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Technical Paper

A Multi-Zone Model for Diesel Spray Combustion

A quasi-dimensional multi-zone model for diesel spray combustion has been developed. The model contains most of the physical processes of diesel spray combustion, and is simplified and economical. The zone formation is based on the fuel injection parameters. For the wall jet penetration velocity, a new equation is used based on the effect of the impinging free jet on the wall jet. For the fuel evaporation, an approximate solution of the instantaneous variations of droplet diameter is given in the simple algebraic equations based on the individual effect of the evaporation and the heat transfer from ambient gas. The soot emission sub-model calculates the soot concentration. This model has been applied for a direct injection diesel engine. The calculated results have shown a reasonable agreement with the experimental results. A parametric study has been carried out.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Method for Evaluation of Seat Comfort Based on Virtual Simulation of the Interface Pressures of Driver with Different Body Sizes

This paper presents an integrated method for rapid modeling, simulation and virtual evaluation of the interface pressure between driver human body and seat. For simulation of the body-seat interaction and for calculation of the interface pressure, besides body dimensions and material characteristics an important aspect is the posture and position of the driver body with respect to seat. In addition, to ensure accommodation of the results to the target population usually several individuals are simulated, whose body anthropometries cover the scope of the whole population. The multivariate distribution of the body anthropometry and the sampling techniques are usually adopted to generate the individuals and to predict the detailed body dimensions. In biomechanical modeling of human body and seat, the correct element type, the rational settings of the contacts between different parts, the correct exertion of the loads to the calculation field, etc., are also crucial.
Technical Paper

Cabin Thermal Comfort Simulation of Truck Based on CFD

It is known that the automobile cabin thermal comfort, could keep the driver and passengers feel better which has a great effect on traffic safety. In this paper, to the FAW truck cab, we did some researches about automobile cabin thermal comfort. Our plan is to calculate the air flow distribution and the temperature in steady and transient state when there is warm or cool air flow. The heating and cooling experiment methods standard of cabin are based on the national standard and the automobile industry standard of China. Then the numerical simulation process becomes very important. So we used the commercial CFD code- STAR-CCM+ for study in this paper. Firstly, Geometry Clean up. Secondly, Wrap and Remesh, we chose the internal surface at the wrap surface of cabin and air conditioning pipes, then we remesh the surface. Thirdly, generate the volume mesh which is polyhedral mesh, and the number of the volume mesh is 9.4 millions.
Journal Article

Comparative Study on Gasoline HCCI and DICI Combustion in High Load Range with High Compression Ratio for Passenger Cars Application

This study compared the combustion and emission characteristics of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Direct Injection Compression Ignition (DICI) modes in a boosted and high compression ratio (17) engine fueled with gasoline and gasoline/diesel blend (80% gasoline by volume, denoted as G80). The injection strategy was adjusted to achieve the highest thermal efficiency at different intake pressures. The results showed that Low Temperature Heat Release (LTHR) was not observed in gasoline HCCI. However, 20% additional diesel could lower down the octane number and improve the autoignition reactivity of G80, which contributed to a weak LTHR, accounting for approximately 5% of total released heat. The combustion efficiency in gasoline DICI was higher than those in gasoline HCCI and G80 HCCI, while the exhaust loss and heat transfer loss in DICI mode were higher than those in HCCI mode.
Technical Paper

Computational Accuracy and Efficiency of the Element Types and Sizes for Car Acoustic Finite Element Model

Automobile cabin acoustical comfort is one of the main features that may attract customers to purchase a new car. The acoustic cavity mode of the car has an effect on the acoustical comfort. To identify the factors affecting computing accuracy of the acoustic mode, three different element type and six different element size acoustic finite element models of an automobile passenger compartment are developed and experimentally assessed. The three different element type models are meshed in three different ways, tetrahedral elements, hexahedral elements and node coupling tetrahedral and hexahedral elements (tetra-hexahedral elements). The six different element size models are meshed with hexahedral element varies from 50mm to 75mm. Modal analysis test of the passenger car is conducted using loudspeaker excitation to identify the compartment cavity modes.
Technical Paper

Effect of Thermodynamic Conditions on Spark Ignition to Compression Ignition in Ultra-Lean Mixture Using Rapid Compression Machine

Compression ratio and specific heat ratio are two dominant factors influencing engine thermal efficiency. Therefore, ultra-lean burn may be one method to deal with increasingly stringent fuel consumption and emission regulations in the approaching future. To achieve high efficiency and clean combustion, innovative combustion modes have been applied on research engines including homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), and gasoline direct-injection compression ignition (GDCI), etc. Compared to HCCI, SACI can extend the load range and more easily control combustion phase while it is constrained by the limit of flame propagation. For SACI with ultra-lean burn in engines, equivalence ratio (φ), rich-fuel mixture around spark plug, and supercharging are three essentials for combustion stability.
Technical Paper

