influence on the power performance and fatigue life[1]. Therefore, the key technique of starting control is clutch engagement control, for which the fuzzy PID based optimization of starting control for AMT clutch is proposed, with the pneumatic AMT clutch of heavy-duty trucks as the research object.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of Neutral-Idle Shudder Phenomenon in an Automatic Transmission System

2016-04-05
2016-01-1128
Neutral-idle strategy has been applied for years to improve the fuel consumption of automatic transmission cars. The updated demand is the use of expanded slipping control strategy for further improvement of the transmission efficiency and response speed. However, one major drawback of the continuous slipping clutches is the high tendency to produce shudder or low frequency variation. In this research, a special neutral-idle shudder phenomenon is presented. This special shudder is not only related to slipping clutches but also related to the vibration and structure of the powertrain system. Simulations and experiments are conducted to give an insight view of this phenomenon. The analysis reveals that this special shudder is caused by both torsional vibration of the driveline and rigid-body vibration of the powertrain system. A positive feedback loop between those two kinds of vibrations leads to this special neutral-idle shudder.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Control of Vehicle Chassis Planar Stability Based on T-S Fuzzy Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0471
In the past decades, the stability of vehicles has been improved significantly by use of variety of chassis control systems such as Antilock Braking System (ABS), Electric Stability Program (ESP) and Active Front Steering (AFS). Recently, in order to further improve the performance of vehicles, more and more researches are focused on the integration control of multiple degrees of freedom of vehicle dynamic. However, in order to control multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously, the nonlinear problems caused by the coupling between different degrees of freedom have to be solved, which is always a difficult task. In this paper, a three-degrees-of-freedom single track vehicle model, in which some nonlinear terms are considered, is built firstly. Then, the nonlinear model is processed by the fuzzy technique and the T-S fuzzy model is designed.
Technical Paper

Objective Evaluation Model of Automatic Transmission Shift Quality Based on Multi-Hierarchical Grey Relational Analysis

2018-04-03
2018-01-0405
Improvement of shift quality evaluation has become more prevalent over the past few years in the development of automatic transmission electronic control system. For the problems of the subjective shift quality evaluation that subjectivity is too strong, the standard cannot be unified and the definition of the objective evaluation index is not clear at present, this paper studies on the methods of objective evaluation of shift quality based on the multi-hierarchical grey relational analysis. Firstly, objective evaluation index system is constructed based on physical quantities, such as the engine speed, the longitudinal acceleration of the vehicle and so on, which broadens the scope of the traditional objective evaluation index further.
Journal Article

Optimization Matching of Powertrain System for Self-Dumping Truck Based on Grey Relational Analysis

2015-04-14
2015-01-0501
In this paper, the performance simulation model of a domestic self-dumping truck was established using AVL-Cruise software. Then its accuracy was checked by the power performance and fuel economy tests which were conducted on the proving ground. The power performance of the self-dumping truck was evaluated through standing start acceleration time from 0 to 70km/h, overtaking acceleration time from 60 to 70km/h, maximum speed and maximum gradeability, while the composite fuel consumption per hundred kilometers was taken as an evaluation index of fuel economy. A L9 orthogonal array was applied to investigate the effect of three matching factors including engine, transmission and final drive, which were considered at three levels, on the power performance and fuel economy of the self-dumping truck. Furthermore, the grey relational grade was proposed to assess the multiple performance responses according to the grey relational analysis.
Technical Paper

Parallel Thermal Management System of the Water Medium Retarder

2018-04-03
2018-01-0777
The thermal management system of the water medium retarder using engine coolant (water and ethylene glycol) as transmission medium, omits oil-water heat exchanger in the structure. When the hydraulic retarder is operated, the valve is connected with the retarder and water pump, and then the engine coolant enters the working chamber. The kinetic energy of the vehicle is converted into internal energy of the coolant, and the heat is discharged to the external environment through the engine thermal management system. The braking torque of the water medium hydraulic retarder is determined by the water medium flow rate in the working chamber. The smaller the valve opening degree, the greater the braking torque and the faster the heating transmission fluid. Small valve opening is not conducive to the loss of heat. It will affect the normal working of the engine and hydraulic retarder.
Technical Paper

Performance Analysis of Multi-Speed Torque Coupler for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1149
A novel torque-coupling architecture for hybrid electric vehicles is proposed. The torque-coupling device is based on automated manual transmission (AMT), which is highly efficient and provides six gears for the engine and three gears for each motor to enable the engine and the motors to work at high-efficiency levels in most cases. The proposed power-shift AMT (P-AMT) does not have a hydraulic torque converter and wet clutches, which dampen the driveline shock. Thus, the drivability control of the P-AMT becomes a challenging issue. Accurate engine, motor model and transmission model have been built and the dynamic control of the gear shift process of PAMT in hybrid mode is simulated. The electric motors compensate for the traction loss during the gear shift of the engine.
Technical Paper

Pressure Optimization Control of Electro-Mechanical Brake System in the Process of ABS Working

2019-04-02
2019-01-1104
The electro-mechanical brake booster (EMBB) and hydraulic control unit (HCU) constitute the electro-mechanical brake system, which can meet the requirements of brake system for intelligent vehicles. It does not need vacuum source, provides active braking function, have high control accuracy and fast response. But it has two electronic control units (ECU), which need coordinated control. When ABS is triggered, the pressure of the master cylinder keeps rising and falling, and the pressure fluctuates greatly. This will lead to noise and reduce the durability of the system. In this paper, a pressure optimization control strategy under ABS condition is proposed. Firstly, the structure and control strategy of EMBB are introduced. Secondly, the braking characteristics without pressure optimization control are analyzed. Thirdly, based on the demand of maximum cylinder pressure, a three-closed-loop pressure optimization control strategy is established.
Technical Paper

Research on Roll Vibration Characteristics of a Truck's Front Suspension

2015-04-14
2015-01-0635
For the roll vibration problem of a Truck, a 4-DOF roll vibration model of its front suspension system was built. According to dynamics theory, the complex modal vibration modes of the model were all obtained. At the same time, the frequency response functions of frame roll angle acceleration, the relative dynamic load of wheel and the suspension dynamic deflection were respectively presented. Then their characteristics were respectively researched. In the process of characteristic analysis, a new system parameter was proposed, which is the space ratio of the space between suspensions of left and right sides and the wheel track of the front axle (space ratio in short). At last, the influence of system parameters on the vibration transmission property was also reserached, which included the natural frequency of the frame, the damping ratio, the stiffness ratio, the mass ratio, the rotational inertia ratio and the space ratio.
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