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Technical Paper

A Multi-Zone Model for Diesel Spray Combustion

1999-03-01
1999-01-0916
A quasi-dimensional multi-zone model for diesel spray combustion has been developed. The model contains most of the physical processes of diesel spray combustion, and is simplified and economical. The zone formation is based on the fuel injection parameters. For the wall jet penetration velocity, a new equation is used based on the effect of the impinging free jet on the wall jet. For the fuel evaporation, an approximate solution of the instantaneous variations of droplet diameter is given in the simple algebraic equations based on the individual effect of the evaporation and the heat transfer from ambient gas. The soot emission sub-model calculates the soot concentration. This model has been applied for a direct injection diesel engine. The calculated results have shown a reasonable agreement with the experimental results. A parametric study has been carried out.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of the Combustion Characteristics of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol-Diesel Blends with Different ABE Component Ratios in a Constant Volume Chamber

2014-04-01
2014-01-1452
Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE), an intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol, is considered a promising alternative fuel because it not only preserves the advantages of oxygenated fuel which typically emit less pollutants compared to conventional diesel, but also lowers the cost of fuel recovery for each individual component during the fermentation. With the development of advanced ABE fermentation technology, the volumetric percentage of acetone, butanol and ethanol in the bio-solvents can be precisely controlled. In this respect, it is desirable to estimate the performance of different ABE blends to determine the best blend and optimize the production process accordingly. ABE fuels with different component ratio, (A: B: E: 6:3:1; 3:6:1; 0:10:0, vol. %), were blended with diesel and tested in a constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Effects of Split Injection in Stoichiometric Dual-Fuel Compression Ignition (SDCI) Combustion

2015-04-14
2015-01-0847
Stoichiometric dual-fuel compression ignition (SDCI) combustion has superior potential in both emission control and thermal efficiency. Split injection of diesel reportedly shows superiority in optimizing combustion phase control and increasing flexibility in fuel selection. This study focuses on split injection strategies in SDCI mode. The effects of main injection timing and pilot-to-total ratio are examined. Combustion phasing is found to be retarded in split injection when overmixing occurs as a result of early main injection timing. Furthermore, an optimised split injection timing can avoid extremely high pressure rise rate without great loss in indicated thermal efficiency while maintaining soot emission at an acceptable level. A higher pilot-to-total ratio always results in lower soot emission, higher combustion efficiency, and relatively superior ITE, but improvements are not significant with increased pilot-to-total ratio up to approximately 0.65.
Technical Paper

An Optical Study on the Combustion of Gasoline/PODEn Blends in a Constant Volume Vessel

2018-09-10
2018-01-1748
Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEn) have high cetane number, high oxygen content and high volatility, therefore can be added to gasoline to optimize the performance and soot emission of Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) combustion. High speed imaging was used to investigate the spray and combustion process of gasoline/PODEn blends (PODEn volume fraction 0%-30%) under various ambient conditions and injection strategies in a constant volume vessel. Results showed that with an increase of PODEn proportion from 10% to 30%, liquid-phase penetration of the spray increased slightly, ignition delay decreased from 3.8 ms to 2.0 ms and flame lift off length decreased 29.4%, causing a significant increase of the flame luminance. For blends with 20% PODEn, when ambient temperature decreased from 893 K to 823 K, the ignition delay increased 1.3 ms and the flame luminance got lower.
Technical Paper

Application of Narrow Cone Angle Injectors to Achieve Advanced Compression Ignition on a Mass-Production Diesel Engine - Control Strategy and Engine Performance Evaluation

2009-11-02
2009-01-2700
Advanced compression ignition combustion system which reduces simultaneously both nitride oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) is a promising approach to meet future emission regulations. In order to achieve advanced compression ignition, flexible fuel injection is required for ultra-early and post-TDC injections, which conventional injector fails to accomplish due to wall-wetting effect. In this work, special injectors with the spray angle of 60 degree are applied on a 4 cylinder mass-production diesel engine without modification of the engine configuration. For application-oriented study, sweep experiments of injection timings and durations, fuel injection pressure and the boost pressure are carried out to investigate the relationships between the control parameters and the engine performance. Model based calibration and real application tests validate the maximum applicable operation range of maximum speed of 2200 RPM and IMEP of 8.0 bar.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Particulate Emissions Fueled with LPG and Gasoline in a Small SI Engine

