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Technical Paper

Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluids: A Review

There is an ongoing interest in biodegradable hydraulic fluids. Biodegradable fluids are often considered to include only vegetable oils, polyol esters and diester base stocks. However, other fluid base stocks including highly refined mineral oils, poly(alpha olefins) and fire-resistant fluids such as water-glycol hydraulic fluids are also biodegradable fluid alternatives. This paper will provide an overview of the international literature on biodegradable fluids, various international testing protocol, fluid base stocks, effect of oxidative stability, material compatibility and pump performance.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ground Proximity on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of the STOL Aircraft

The aerodynamics of the STOL aircraft can experience significant changes in proximity to the ground. A review of the existing data base and methodologies has been made and the results of that review are presented in this paper. The existing data show that in ground proximity the STOL aircraft will generally experience a reduction in the lift component regardless of the lifting configuration. Those configurations with integrated power and lift systems will have an additional effect of ground induced aerodynamic changes. This paper will discuss the existing data base and the deficiencies of that data base.
Technical Paper

Effects of Gasoline Composition on Evaporative and Running Loss Emissions - Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program

Evaporative and running loss emissions were measured in a fleet of ten (1 989) current and seven (1983-85) older vehicles with fuels whose compositions varied in aromatic, olefin, and MTBE content and 90 percent distillation temperature (T9O). Emission compositions from each test were analyzed for individual hydrocarbon species. The individual hydrocarbon profiles were used to calculate evaporative and running loss emission reactivities using Carter maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) and maximum ozone reactivity (MOR) scales. Ozone reactivity estimates were expressed as Ozone Forming Potential (gO3/test) and Specific Reactivity (gO3/gNMOG) for both reactivity scales. The data were analyzed by regression analysis to estimate changes in the mass and reactivity of evaporative emissions due to changes in fuel composition. Previous studies have focused on how fuel volatility affects evaporative emissions without regard for the chemical composition of the fuels.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Marine Engines with Water Contact in the Exhaust Stream

Recreational marine engine operation effects water quality as well as air quality. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are discharged into the rivers, lakes, and estuaries used as recreational boating waters. In order to investigate the impact of recreational marine engine operation on water quality, a MerCruiser 3.0LX four-cylinder four-stroke inboard engine and a Mercury 650 two-cylinder two-stroke outboard engine were tested using EPA required certification procedures. Both engines were tested with exhaust gas/cooling water mixing (scrubbing) in the exhaust stream using both freshwater and saltwater. Additionally, the inboard engine was tested without exhaust scrubbing. Gaseous emissions (HC, NOX, CO, and CO2) from the engines were continuously measured using a constant volume sampling system. Both exhaust gas and cooling water samples were collected and speciated for hydrocarbon species present.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Properties of Die Cast Magnesium Alloys

This paper provides a review of the fatigue properties reported in the open literature for die cast magnesium-based alloys. Recently developed fatigue data, in the form of stress versus number of cycles to failure for bending fatigue (R=-1), are presented for die cast AM60B and AZ91D alloy specimens with thicknesses between 1 and 10 mm. The effects of specimen thickness and macrostructural features, such as porosity distributions and surface features (parting line and ejection pin marks), on the fatigue data are discussed.
Technical Paper

Global Trends in Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control

The purpose of this paper is to survey the adverse environmental impacts resulting from motor vehicles, to review technologies developed to address these problems, and to summarize the current status of pollution control programs around the world.
Technical Paper

Global Trends in Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control--The Significance for Developing Countries

Rapidly industrializing developing countries are now starting to note similar air pollution problems to those of the industrialized world. This paper surveys the adverse environmental impacts resulting from motor vehicles, reviews technologies developed to address these problems, and summarizes the current status of pollution controls around the world. Special focus is on the design of strategies to address the emerging problems of developing countries.
Journal Article

Influence of Test Procedure on Friction Behavior and its Repeatability in Dynamometer Brake Performance Testing

The efforts of the ISO “Test Variability Task Force” have been aimed at improving the understanding and at reducing brake dynamometer test variability during performance testing. In addition, dynamometer test results have been compared and correlated to vehicle testing. Even though there is already a vast amount of anecdotal evidence confirming the fact that different procedures generate different friction coefficients on the same brake corner, the availability of supporting data to the industry has been elusive up to this point. To overcome this issue, this paper focuses on assessing friction levels, friction coefficient sensitivity, and repeatability under ECE, GB, ISO, JASO, and SAE laboratory friction evaluation tests.
Technical Paper