Effects of Perforation Shapes on Water Transport in PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers

Water management, particularly in the gas diffusion layers (GDL), plays an important role in the performance and reliability of the proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this study, a two-phase multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is employed to simulate water transport in a reconstructed GDL and the effect of perforation shapes is investigated. The revised pseudopotential multiphase model is adopted to realize high-density ratio, good thermodynamic consistency, adjustable surface tension and high contact angle. The transport characteristics are analyzed in both vertical and horizontal transport directions. The LBM simulation provides detailed results in mesoscale and indicates that the surface tension dominates the process of water transport in the perforated GDL, which exhibits unexpectedly similarities in the vertical and horizontal transport.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study and Numerical Interpretation on the Temperature Field of DPF during Active Regeneration with Hydrocarbon Injection

Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is indispensable for diesel engines to meet the increasingly stringent emission regulations. Both the peak temperature and the maximum temperature gradient of the DPF during active regeneration should be well controlled in order to enhance the reliability and durability of the filter. In this paper, the temperature field of the DPF during active regeneration with hydrocarbon (HC) injection was investigated with engine bench tests and numerical simulation. For the experimental study, 24 thermocouples were inserted into the DPF channels to measure the inner temperature of the filter to capture its temperature field, and the circumferential, axial and radial distribution of the filter temperature was analyzed to understand the DPF temperature field behavior during active regeneration.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Modeling of Vehicle Fuel Cell Power System Thermal Management

A mathematical model of vehicle fuel cell system thermal management has been developed to investigate the effects of various design and operating conditions on the thermal management and to understand the underlying mechanism. The fuel cell stack structure is represented by a lumped thermal mass model, which has the heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of the fuel cell stack structure. The whole thermal management system is discretized into many volumes, where each flowspit is represented by a single volume, and every pipe is divided into one or more volumes. These volumes are connected by boundaries. The model is solved numerically to analyze thermal management system performance. The effects of coolant flow rates and air flow rates on the system thermal performance, the stack thermal capacity on the transient thermal performance have been investigated in detail.
Technical Paper

Parallel Thermal Management System of the Water Medium Retarder

The thermal management system of the water medium retarder using engine coolant (water and ethylene glycol) as transmission medium, omits oil-water heat exchanger in the structure. When the hydraulic retarder is operated, the valve is connected with the retarder and water pump, and then the engine coolant enters the working chamber. The kinetic energy of the vehicle is converted into internal energy of the coolant, and the heat is discharged to the external environment through the engine thermal management system. The braking torque of the water medium hydraulic retarder is determined by the water medium flow rate in the working chamber. The smaller the valve opening degree, the greater the braking torque and the faster the heating transmission fluid. Small valve opening is not conducive to the loss of heat. It will affect the normal working of the engine and hydraulic retarder.
Technical Paper

Research on Temperature Stability of an Independent Energy Supply Device with Organic Rankine Cycles Based on Hydraulic Retarder

Hydraulic retarder, as an auxiliary braking device, is widely used in commercial vehicles. Nowadays, the hydraulic retarder’s internal oil is mainly cooled by the coolant circuit directly. It not only aggravates the load of engine cooling system, but also makes the abundant heat energy not be recycled properly. In this study, an independent energy supply device with organic Rankine cycles is applied to solve the problems above. In the structure of this energy supply device, the evaporator’s inlet and outlet is connected in parallel with the oil outlet and inlet of the retarder respectively. A part of oil enters the evaporator to transfer heat with the organic fluid, and the rest of oil enters the oil-water heat exchanger to be cooled by the coolant circuit. According to the different braking conditions of the retarder, the oil temperature in the inlet of the hydraulic retarder can be kept within the proper range through adjusting the oil flow rate into the evaporator properly.
Technical Paper

Two-Stage Wave Disk Engine Concept and Performance Prediction

The Wave Disk Engine (WDE) is a novel engine that has the potential for higher efficiency and power density of power-generation systems. A recent version of wave disk engine architecture known as the two-stage WDE has been studied to address existing challenges of an existing WDE. After describing the engine operation, a cold air-standard thermodynamic model supporting the physical phenomena occurring inside the device is introduced to evaluate performance of the engine. The developed model is general and does not depend on the shape of the wave rotor, it can be applied to radial and axial combustion wave rotors integrated with turbomachinery devices. The analysis starts with predicting internal waves propagating inside the channels of the engine and linking various flow states to each other using thermodynamics relationships. The goal is to find analytical expressions of work output and efficiency in terms of known pressure and temperature ratios.