2004-10-25
2004-01-2901
This paper presents experimental studies of particulate emissions in a small SI engine fueled with LPG and gasoline fuels. A single cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, 125cc EFI engine with gasoline fuel is used as the baseline engine. Characteristics of the particulate emissions of the two fuels are compared. Test results show that: there are great quantities of particulate emissions for both fuels, but the total numbers of particulate emissions for the two fuels are generally in the same level. The distribution of the particulate sizes is in bimodal type for the gasoline, but for the LPG its first peak is not markedly in some conditions. The particulate sizes of the second peak for the two fuels appear at about the same size. At middle loads and 3000r/min, the particulate emissions for both of the two fuels are the greatest.
Technical Paper

Characterization Spray and Combustion Processes of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) in a Constant Volume Chamber

2015-04-14
2015-01-0919
Recent research has shown that butanol, instead of ethanol, has the potential of introducing a more suitable blend in diesel engines. This is because butanol has properties similar to current transportation fuels in comparison to ethanol. However, the main downside is the high cost of the butanol production process. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) is an intermediate product of the fermentation process of butanol production. By eliminating the separation and purification processes, using ABE directly in diesel blends has the potential of greatly decreasing the overall cost for fuel production. This could lead to a vast commercial use of ABE-diesel blends on the market. Much research has been done in the past five years concerning spray and combustion processes of both neat ABE and ABE-diesel mixtures. Additionally, different compositions of ABE mixtures had been characterized with a similar experimental approach.
Journal Article

Cold and Warm Start Characteristics using HVO and RME Blends in a V6 Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1306
The first several cycles determine the quality of an engine start. Low temperatures and air/fuel ratio cause incomplete combustion of the fuel. This can lead to dramatic increases in HC and PM emissions. In order to meet Euro V legislation requirements which have stricter cold start emission levels, it is critical to study the characteristics of cold and warm starting of engines in order to develop an optimized operation. The NO and THC emissions were measured by fast CLD and Fast FID gas analyzers respectively and PM in both nucleation and accumulation modes were measured by DMS500. The coolant temperature was controlled in order to guarantee the experiment repeatability. The results show that at cold start using RME60 produced higher NO and lower THC than the other tested fuels while combustion of HVO60 produced a similar level of NO but lower THC compared with mineral diesel. Meanwhile, the nucleation mode of mineral diesel was similar to RME60 but higher than HVO60.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers (PODE)/ Wide Distillation Fuel (WDF) Blends in Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0926
Wide Distillation Fuel (WDF), with a distillation range from Initial Boiling Point of gasoline to Final Boiling Point of diesel, can be easily gained directly by blending diesel with gasoline. However, the reduced auto-ignitability of WDF could lead to higher HC emissions. Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers (PODE), with good volatility and oxygen content of up to 49%, have great potential to improve combustion and emission characteristics, especially for soot reduction. Experiments were carried out in a light-duty four-cylinder diesel engine fueled with neat diesel, gasoline/diesel blends (GD), GD/PODE blends (GDP) and the combustion and emission characteristics were carefully examined. Results showed that GDP had the lowest PM emission and diesel had the poorest one among the three fuels. Due to the addition of gasoline and the relatively poor ignitability, GD had lower combustion efficiency and higher Soluble Organic Fraction (SOF) emissions than diesel.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of WDF in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine over Wide Load Range

2017-10-08
2017-01-2265
Wide Distillation Fuel (WDF) refers to the fuels with a distillation range from initial boiling point of gasoline to final boiling point of diesel. Recent experimental results have shown WDF by blending 50% gasoline and 50% diesel (G50) exhibits much lower soot emissions than diesel at medium load with similar thermal efficiency. However, the engine performances fueled by G50 at both low load end and high load end are still unknown. In this study, the combustion and emission characteristics of G50 and diesel are compared over a wide load range from 0.2 MPa IMEP to 1.4 MPa IMEP at a light-duty diesel engine. The results shown that at 0.2 MPa IMEP, G50 exhibits low combustion stability and thermal efficiency. With the increase of load, the poor combustion quality of G50 is improved. G50 can achieve soot-free combustion up to 1.0 MPa IMEP, while diesel cannot.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ash on Gasoline Particulate Filter Using an Accelerated Ash Loading Method