Overview of the Driver Performance Data Book

This paper presents an overview of the Driver Performance Data Book under preparation by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). It includes a brief discussion of the purpose of the Data Book, the restrictions placed on the development effort, and how it is expected that it will be used by Agency personnel and others. Sample pages from the document are reproduced to illustrate the basic format, and the Table of Contents of each section is presented to identify the major topics covered and indicate the number of pages devoted to each.
Technical Paper

Parametric Analyses of Tracks and Tracklayers Update-Sample of Engineering Problems and Their Solutions in Off Road Locomotion

The original design-performance evaluation method of tracks and tracklaying vehicles, proposed by this writer during the WW II, was further developed and enhanced with new experience gained by many researchers. The method is based on the approximation of track action by a number of appropriate wheel actions. It is mathematically simple, and practically unique encompassing detailed track and road wheel geometry, wheel spacing, loads and load distribution together with regular soil strength parameters. It conforms methodologically with evaluation of pneumatic tires and rigid wheels, previously published in a series of SAE papers. The said papers and the present one form a concise engineering outline of Terramechanics for off-road locomotion.
Technical Paper

Perforation Corrosion Performance of Autobody Steel Sheet in On-Vehicle and Accelerated Tests

The Auto/Steel Partnership Corrosion Project Team has completed a perforation corrosion test program consisting of on-vehicle field exposures and various accelerated tests. Steel sheet products with eight combinations of metallic and organic coatings were tested, utilizing a simple crevice coupon design. On-vehicle exposures were conducted in St. John's and Detroit for up to seven years to establish a real-world performance standard. Identical test specimens were exposed to the various accelerated tests, and the results were compared to the real-world standard. This report documents the results of these tests, and compares the accelerated test results (including SAE J2334, GM9540P, Ford APGE, CCT-I, ASTM B117, South Florida Modified Volvo, and Kure Beach (25-meter) exposures) to the on-vehicle tests. The results are compared in terms of five criteria: extent of corrosion, rank order of material performance, degree of correlation, acceleration factor, and control of test environment.
Technical Paper

Put the Intelligence in the System, Not in the Vehicles

A unique system would solve traffic, fossil-fuel depletion, and environmental problems. Dual-mode private and commercial vehicles would be manually driven on streets and automatically controlled on maglev guideways. Busses and freight vehicles without wheels or drivers also used. Proposed guideway speeds: 100kph in cities, and 325kph between cities. System would be safer and have much higher capacity than existing highways or proposed “smart car” systems. One-third meter clearance between cars to be achieved by linear synchronous-motor propulsion. Capacity of single 100kph guideway to equal that of twelve highway lanes, and one 325kph guideway would be equivalent to forty highway lanes.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Residual Stresses on the Susceptibility to Hydrogen Embrittlement in Hardened Steel Components Subjected to Rolling Contact Conditions

A review of many years of published work has shown that hydrogen embrittlement can occur under rolling contact conditions. Breakdown of lubrication and contamination with water have been cited as the probable sources of atomic hydrogen. In this paper, a unique fracture morphology is identified and the mechanism of the fracture progression from initiation to final catastrophic failure is proposed. Development of beneficial residual compressive stress near the contacting surfaces is one approach used to avoid this type of failure. Several alternative methods capable of developing a more desirable stress distribution will be discussed.
Technical Paper

The SAE Oil Labeling Assessment Program-Three-Year Cumulative Report

A brief overview of the history and scope of the SAE Oil Labeling Assessment Program is presented. Then, the results of analyses on 893 samples of engine oil purchased in the retail market over the first three years of the program, are discussed. All samples were labeled with the API SF or SG Service Category, separately, or in combination with an API “C” category designation. Additionally, 43 engine oil samples found to be questionably labeled, were repurchased and analyzed; these results are included.
Technical Paper

Urban Air Quality Improvements by Means of Vehicular Diesel Particle Filters

The project objective was to investigate the ultrafine solid particle emissions of the prevalent traffic, by performing field measurements at an urban traffic artery in Zurich/Switzerland. Subsequently, various scenarios were postulated to assess the potential of the diesel particle filters (DPF) to improve curbside air quality. Soot aerosols are known to be carcinogenic [1]. If all heavy-duty diesel vehicles were equipped with DPFs, then the number of particles emitted from the entire vehicle fleet could be reduced by 75 to 80%. For PM10, the curtailment scope is considerably lower, around 20%, because more than half of those emissions are not from the exhaust and therefore would not be filtered.