Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 14 of 14
Technical Paper

Demonstration of High Temperature Durability for Oval Ceramic Catalytic Converters-2

1998-02-23
980042
The design of a canned ceramic oval converter, 77mm by 146.8mm, is described along with subsequent demonstration of its high temperature (1050°C) durability. A new mat deterioration phenomenon was recognized, and will be described. The mat deterioration results from sintering of the vermiculite and glass fiber structure when exposed to temperatures greater than approximately 1000°C. Due to the extremely high temperature experienced in the supporting mat of an oval converter exposed to 1050°C, an alternative mat configuration was utilized to eliminate potential mat sintering. An inner layer of non-intumescent mat (1500g/m2) was used in conjunction with an outer layer of intumescent mat (3100g/m2). The inner mat provided sufficient thermal protection to the outer intumescent mat, maintaining considerable holding pressure on the ceramic substrate. A tourniquet closure technique was developed to uniformly compress a hybrid mat system around the entire perimeter of the oval converter.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for Advanced Ceramic Catalyst Supports

2000-03-06
2000-01-0493
Stringent emissions standards with 95+% conversion efficiency requirements call for advanced ceramic catalyst supports with thinner walls, higher cell density and optimum cell shape. The extrusion technology for cellular ceramics has also made significant progress which permits the manufacture of advanced catalyst supports. Similarly, modifications in cordierite chemistry and the manufacturing process have led to improved microstructure from coatability and thermal shock points of view. The design of these supports, however, requires a systems approach to balance both the performance and durability requirements. Indeed as the wall gets thinner, the contribution of washcoat becomes more significant in terms of thermal mass, heat transfer, thermal expansion, hydraulic diameter and structural stiffness - all of which have an impact on performance and durability. For example, the thinner the wall is, the better the light-off performance will be.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control in Review – The Last 12 Months

2003-03-03
2003-01-0039
Driven mainly by tightening of regulations, advance diesel emission control technologies are rapidly advancing. This paper will review the field with the intent of highlighting representative studies that illustrate the state-of-the-art. First, the author makes estimates of the emission control efficiency targets for heavy and light duty applications. Given the emerging significance of ultrafines to health, and to emission control technologies, an overview of the significant developments in ultrafine particulate science is provided, followed by an assessment of filter technology. Major deNOx catalyst developments, in addition to SCR and LNT progress is described. Finally, system integration examples are provided. In general, progress is impressive and studies have demonstrated that high-efficiency systems are within reach in all sectors highway vehicle sectors. Engines are making impressive gains, and will increase the options for emission control.
Technical Paper

Effect of Windshield Design on High Speed Impact Resistance

2000-10-03
2000-01-2723
An axisymmetric finite element model is generated to simulate the windshield glass damage propagation subjected to impact loading of a flying object. The windshield glass consists of two glass outer layers laminated by a thin poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) layer. The constitutive behavior of the glass layers is simulated using brittle damage mechanics model with linear damage evolution. The PVB layer is modeled with linear viscoelastic solid. The model is used to predict and examine through-thickness damage evolution patterns on different glass surfaces and cracking patterns for different windshield designs such as variations in thickness and curvatures.
Technical Paper

Factors Affecting Severity of Oven Shock Test for Ceramic Substrates

2003-10-27
2003-01-3074
The oven shock test is an accelerated test which is often used to quantify the thermal durability of both coated and uncoated ceramic substrates. The test calls for heating the substrate for 30 minutes in an oven, which is preheated to specified temperature, and then cooling it in ambient environment for 30 minutes. Such a cycle induces axial and tangential stresses, during cooling, in the skin region whose magnitude depends on physical properties, oven temperature, radial temperature gradient and the aspect ratio of substrate. In addition, these stresses vary with time; their maximum values occur as soon as the substrate is taken out of the oven. This paper evaluates the severity of thermal stresses as function of above factors and estimates the probability and mode of failure during cooling using thermocouple data. Methods to reduce these stresses are discussed.
Technical Paper

Impact of Catalyst Support Design Parameters on FTP Emissions

1989-09-01
892041
This study investigated the performance of various designs of ceramic monolithic catalyst supports for automotive emissions control. A test was conducted to examine the relationship of monolith volume, precious metal loading, cell density, and monolith frontal area on FTP emissions. The conclusion is that higher volume and/or higher cell density monoliths will yield improved catalytic performance using equal or less total precious metal per converter.
Journal Article

Impact of Ceramic Substrate Web Thickness on Emission Light-Off, Pressure Drop, and Strength

2008-04-14
2008-01-0808
The effect of web thickness on emission performance, pressure drop, and mechanical properties was investigated for a series of catalyzed ceramic monolith substrates having cell densities of 900, 600 and 400 cpsi. As expected, thinner webs provide better catalyst light off performance and lower pressure drop, but mechanical strength generally decreases as web thickness is reduced. Good correlations were found between emission performance and geometric parameters based on bare and coated parts. An improved method for estimating the effects of cell density and web thickness on bare substrate strength is described, and the effect of porosity on material strength is also examined. New mechanical strength correlations for ceramic honeycombs are presented. The availability of a range of ceramic product geometries provides options for gasoline exhaust emission design and optimization, especially where increased levels of performance are desired.
Technical Paper

