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Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control Technology 2003 in Review

2004-03-08
2004-01-0070
This paper will review the field of diesel emission control with the intent of highlighting representative studies that illustrate the state-of-the-art. First, the author reviews general technology approaches for heavy and light duty applications. Given the emerging significance of ultrafines to health, and to emission control technologies, an overview of the significant developments in ultrafine particulate science is provided, followed by an assessment of filter technology. Regarding NOx control, SCR (selective catalytic reduction) and LNT (lean NOx traps) progress is described. Finally, system integration examples are provided. In general, progress is impressive and studies demonstrate that high-efficiency systems are within reach in all highway vehicle sectors. Engines are making impressive gains, and will increase the options for emission control.
Journal Article

Diesel Emission Control in Review

2008-04-14
2008-01-0069
This summary covers the developments from 2007 in diesel regulations, engine technology, and NOx and PM control. Regulatory developments are now focused on Europe, where heavy-duty regulations have been proposed for 2013. The regulations are similar in technology needs to US2010. Also, the European Commission proposed the first CO2 emission limits of 130 g/km, which are nearly at parity to the Japanese fuel economy standards. Engines are making very impressive progress, with clean combustion strategies in active development mainly for US light-duty application. Heavy-duty research engines are more focused on traditional approaches, and will provide numerous engine/aftertreatment options for hitting the tight US 2010 regulations. NOx control is centered on SCR (selective catalytic reduction) for diverse applications. Focus is on cold operation and system optimization. LNT (lean NOx traps) durability is quantified, and performance enhanced with a sulfur trap.
Journal Article

Diesel Emission Control in Review

2009-04-20
2009-01-0121
This summary covers representative developments from 2008 in diesel regulations, engine technology, and NOx, particulate matter (PM), and hydrocarbon (HC) control. Europe is finalizing the Euro VI heavy-duty (HD) regulations for 2013 with the intent of technologically harmonizing with the US. A new particle number standard will be adopted. California is considering tightening the light-duty fleet average to US Tier 2 Bin 2 levels, and CO2 mandates are emerging in Europe for LD, and in the US for all vehicles. LD engine technology is focused on downsizing to deliver lower CO2 emissions, enabled by advances in boost and EGR (exhaust gas recirculation). Emerging concepts are shown for attaining Bin 2 emission levels. HD engines will make deNOx systems optional for even the tightest NOx standards, but deNOx systems enable much lower fuel consumption levels and will likely be used. NOx control is centered on SCR (selective catalytic reduction) for diverse applications.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control in Review

2006-04-03
2006-01-0030
The paper summarizes the key developments in diesel emission control, generally for 2005. Regulatory targets for the next 10 years and projected advancements in engine technology are used to estimate future emission control needs. Recent NOx control developments on selective catalytic reduction (SCR), lean NOx traps (LNT) and lean NOx catalysts (LNC) are then summarized. Likewise, the paper covers important recent developments on diesel particulate filters (DPFs), summarizing regeneration strategies, new filter and catalyst materials, ash management, and PM measurement. Recent developments in diesel oxidation catalysts are also briefly summarized. Finally, the paper discusses examples of how it is all pulled together to meet the tightest future regulations.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control in Review – The Last 12 Months

2003-03-03
2003-01-0039
Driven mainly by tightening of regulations, advance diesel emission control technologies are rapidly advancing. This paper will review the field with the intent of highlighting representative studies that illustrate the state-of-the-art. First, the author makes estimates of the emission control efficiency targets for heavy and light duty applications. Given the emerging significance of ultrafines to health, and to emission control technologies, an overview of the significant developments in ultrafine particulate science is provided, followed by an assessment of filter technology. Major deNOx catalyst developments, in addition to SCR and LNT progress is described. Finally, system integration examples are provided. In general, progress is impressive and studies have demonstrated that high-efficiency systems are within reach in all sectors highway vehicle sectors. Engines are making impressive gains, and will increase the options for emission control.
Technical Paper

Diesel SCR NOx Reduction and Performance on Washcoated SCR Catalysts

2004-03-08
2004-01-1293
This paper describes a study of ternary V2O5/WO3/TiO2 SCR catalysts coated on standard Celcor® and new highly porous cordierite substrates. At temperatures below 275°C, where NOx conversion is kinetically limited, high catalyst loadings are required to achieve high conversion efficiencies. In principle there are two ways to achieve high catalyst loadings: 1. On standard Celcor® substrates the washcoat thickness can be increased. 2. With new highly porous substrates a high amount of washcoat can be deposited in the walls. Various catalyst loadings varying from 120g/l to 540 g/l were washcoated on both standard Celcor® and new high porosity cordierite substrates with standard coating techniques. Simulated laboratory testing of these samples showed that high catalyst loadings improved both low temperature conversion efficiency and high temperature ammonia storage capacity and consequently increased the overall conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Effect of Windshield Design on High Speed Impact Resistance

2000-10-03
2000-01-2723
An axisymmetric finite element model is generated to simulate the windshield glass damage propagation subjected to impact loading of a flying object. The windshield glass consists of two glass outer layers laminated by a thin poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) layer. The constitutive behavior of the glass layers is simulated using brittle damage mechanics model with linear damage evolution. The PVB layer is modeled with linear viscoelastic solid. The model is used to predict and examine through-thickness damage evolution patterns on different glass surfaces and cracking patterns for different windshield designs such as variations in thickness and curvatures.
Technical Paper

