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Technical Paper

Advances of Durability of Ceramic Converter Systems

Governing bodies world-wide are setting increasingly tighter emission standards to help improve air quality. US and Californian LEV/ULEV standards are pace setting, European Stage II legislation has just become effective. In Brazil, the upcoming 1997 standards are also demanding for tighter emission control. The monolithic ceramic honeycomb catalytic converter -for more than the past 20 years- has been a reliable key element in the automotive emission control systems. In order to help meet tightened emission regulation as well to satisfy even more stringent durability requirement, an advanced thinwall ceramic Celcor XT has been developed for increased geometric surface area and reduced backpressure. The product properties as well as FTP and ECE emission and durability test results are being described in this paper. Converter system durability is also determined by robust canning and mounting systems. A durable mounting concept, especially for preconverters, is being described.
Journal Article

Analysis of the Emission Conversion Performance of Gasoline Particulate Filters Over Lifetime

Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) recently entered the market, and are already regarded a state-of-the-art solution for gasoline exhaust aftertreatment systems to enable EU6d-TEMP fulfilment and beyond. Especially for coated GPF applications, the prognosis of the emission conversion performance over lifetime poses an ambitious challenge, which significantly influences future catalyst diagnosis calibrations. The paper presents key-findings for the different GPF application variants. In the first part, experimental GPF ash loading results are presented. Ash accumulates as thin wall layers and short plugs, but does not penetrate into the wall. However, it suppresses deep bed filtration of soot, initially decreasing the soot-loaded backpressure. For the emission calibration, the non-linear backpressure development complicates the soot load monitoring, eventually leading to compromises between high safety against soot overloading and a low number of active regenerations.
Technical Paper

Design Parameters and Product Characteristics for Automotive Converter

Catalytic converter substrates for automobile emission control have to operate under the hostile conditions of the automotive exhaust. This paper will first discuss the mechanical and physical properties to ensure durable mechanical function of the catalytic substrate and converter system. High temperature mechanical and thermal shock substrate requirements and properties will be discussed. The functionality of a catalytic converter is significantly influenced by the catalytic coating. At the same time, substrate characteristics as will be shown, also effect converter functional parameters like back pressure, light-off and conversion efficiency. The importance of the substrate parameters cell shape, cell density and substrate mass and their effect on thermohydraulic parameters like heat- and mass transfer factors for various cell structures and substrates will be presented.
Journal Article

Next Generation Gasoline Particulate Filters for Uncatalyzed Applications and Lowest Particulate Emissions

With the introduction of EU6d and CN6 all vehicles with gasoline direct injection and many with port fuel injection engine will be equipped with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF). A range of first generation filter technologies has been introduced successfully, helping to significantly reduce the tailpipe particulate number emissions. The continued focus on particulate emissions and the increasing understanding of their impact on human health, combined with the advanced emission regulations under RDE conditions results in the desire for filters with even higher filtration efficiency, especially in the totally fresh state. At the same time, to balance with the requirements on power and CO2, limitations exist with respect to the tolerable pressure drop of filters. In this paper we will report on a new generation of gasoline particulate filters for uncatalyzed applications.
Technical Paper

Performance Aspects of New Catalyzed Diesel Soot Filters Based on Advanced Oxide Filter Materials

Catalyzed soot filters are being fitted to an increasing range of diesel-powered passenger cars in Europe. While the initial applications used silicon carbide wall-flow filters, oxide-based filters are now being successfully applied. Oxide-based filters can offer performance and system cost advantages for applications involving both a catalyzed filter with a separate oxidation catalyst, and a catalyzed filter-only that incorporates all necessary catalytic oxidation functions. Advanced diesel catalyst technologies have been developed for alternative advanced oxide filter materials, including aluminum titanate and advanced cordierite. In the development of the advanced catalyzed filters, improvements were made to the filter material microstructures that were coupled with new catalyst formulations and novel coating processes that had synergistic effects to give enhanced overall performance.
Technical Paper

Predicting Pressure Drop of Wall-Flow Diesel Particulate Filters - Theory and Experiment

Information on transport mechanisms in a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) provides crucial insight into the filter performance. Extensive experimental work has been pursued to modify, customize and validate a model yielding accurate predictions of a ceramic wall-flow DPF pressure drop. The model accounts, not only for the major pressure drop components due to flow through porous walls but also, for viscous losses due to channel plugs, flow contraction and expansion due to flow entering and exiting the trap and also for flow secondary inertial effects near the porous walls. Experimental data were collected on a matrix of filters covering change in filter diameter and length, cell density and wall thickness and for a wide range of flow rates. The model yields accurate predictions of DPF pressure drop with no particulate loading and, with adequate adjustment, it is also capable of making predictions of pressure drop for filters lightly-loaded with particulates.

Reducing Particulate Emissions in Gasoline Engines

For years, diesel engines have been the focus of particulate matter emission reductions. Now, however, modern diesel engines emit less particles than a comparable gasoline engine. This transformation necessitates an introduction of particulate reduction strategies for the gasoline-powered vehicle. Many strategies can be leveraged from diesel engines, but new combustion and engine control technologies will be needed to meet the latest gasoline regulations across the globe. Particulate reduction is a critical health concern in addition to the regulatory requirements. This is a vital issue with real-world implications. Reducing Particulate Emissions in Gasoline Engines encompasses the current strategies and technologies used to reduce particulates to meet regulatory requirements and curtail health hazards - reviewing principles and applications of these techniques.
Technical Paper

Review of Development, Properties and Packaging of Thinwall and Ultrathinwall Ceramic Substrates

Driven by the worldwide automotive emission regulations, ceramic substrates were developed to serve as catalyst support. Since the introduction of Standard wall substrates in 1974, substrates with thinner walls and higher cell densities have been developed to meet the tighter emission requirements; Worldwide, the amount of Thinwall and Ultrathinwall substrates in series applications is increasing continuously. The properties of the substrates determine their performance regarding pressure drop, heat-up and conversion efficiency. These properties are analyzed, as well as the packaging process for Thinwall and Ultrathinwall substrates; A new packaging technique with lower pressure load is described.
Technical Paper

Soot Load Monitoring in Gasoline Particulate Filter Applications with RF-Sensors

With the start of Euro 6d regulations, gasoline particulate filters (GPF) have become standard equipment in European vehicles with gasoline-direct-injection engines. GPFs will also be broadly applied to meet the upcoming China 6 regulations. An existing challenge with GPFs is accurate soot load detection to manage the pressure loss across the exhaust system and to protect the GPFs from soot overload, which could potentially cause damage as result of uncontrolled soot oxidations. Systems with the GPF located in the under-floor position have a higher potential risk of soot overload due to lower temperatures, which can result in higher soot accumulation rates. The accuracy of existing soot estimation methods such as evaluation of the pressure drop of the soot-loaded GPF or model-based balancing of soot accumulation versus soot oxidation rates are sensitive to transient operating condition of a vehicle.