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Journal Article

A Lane-Changing Decision-Making Method for Intelligent Vehicle Based on Acceleration Field

2018-04-03
2018-01-0599
Taking full advantage of available traffic environment information, making control decisions, and then planning trajectory systematically under structured roads conditions is a critical part of intelligent vehicle. In this article, a lane-changing decision-making method for intelligent vehicle is proposed based on acceleration field. Firstly, an acceleration field related to relative velocity and relative distance was built based on the analysis of braking process, and acceleration was taken as an indicator of safety evaluation. Then, a lane-changing decision method was set up with acceleration field while considering driver’s habits, traffic efficiency and safety. Furthermore, velocity regulation was also introduced in the lane-changing decision method to make it more flexible.
Technical Paper

A Nonlinear Slip Ratio Observer Based on ISS Method for Electric Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0557
Knowledge of the tire slip ratio can greatly improve vehicle longitudinal stability and its dynamic performance. Most conventional slip ratio observers were mainly designed based on input of non-driven wheel speed and estimated vehicle speed. However, they are not applicable for electric vehicles (EVs) with four in-wheel motors. Also conventional methods on speed estimation via integration of accelerometer signals can often lead to large offset by long-time integral calculation. Further, model uncertainties, including steady state error and unmodeled dynamics, are considered as additive disturbances, and may affect the stability of the system with estimated state error. This paper proposes a novel slip ratio observer based on input-to-state stability (ISS) method for electric vehicles with four-wheel independent driving motors.
Technical Paper

A Novel Three-Planetary-Gear Power-Split Hybrid Powertrain for Tracked Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1003
Tracked vehicles are widely used for agriculture, construction and many other areas. Due to high emissions, hybrid electric driveline has been applied to tracked vehicles. The hybrid powertrain design for the tracked vehicle has been researched for years. Different from wheeled vehicles, the tracked vehicle not only requires high mobility while straight driving, but also pursues strong steering performance. The paper takes the hybrid track-type dozers (TTDs) as an example and proposes an optimal design of a novel power-split powertrain for TTDs. The commercial hybrid TTD usually adopts the series hybrid powertrain, and sometimes with an extra steering mechanism, which has led to low efficiency and made the structure more complicated. The proposed three-planetary-gear power-split hybrid powertrain can overcome the problems above by utilizing the characteristics of planetary gear sets.
Technical Paper

Application of Slope Sensor in Hill-Start to AMT (Automated Manual Transmission) Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1108
In order to improve the drivability and reduce the clutch friction loss, low-cost slope sensor is used in hill-start control of AMT vehicles. After the power spectrum analysis of the original signal and the design of the digital filter, the angle of the slope is obtained with short enough delay and small enough noise. By using this slope angle information, slope resistance force can be calculated online so that the vehicle can be prevented from sliding backward and optimal launch control can be realized. The digital filter of slope angle signal and the optimal controller of dry clutch engagement are embedded in the TCU (Transmission Control Unit) of a micro-car Geely Panda. Real-vehicle experiments are carried out with optimal clutch controller, which shows that the hill-start with low-cost slope sensor and optimal clutch controller can provide successful vehicle launch with little driveline shock. In addition, it can also avoid backward sliding and engine over-speed effectively.
Technical Paper

Auxiliary Drive Control Strategy of Hydraulic Hub-Motor Auxiliary System for Heavy Truck

2016-09-27
2016-01-8113
To improve traditional heavy commercial vehicles performance, this paper introduces a novel hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system, which could achieve auxiliary driving and auxiliary braking function. Firstly, the system configuration and operation modes are described. In order to achieve coordinating control and distribution of the engine power between mechanical and hydraulic paths, the paper proposes an optimal algorithm based on enhance of vehicle slip efficiency and the results show that displacement of hydraulic variable pump relates with the transmission gear ratio. And then the hydraulic pump displacement controller is designed, in which the feedforward and feedback strategy is adopted. Considering the characteristics of hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system, a layered auxiliary drive control strategy is proposed in the paper, which includes signal layers, core control layers and executive layers.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Truck Ride Comfort of 4 Degree of Freedom Rigid-Elastic Model with 2 Degree of Freedom Rigid Model