Emissions of Toxicologically Relevant Compounds Using Dibutyl Maleate and Tripropylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Diesel Fuel Additives to Lower NOx Emissions

2005-04-11
2005-01-0475
A previous paper reported (SAE Paper 2002-01-2884) that it was possible to decrease mode-weighted NOx emissions compared to the OEM calibration with corresponding increases in particulate matter (PM) emissions. These PM emission increases were partially overcome with the use of oxygenated diesel fuel additives. We wanted to know if compounds of toxicological concern were emitted more or less using oxygenated diesel fuel additives that were used in conjunction with a modified engine operating strategy to lower engine-out NOx emissions. Emissions of toxicologically relevant compounds from fuels containing triproplyene glycol monomethyl ether and dibutyl maleate were the same or lower compared to a low sulfur fuel (15 ppm sulfur) even under engine operating conditions designed to lower engine-out NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

In-Situ NH3 Generation for SCR NOx Applications

2002-10-21
2002-01-2872
There is currently a need for a practical solution for NOx abatement in automotive diesel engines. Technologies developed thus far suffer from inherent technical limitations. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx under lean conditions has been proven to be successful for stationary applications. A new approach is described to efficiently remove NOx from the exhaust of a diesel engine powered vehicle and convert it to nitrogen and oxygen. The key to the approach is the development of an on board (in-situ) ammonia generating catalyst. The ammonia is then used as a reagent to react with exhaust NO over a secondary SCR catalyst downstream. The system can remove over 85% of the exhaust NO under achievable diesel engine operating conditions, while eliminating the potential for ammonia slip with a minimal system of sensors and feedback controls.
Technical Paper

Modeling of SCR DeNOx Catalyst - Looking at the Impact of Substrate Attributes

2003-03-03
2003-01-0845
The present work intends to examine the selective NOx reduction efficiency of a current commercial Titanium-Vanadium washcoated catalyst and to develop a transient numerical model capable of describing the SCR process while using a wide range of inlet conditions such as space velocity, oxygen concentrations, water concentration and NO2/NO ratio. The concentrations of different components (NO, NO2, N2O, NH3, H2O and HNO3) were analyzed continuously by a FT-IR spectrometer. A temperature range from 150°C up to 650°C was examined and tests were carried out using a model exhaust gas comparable to the real diesel exhaust gas composition. There is a very good correlation between experimental and calculated results with the given chemical kinetics.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Cordierite Thin Wall DPF for Improved Pressure Drop and Lifetime Pressure Drop Solution

2016-04-05
2016-01-0940
Diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become a standard aftertreatment component for a majority of current on-road/non-road diesel engines used in the US and Europe. The upcoming Stage V emissions regulations in Europe will make DPFs a standard component for emissions reductions for non-road engines. The tightening in NOx emissions standard has resulted in the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for NOx reduction and as a result the general trend in engine technology as of today is towards a higher engine-out NOx/PM ratio enabling passive regeneration of the DPF. The novel filter concept discussed in this paper is optimized for low pressure drop, high filtration efficiency, and low thermal mass for optimized regeneration and fast heat-up, therefore reducing CO2 implications for the DPF operation.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluations of Aluminum Titanate Diesel Particulate Filters

2007-04-16
2007-01-0656
Over the past decade, regulations for mobile source emissions have become more stringent thus, requiring advances in emissions systems to comply with the new standards. For the popular diesel powered passenger cars particularly in Europe, diesel particulate filters (DPFs) have been integrated to control particulate matter (PM) emissions. Corning Incorporated has developed a new proprietary aluminum titanate-based material for filter use in passenger car diesel applications. Aluminum titanate (hereafter referred to as AT) filters were launched commercially in the fall of 2005 and have been equipped on more than several hundred thousand European passenger vehicles. Due to their outstanding durability, filtration efficiency and pressure drop attributes, AT filters are an excellent fit for demanding applications in passenger cars. Extensive testing was conducted on engine to evaluate the survivability and long-term thermo-mechanical durability of AT filters.
Technical Paper

Review of Development, Properties and Packaging of Thinwall and Ultrathinwall Ceramic Substrates

2002-11-19
2002-01-3578
Driven by the worldwide automotive emission regulations, ceramic substrates were developed to serve as catalyst support. Since the introduction of Standard wall substrates in 1974, substrates with thinner walls and higher cell densities have been developed to meet the tighter emission requirements; Worldwide, the amount of Thinwall and Ultrathinwall substrates in series applications is increasing continuously. The properties of the substrates determine their performance regarding pressure drop, heat-up and conversion efficiency. These properties are analyzed, as well as the packaging process for Thinwall and Ultrathinwall substrates; A new packaging technique with lower pressure load is described.
Journal Article

Vehicular Emissions in Review

2013-04-08
2013-01-0538
This review paper summarizes major developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies (light-duty, heavy-duty, gasoline, diesel) in 2012. First, the paper covers the key regulatory developments in the field, including finalized criteria pollutant tightening in California; and in Europe, the development of real-world driving emissions (RDE) standards. The US finalized LD (light-duty) greenhouse gas (GHG) regulation for 2017-25. The paper then gives a brief, high-level overview of key developments in LD and HD engine technology, covering both gasoline and diesel. Marked improvements in engine efficiency are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging NOx and GHG regulations. HD engines are just starting to demonstrate 50% brake thermal efficiency. NOx control technologies are then summarized, including SCR (selective catalytic reduction) with ammonia, and hydrocarbon-based approaches.
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