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Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control - Last 12 Months in Review

The key diesel emission control papers of the last 12 months have been summarized. In addition, the emerging US and European light-duty and heavy-duty tailpipe regulations are compared. Results are reported on light-duty diesel filtration regeneration systems and experiences, including effects of ash build-up and some recent modeling work. On the heavy-duty side, optimization of SCR catalysts and systems are described, as well as experiences with the first integrated SCR/filter systems, which are already achieving “Euro V” 2008 standards. An update on NOx adsorbers is also provided. The results with new NOx formulations are described, as well as the system performance in a light-duty diesel application.
Technical Paper

Fatigue and Performance Data for Advanced Thin Wall Ceramic Catalysts

With stricter emissions standards, low back pressure requirements, and 100,000 mile durability specifications, ceramic catalysts have undergone significant developments over the past few years. The thrust in the ceramics area has centered on thin-wall structures to minimize back pressure and on high cell density for rapid light-off in close-coupled applications. The thin-wall structures are extruded from low expansion cordierite ceramic with adequate strength and thermal shock resistance equivalent to those of standard cordierite substrate. Examples of thin-wall substrate include 350XT which is extruded from a very low expansion dense cordierite ceramic, and 400/4 and 600/4 cell structures extruded from a low expansion modified cordierite ceramic. This paper will focus on the high fatigue resistance, excellent conversion efficiency, and low back pressure of 350 XT substrates with advanced washcoat system.
Technical Paper

Optical Advantages of Thin Window Hybrid Windshields

The adoption of head-up displays (HUDs) is increasing in modern automobiles. Yet integrating this technology into vehicles with standard windshield (WS) laminates can create negative effects for drivers, primarily due to the thickness of glass used. The double ghosting in HUD images is typically overcome by employing a wedged PVB between the two glass plies of the laminate. Another solution is to reduce the thickness of the glass without impacting the overall windshield toughness. Although this still requires the use of a wedged PVB to eliminate HUD ghosting, the thinner glass provides opportunity to increase the image size. However, reducing the thickness of a soda-lime glass (SLG) ply or plies in a conventional soda-lime glass (SLG) laminate can significantly impact the robustness of the laminate to external impact events.
Technical Paper

Technique for the Analysis of FTP Emissions

Previous papers have considered the role of the substrate in the catalyst system. It has been shown that the total catalyzed surface area of the substrate (defined as the substrate geometric surface area multiplied by the substrate volume) can act as a surrogate for the catalyst performance. The substrate affects the back pressure of the exhaust system and therefore, the available power. Relationships have been developed between the substrate physical characteristics, and both the pressure drop and total surface area of the substrate. The substrate pressure drop has also been related to power loss. What has been lacking is a means of quantitatively relating the substrate properties to the conversion efficiency. This paper proposes a simple relationship between the substrate total surface area and the emissions of the vehicle as measured on the FTP cycle.