2018-04-03
2018-01-1258
Gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is considered a suitable solution to meet the increasingly stringent particle number (PN) regulations for both gasoline direct injection (GDI) and multi-port fuel injection (MPI) engines. Generally, GDI engines emit more particulate matter (PM) and PN. In recent years, GDI engines have gained significant market penetration in the automobile industry owing to better fuel economy and drivability. In this study, an accelerated ash loading method was tested by doping lubricating oil into the fuel for a GDI engine. Emission tests were performed at different ash loads with different driving cycles and GPF combinations. The results showed that the GPF could significantly reduce particle emissions to meet the China 6 regulation. With further ash loading, the filtration efficiency increased above 99% and the effects on fuel consumption and backpressure were found to be limited, even with an ash loading of up to 50 g/l.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Detergent on Injector Deposit Formation and Engine Emissions in a Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2247
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have been developed rapidly in recent years, driven by stringent legislative requirements on vehicle fuel efficiency and emissions. However, one challenge facing GDI is the formation of particulate emissions, particularly with the presence of injector tip deposits. The Chinese market features some gasoline fuels that contain no detergent additives and are prone to deposit formation, which can affect engine performance and emissions. The use of detergent additives to mitigate the formation of injector deposits in a GDI engine was investigated in this study by testing a 1.5L turbocharged GDI engine available in the Chinese market. The engine was operated both on base gasoline and on gasoline dosed with detergent additives to evaluate the effect on injector deposit formation and engine performance and emissions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Aromatic and Olefin on the Formations of PAHs in GDI Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2390
In this paper, the impacts of Aromatic and Olefin on the formation of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine were experimentally and numerically investigated. The objective of this study is to describe the formation process of the soot precursors including one ring to four ring aromatics (A1-A4). In order to better understand the effects of the fuel properties on the formations of PAHs. Three types of fuels, namely base gasoline, gasoline with higher aromatics content, and gasoline with higher olefin content were experimentally studied. At the same time, these aspects were also numerically investigated in the CHEMKIN code by using premixed laminar flame model and surrogated fuels. The results show that higher aromatics content in gasoline will lead to much higher PAHs formation. Similar trend was also found in the gasoline with higher olefin content.
Technical Paper

Electrochemical Characteristics of Cubic ZnFe2O4 Anode for Li-Ion Batteries at Low Temperature

2016-04-05
2016-01-1215
The poor low-temperature behavior of Li-ion batteries has limited its application in the field of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. Many previous studies concentrate on developing new type of electrolyte to solve this problem. However, according to recent research, the key limitation at low temperature is the low diffusivity of lithium ion in the anode electrodes. Hence, it is potential to study anode materials to improve low-temperature behavior of LIBs. ZnFe2O4 with higher theoretical capacity is low toxicity and abundance, contributing to its commercial application. Different ZnFe2O4 crystalline shapes have different particle sizes. Among them, the cubic ZnFe2O4 with smaller particle size will increase its own electronic and ionic conductance at lower temperature. In this regard, we evaluated low-temperature performance of LIBs with ZnFe2O4 cubes as anode materials at -25°C.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Homogeneous Charge Induced Ignition (HCII) with Low-Pressure Injection to Reduce PM Emissions in a Heavy-Duty Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0775
Homogeneous Charge Induced Ignition (HCII) combustion utilizes a port injection of high-volatile fuel to form a homogeneous charge and a direct injection of high ignitable fuel near the Top Dead Center (TDC) to trigger combustion. Compared to Conventional Diesel Combustion (CDC) with high injection pressures, HCII has the potential to achieve diesel-like thermal efficiency with significant reductions in NOx and PM emissions with relatively low-pressure injections, which would benefit the engine cost saving remarkably. In the first part of current investigation, experiments were conducted at medium load with single diesel injection strategy. HCII exhibited great potential of using low injection pressures to achieve low soot emissions. But the engine load for HCII was limited by high heat release rate. Thus, in the second and third part, experiments were performed at high and low load with double diesel injection strategy.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study and Numerical Interpretation on the Temperature Field of DPF during Active Regeneration with Hydrocarbon Injection

