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Technical Paper

Advances of Durability of Ceramic Converter Systems

1996-10-01
962372
Governing bodies world-wide are setting increasingly tighter emission standards to help improve air quality. US and Californian LEV/ULEV standards are pace setting, European Stage II legislation has just become effective. In Brazil, the upcoming 1997 standards are also demanding for tighter emission control. The monolithic ceramic honeycomb catalytic converter -for more than the past 20 years- has been a reliable key element in the automotive emission control systems. In order to help meet tightened emission regulation as well to satisfy even more stringent durability requirement, an advanced thinwall ceramic Celcor XT has been developed for increased geometric surface area and reduced backpressure. The product properties as well as FTP and ECE emission and durability test results are being described in this paper. Converter system durability is also determined by robust canning and mounting systems. A durable mounting concept, especially for preconverters, is being described.
Journal Article

Analysis of the Emission Conversion Performance of Gasoline Particulate Filters Over Lifetime

2019-09-09
2019-24-0156
Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) recently entered the market, and are already regarded a state-of-the-art solution for gasoline exhaust aftertreatment systems to enable EU6d-TEMP fulfilment and beyond. Especially for coated GPF applications, the prognosis of the emission conversion performance over lifetime poses an ambitious challenge, which significantly influences future catalyst diagnosis calibrations. The paper presents key-findings for the different GPF application variants. In the first part, experimental GPF ash loading results are presented. Ash accumulates as thin wall layers and short plugs, but does not penetrate into the wall. However, it suppresses deep bed filtration of soot, initially decreasing the soot-loaded backpressure. For the emission calibration, the non-linear backpressure development complicates the soot load monitoring, eventually leading to compromises between high safety against soot overloading and a low number of active regenerations.
Technical Paper

Design Parameters and Product Characteristics for Automotive Converter

1997-12-31
973049
Catalytic converter substrates for automobile emission control have to operate under the hostile conditions of the automotive exhaust. This paper will first discuss the mechanical and physical properties to ensure durable mechanical function of the catalytic substrate and converter system. High temperature mechanical and thermal shock substrate requirements and properties will be discussed. The functionality of a catalytic converter is significantly influenced by the catalytic coating. At the same time, substrate characteristics as will be shown, also effect converter functional parameters like back pressure, light-off and conversion efficiency. The importance of the substrate parameters cell shape, cell density and substrate mass and their effect on thermohydraulic parameters like heat- and mass transfer factors for various cell structures and substrates will be presented.
Technical Paper

Performance Aspects of New Catalyzed Diesel Soot Filters Based on Advanced Oxide Filter Materials

2007-04-16
2007-01-1268
Catalyzed soot filters are being fitted to an increasing range of diesel-powered passenger cars in Europe. While the initial applications used silicon carbide wall-flow filters, oxide-based filters are now being successfully applied. Oxide-based filters can offer performance and system cost advantages for applications involving both a catalyzed filter with a separate oxidation catalyst, and a catalyzed filter-only that incorporates all necessary catalytic oxidation functions. Advanced diesel catalyst technologies have been developed for alternative advanced oxide filter materials, including aluminum titanate and advanced cordierite. In the development of the advanced catalyzed filters, improvements were made to the filter material microstructures that were coupled with new catalyst formulations and novel coating processes that had synergistic effects to give enhanced overall performance.
Book

Reducing Particulate Emissions in Gasoline Engines

2018-11-28
For years, diesel engines have been the focus of particulate matter emission reductions. Now, however, modern diesel engines emit less particles than a comparable gasoline engine. This transformation necessitates an introduction of particulate reduction strategies for the gasoline-powered vehicle. Many strategies can be leveraged from diesel engines, but new combustion and engine control technologies will be needed to meet the latest gasoline regulations across the globe. Particulate reduction is a critical health concern in addition to the regulatory requirements. This is a vital issue with real-world implications. Reducing Particulate Emissions in Gasoline Engines encompasses the current strategies and technologies used to reduce particulates to meet regulatory requirements and curtail health hazards - reviewing principles and applications of these techniques.
Technical Paper

Review of Development, Properties and Packaging of Thinwall and Ultrathinwall Ceramic Substrates

2002-11-19
2002-01-3578
Driven by the worldwide automotive emission regulations, ceramic substrates were developed to serve as catalyst support. Since the introduction of Standard wall substrates in 1974, substrates with thinner walls and higher cell densities have been developed to meet the tighter emission requirements; Worldwide, the amount of Thinwall and Ultrathinwall substrates in series applications is increasing continuously. The properties of the substrates determine their performance regarding pressure drop, heat-up and conversion efficiency. These properties are analyzed, as well as the packaging process for Thinwall and Ultrathinwall substrates; A new packaging technique with lower pressure load is described.
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