2015-04-14
2015-01-0615
In order to study the influence of body flexibility on the truck ride comfort, a 4 DOF half vibration model of truck based on the motion synthesis between rigid body and body flexibility is established using elastic beam theory of equal section with both free ends. At the same time, a corresponding 2 DOF rigid vibration model is also built. The frequency response functions of system and response variables of two models are derived based on front wheel. The power spectral densities and the root mean square values of body acceleration, dynamic deflections and relative dynamic loads are obtained. By comparing the simulation results of rigid-elastic model and rigid model, it shows that body flexibility has a great impact on truck ride comfort and it cannot be ignored.
Technical Paper

Configuration Analysis and Performance Comparison of Drive Systems for Pure Electric Vehicle

2015-04-14
2015-01-1165
Many kinds of drive systems can be adopted by a pure electric vehicle. In order to select the most suitable drive system, the configuration features of different drive systems were analyzed. After matching the drive systems in a pure electric vehicle, the dynamic performance comparison has been carried out; and on the basis of establishing the vehicle energy consumption model and taking the city driving cycle as an example, the economic comparison of these drive systems has been completed.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of the Transmission System for Electric Vehicles Considering the Dynamic Efficiency of the Regenerative Brake

2018-04-03
2018-01-0819
In this paper, gear ratios of a two-speed transmission system are optimized for an electric passenger car. Quasi static system models, including the vehicle model, the motor, the battery, the transmission system, and drive cycles are established in MATLAB/Simulink at first. Specifically, since the regenerative braking capability of the motor is affected by the SoC of battery and motors torque limitation in real time, the dynamical variation of the regenerative brake efficiency is considered in this study. To obtain the optimal gear ratios, iterations are carried out through Nelder-Mead algorithm under constraints in MATLAB/Simulink. During the optimization process, the motor efficiency is observed along with the drive cycle, and the gear shift strategy is determined based on the vehicle velocity and acceleration demand. Simulation results show that the electric motor works in a relative high efficiency range during the whole drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Novel Multiple-Disc Magneto-Rheological Clutch Applied in Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1133
In recent years, Magneto-rheological (MR) fluid has drawn a lot of attention for its applications in a variety of torque transmission devices, such as brakes, clutches and soft starters of mechanical equipment. Compared with the conventional clutch of vehicle, the novel MR clutch has the advantages of fast response with electronic signal, accuracy control and simple structure without mechanical wear in plates. Besides, MR clutch may be helpful to fast response of vehicle in some situation. Nowadays, most applications of MR fluids in the torque transmission field mainly are used in low-power situation. As far as we know, the proposed effective methods enhancing the output torque of MR devices will increase either the number of fluid gaps or the magnetic field in the MR fluid. This article presents a novel vehicle clutch utilizing magnetorheological fluid and multiple-disc structure.
Technical Paper

Effects of Sinusoidal Whole Body Vibration Frequency on Drivers' Muscle Responses

2015-04-14
2015-01-1396
Low back pain has a higher prevalence among drivers who have long term history of vehicle operations. Vehicle vibration has been considered to contribute to the onset of low back pain. However, the fundamental mechanism that relates vibration to low back pain is still not clear. Little is known about the relationship between vibration exposure, the biomechanical response, and the physiological responses of the seated human. The aim of this study was to determine the vibration frequency that causes the increase of muscle activity that can lead to muscle fatigue and low back pain. This study investigated the effects of various vibration frequencies on the lumbar and thoracic paraspinal muscle responses among 11 seated volunteers exposed to sinusoidal whole body vibration varying from 4Hz to 30Hz at 0.4 g of acceleration. The accelerations of the seat and the pelvis were recorded during various frequency of vibrations. Muscle activity was measured using electromyography (EMG).
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Source Identification of Bus Floor's Vibration