2018-04-03
2018-01-1257
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is indispensable for diesel engines to meet the increasingly stringent emission regulations. Both the peak temperature and the maximum temperature gradient of the DPF during active regeneration should be well controlled in order to enhance the reliability and durability of the filter. In this paper, the temperature field of the DPF during active regeneration with hydrocarbon (HC) injection was investigated with engine bench tests and numerical simulation. For the experimental study, 24 thermocouples were inserted into the DPF channels to measure the inner temperature of the filter to capture its temperature field, and the circumferential, axial and radial distribution of the filter temperature was analyzed to understand the DPF temperature field behavior during active regeneration.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter with Exhaust Fuel Injection System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1496
The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is an effective technology for particulate matter (PM) and particle number (PN) reduction. On heavy-duty diesel engines, the passive regeneration by Diesel Oxidation catalysts (DOC) and catalyzed DPFs (CDPF) is widely used for its simplicity and low cost, which is generally combined with the active regeneration of exhaust fuel injection. This study investigated a DOC-CDPF system with exhaust fuel injection upstream of the DOC. The system was integrated with a 7-liter diesel engine whose engine-out PM emission was below the Euro IV level and tested on an engine dynamometer. PM and PN concentrations were measured based on the Particle Measurement Programme (PMP), and the number/size spectrum for particles was obtained by a Differential Mobility Spectrometer (DMS). The filtration efficiency of DPF on PN was higher than 99% in ESC test, while the efficiency on PM was only 58%.
Journal Article

Impact of Particle Characteristics and Engine Conditions on Deposit-Induced Pre-Ignition and Superknock in Turbocharged Gasoline Engines

2017-10-08
2017-01-2345
Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI), also referred to as superknock or mega-knock is an undesirable turbocharged engine combustion phenomenon limiting fuel economy, drivability, emissions and durability performance. Numerous researchers have previously reported that the frequency of Superknock is sensitive to engine oil and fuel composition as well as engine conditions in controlled laboratory and engine-based studies. Recent studies by Toyota and Tsinghua University have demonstrated that controlled induction of particles into the combustion chamber can induce pre-ignition and superknock. Afton and Tsinghua recently developed a multi-physics approach which was able to realistically model all of the elementary processes known to be involved in deposit induced pre-ignition. The approach was able to successfully simulate deposit induced pre-ignition at conditions where the phenomenon has been experimentally observed.
Journal Article

Investigation on Transient Emissions of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine Fuelled by HVO Blends

2013-04-08
2013-01-1307
Transient emissions of a turbocharged three-litre V6 diesel engine fuelled by hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) blends were experimentally investigated and compared with transient emissions of diesel as reference. The transient emissions measurements were made by highly-dynamic emissions instrumentations including Cambustion HFR500, CLD500 and DMS500 particulate analyzer. The HVO blends used in this study were 30% and 60% of HVO in diesel by volume. The transient conditions were simulated by load increases over 5 s, 10 s and 20 s durations at a constant engine speed. The particulate, NO, HC concentrations were measured to investigate the mechanism of emission formation under such transient schedules. The results showed that as the load increased, NO concentrations initially had a small drop before dramatically increasing for all the fuels investigated which can be associated with the turbocharger lag during the load transient.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis on the Potential of Reducing DPF Size Using Low Ash Lubricant Oil

2018-09-10
2018-01-1760
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is necessary for diesel engines to meet the increasingly stringent emission regulations. Many studies have demonstrated that the lubricant derived ash has a significant effect on DPF pressure drop and engine fuel economy, and this effect becomes more and more severe with the increasing of operating hours of the DPF because the ash accumulated in the DPF cannot be removed by regeneration. It is reported that most of the DPFs operated with more ash than soot in the filter for more than three quarters of the time during its lifetime [1]. In order to mitigate this problem, the original engine manufacturers (OEM) tend to use an oversized DPF for the engine. However, it will increase the costs of the DPF and reduce the compactness of the engine aftertreatment system.
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