Isostatic Strength of Extruded Cordierite Ceramic Substrates

2004-03-08
2004-01-1135
This paper provides elastic analysis of compressive stresses in the matrix and skin regions of automotive substrates during 3D- and 2D-isostatic strength testing. The matrix region is treated as transversely isotropic material and the skin region as isotropic material, each with their independent elastic properties. Such a solution helps quantify load sharing by the matrix and skin regions which, in turn, affect compressive stresses in each region. The analysis shows that the tangential compressive stresses in the skin and matrix differ significantly at the interface due to high stiffness ratio of skin versus matrix. The resulting strain in the skin is more severe for thin and ultrathin wall substrates and may lead to localized bending of interfacial cells thereby inducing premature failure. Methods to reduce compressive strain in both the matrix and skin without affecting performance-related advantages are discussed.
Technical Paper

Low Temperature Catalytic Converter Durability

2000-03-06
2000-01-0220
In this study quantitative techniques were established to assess the low temperature durability of commercially available mat systems. A new low temperature dynamic resistive thermal exposure (LT-RTE) test method was developed. The mats were evaluated in thermal cycling with maximum substrate skin temperatures from 280°C to 450°C. Results indicate that at low use temperatures the residual shear strength of the mat fell to ∼5-15KPa following 280°C cycling. Under the same LT-RTE exposure conditions an equivalent mat system, following thermal preconditioning to 500°C for 3 hours, possessed a residual shear strength of ∼30KPa. An alternative mat system with a lower shot content fiber was also evaluated, following the same thermal preconditioning previously described. This alternative mat was found to exhibit substantially higher residual shear strengths following LT-RTE aging. A residual shear strength of ∼95KPa was observed for this alternative mat following 280°C LT-RTE aging.
Technical Paper

Particulate Erosion of Automotive Catalyst Supports

2001-05-07
2001-01-1995
A concern has been expressed regarding the durability of the ceramic thin wall and ultra-thin wall substrates under severe thermal and mechanical conditions. Damage that might result from these conditions would most likely lead to a reduction in catalyst performance. One of the potential damage mechanisms for automotive catalysts is erosion resulting from the impingement of particles onto the front face of the catalyst system. A basic study of the particulate erosion phenomenon of cellular ceramic substrates was undertaken in order to determine, in a controlled setting, the substrate, particulate, and flow conditions that might bring this damage about. This report will discuss a room temperature study of the effects of particle size, particle density, gas flow rate, cellular part orientation, and cellular design parameters on the erosion of ceramic substrates.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluations of Aluminum Titanate Diesel Particulate Filters

2007-04-16
2007-01-0656
Over the past decade, regulations for mobile source emissions have become more stringent thus, requiring advances in emissions systems to comply with the new standards. For the popular diesel powered passenger cars particularly in Europe, diesel particulate filters (DPFs) have been integrated to control particulate matter (PM) emissions. Corning Incorporated has developed a new proprietary aluminum titanate-based material for filter use in passenger car diesel applications. Aluminum titanate (hereafter referred to as AT) filters were launched commercially in the fall of 2005 and have been equipped on more than several hundred thousand European passenger vehicles. Due to their outstanding durability, filtration efficiency and pressure drop attributes, AT filters are an excellent fit for demanding applications in passenger cars. Extensive testing was conducted on engine to evaluate the survivability and long-term thermo-mechanical durability of AT filters.
Technical Paper

Relative Benefits of Various Cell Density Ceramic Substrates in Different Regions of the FTP Cycle

2006-04-03
2006-01-1065
Continuous improvement in vehicle emissions is necessary to meet ever tightening regulations. These regulations are advancing in both passenger and light truck vehicle markets, currently at different rates. Divergent design requirements and target markets for these platforms create unique conditions for aftertreatment needs. To understand the performance of various products in these categories and the potential for optimization, we examine various ultrathin-wall products in the context of a close-coupled configuration in a SULEV vehicle. In addition, these comparisons are carried over to a larger platform to show the performance trends in the context of the sport utility vehicle category. This study considers converter performance in FTP tests, examining bag data, light-off behavior, pressure drop comparisons and front and rear converter contributions. Conclusions are drawn regarding the optimization of converter substrate selection for various target design criteria
Technical Paper

Review of Development, Properties and Packaging of Thinwall and Ultrathinwall Ceramic Substrates

2002-11-19
2002-01-3578
Driven by the worldwide automotive emission regulations, ceramic substrates were developed to serve as catalyst support. Since the introduction of Standard wall substrates in 1974, substrates with thinner walls and higher cell densities have been developed to meet the tighter emission requirements; Worldwide, the amount of Thinwall and Ultrathinwall substrates in series applications is increasing continuously. The properties of the substrates determine their performance regarding pressure drop, heat-up and conversion efficiency. These properties are analyzed, as well as the packaging process for Thinwall and Ultrathinwall substrates; A new packaging technique with lower pressure load is described.
Technical Paper

Thermal Shock Resistance of Advanced Ceramic Catalysts for Close-Coupled Application

2002-03-04
2002-01-0738
This paper examines the relative thermal shock requirements for ceramic catalysts in underbody vs. close-coupled positions. The higher operating temperature in the latter position may imply higher coefficient of thermal expansion and higher thermal stresses, depending on substrate/washcoat interaction, than those for underbody position. An analysis of thermal stresses, using relevant physical properties and temperature gradients, is presented for both close-coupled and underbody catalysts. Three different high temperature close-coupled catalysts, employing advanced ceramic substrates with 600/3, 600/4 and 900/2 cell structure, and an underbody catalyst with 400/6.5 standard ceramic substrate are examined. Such an analysis is valuable for designing the optimum aspect ratio (length/diameter) and packaging system, which will minimize thermal and mechanical stresses over the desired lifetime of 120K vehicle miles.
X