2014-04-01
2014-01-0014
To find out the main excitation sources of a bus floor's vibration, modal analysis and spectral analysis were respectively performed in the paper. First we tested the vibration modal of the bus's floor under the full-load condition, and the first ten natural frequencies and vibration modes were obtained for the source identification of the bus floor's vibration. Second the vibration characteristic of the bus floor was measured in an on-road experiment. The acceleration sensors were arranged on the bus's floor and the possible excitation sources of the bus, which includes engine mounting system, driveline system, exhaust system, and wheels. Then the on-road experiment was carefully conducted on a highway under the four kinds of test condition: in-situ acceleration, uniform velocity (90km/h, 100km/h, 110km/h, 120km/h), uniform acceleration with top gear, and stall sliding condition with neutral gear.
Technical Paper

Fuzzy PID Based Optimization of Starting Control for AMT Clutch of Heavy-duty Trucks

2018-04-03
2018-01-1166
Starting control has become a troublesome issue in the developing field of the control system for heavy-duty trucks, due to the complexity of vehicle driving and the variability of driver's intention. The too fast clutch engagement may result in serious impact, influence on the comfort and fatigue life, and even the engine flameout, while the too slow clutch engagement may lead to long time of friction, the increased temperature, and accelerated wear of friction pair, as well as influence on the power performance and fatigue life[1]. Therefore, the key technique of starting control is clutch engagement control, for which the fuzzy PID based optimization of starting control for AMT clutch is proposed, with the pneumatic AMT clutch of heavy-duty trucks as the research object.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of Neutral-Idle Shudder Phenomenon in an Automatic Transmission System

2016-04-05
2016-01-1128
Neutral-idle strategy has been applied for years to improve the fuel consumption of automatic transmission cars. The updated demand is the use of expanded slipping control strategy for further improvement of the transmission efficiency and response speed. However, one major drawback of the continuous slipping clutches is the high tendency to produce shudder or low frequency variation. In this research, a special neutral-idle shudder phenomenon is presented. This special shudder is not only related to slipping clutches but also related to the vibration and structure of the powertrain system. Simulations and experiments are conducted to give an insight view of this phenomenon. The analysis reveals that this special shudder is caused by both torsional vibration of the driveline and rigid-body vibration of the powertrain system. A positive feedback loop between those two kinds of vibrations leads to this special neutral-idle shudder.
Technical Paper

Objective Evaluation Model of Automatic Transmission Shift Quality Based on Multi-Hierarchical Grey Relational Analysis

2018-04-03
2018-01-0405
Improvement of shift quality evaluation has become more prevalent over the past few years in the development of automatic transmission electronic control system. For the problems of the subjective shift quality evaluation that subjectivity is too strong, the standard cannot be unified and the definition of the objective evaluation index is not clear at present, this paper studies on the methods of objective evaluation of shift quality based on the multi-hierarchical grey relational analysis. Firstly, objective evaluation index system is constructed based on physical quantities, such as the engine speed, the longitudinal acceleration of the vehicle and so on, which broadens the scope of the traditional objective evaluation index further.
Journal Article

Optimization Matching of Powertrain System for Self-Dumping Truck Based on Grey Relational Analysis

2015-04-14
2015-01-0501
In this paper, the performance simulation model of a domestic self-dumping truck was established using AVL-Cruise software. Then its accuracy was checked by the power performance and fuel economy tests which were conducted on the proving ground. The power performance of the self-dumping truck was evaluated through standing start acceleration time from 0 to 70km/h, overtaking acceleration time from 60 to 70km/h, maximum speed and maximum gradeability, while the composite fuel consumption per hundred kilometers was taken as an evaluation index of fuel economy. A L9 orthogonal array was applied to investigate the effect of three matching factors including engine, transmission and final drive, which were considered at three levels, on the power performance and fuel economy of the self-dumping truck. Furthermore, the grey relational grade was proposed to assess the multiple performance responses according to the grey relational analysis.
Technical Paper

Optimization for Driveline Parameters of Self-Dumping Truck Based on Particle Swarm Algorithm

2015-04-14
2015-01-0472
In this study, with the aim of reducing fuel consumption and improving power performance, the optimization for the driveline parameters of a self-dumping truck was performed by using a vehicle performance simulation model. The accuracy of this model was checked by the power performance and fuel economy tests. Then the transmission ratios and final drive ratio were taken as design variables. Meanwhile, the power performance of the self-dumping truck was evaluated through standing start acceleration time from 0 to 70km/h, maximum speed and maximum gradeability, while the combined fuel consumption of C-WTVC drive cycle was taken as an evaluation index of fuel economy. The multi-objective optimization for the power performance and fuel economy was then performed based on particle swarm optimization algorithm, and the Pareto optimal set was obtained. Furthermore, the entropy method was proposed to determine the weight of fuel consumption and acceleration time.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Suspension System of Self-Dumping Truck Using TOPSIS-based Taguchi Method Coupled with Entropy Measurement

2016-04-05
2016-01-1385
This study presents a hybrid optimization approach of TOPSIS-based Taguchi method and entropy measurement for the determination of the optimal suspension parameters to achieve an enhanced compromise among ride comfort, road friendliness which means the extent of damage exerted on the road by the vehicles, and handling stabilities of a self-dumping truck. Firstly, the full multi-body dynamic vehicle model is developed using software ADAMS/Car and the vehicle model is then validated through ride comfort road tests. The performance criterion for ride comfort evaluation is identified as root mean square (RMS) value of frequency weighted acceleration of cab floor, while the road damage coefficient is used for the evaluation of the road-friendliness of a whole vehicle. The lateral acceleration and roll angle of cab were defined as evaluation indices for handling stability performance.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Vehicle Ride Comfort and Handling Stability Based on TOPSIS Method

2015-04-14
2015-01-1348
A detailed multi-body dynamic model of a passenger car was modeled using ADAMS/Car and then checked by the ride comfort and handling stability test results in this paper. The performance criterion for ride comfort evaluation was defined as the overall weighted acceleration root mean square (RMS) value of car body floor, while the roll angle and lateral acceleration of car body were considered as evaluation indicators for handling stability performance. Simultaneously, spring stiffness and shock absorber damping coefficients of the front and rear suspensions were taken as the design variables (also called factors), which were considered at three levels. On this basis, a L9 orthogonal array was employed to perform the ride and handling simulations.
Technical Paper

Parallel Thermal Management System of the Water Medium Retarder

2018-04-03
2018-01-0777
The thermal management system of the water medium retarder using engine coolant (water and ethylene glycol) as transmission medium, omits oil-water heat exchanger in the structure. When the hydraulic retarder is operated, the valve is connected with the retarder and water pump, and then the engine coolant enters the working chamber. The kinetic energy of the vehicle is converted into internal energy of the coolant, and the heat is discharged to the external environment through the engine thermal management system. The braking torque of the water medium hydraulic retarder is determined by the water medium flow rate in the working chamber. The smaller the valve opening degree, the greater the braking torque and the faster the heating transmission fluid. Small valve opening is not conducive to the loss of heat. It will affect the normal working of the engine and hydraulic retarder.
Technical Paper

Parametric Design of Series Hybrid Power-train for Transit Bus

2003-11-10
2003-01-3371
Utilizing the developed off-line simulation model of series hybrid power train the study on the influence of components' parameters on acceleration performance and fuel economy of transit bus is completed. Based on these the guideline strategies of parametric design of series hybrid power train for transit bus are brought forward in this paper. Given the condition of propulsion requirement the parametric design for this transit bus are performed targeting minimizing fuel consumption. It is conclusion that the appropriate components' parameters determined by means of parametric design can make series hybrid transit bus achieve much better acceleration performance and much lower fuel equivalent consumption than that of baseline transit bus.
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