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Technical Paper

Combining High Performance with Euro IV Capability in a Naturally Aspirated Production Engine

The requirements to produce high specific power, a high torque across a broad engine speed range and very low emissions levels have been seen as mutually exclusive in a conventional normally aspirated SI engine. Ford Motor Co in association with Cosworth Technology Ltd. have developed a port injection SI engine which achieves in excess of 63kW/ltr, a peak torque in excess of 97Nm/ltr, 92Nm/ltr between 2500rpm and 6500rpm and meets European IV and North American LEV emissions levels for the Focus ST170 in Europe and the SVT Focus in the US. To achieve the required torque across the speed range the volumetric efficiency needed to be maximized at all engine speeds. This was done by fitting continuously variable inlet valve timing, variable length intake manifold and a tuned exhaust manifold. To meet the emissions requirements, the catalyst light off time must be kept to a minimum.
Technical Paper

Cyclically Resolved Simultaneous Flame and Flow Imaging in a SI Engine

A novel dual seeding method has been developed to obtain full bore cyclically resolved simultaneous flame images and associated velocity fields in an optically accessed single cylinder research spark ignition engine. The technique has been used to study interaction between the propagating flame and in-cylinder gas motion. Light generated by a fast repetition rate copper vapour laser was formed into a thin light sheet, which passed horizontally through the disc shaped combustion space of a spark ignition engine having complete overhead optical access. Mie scattered light from relatively sparse and large particles (∼65μm) at successive intervals allowed flow definition by particle tracking velocimetry. Simultaneous scattering from dense small seed (∼0.22μm) was used to generate flame front images, which were digitised and analysed to quantify turbulent flame structure and development. The flame was shown to have significant effect on local unburned gas motion as well as vice versa.
Technical Paper

Development and Evaluation of a Novel Optical Interface for Spark Ignition Engine Research

A key objective of this research was to develop an interface device to enable visualization of in-cylinder events within a production SI engine operating at normal speeds and loads, without the need for engine modifications. The device was designed to utilize the existing spark plug hole and to be capable of providing in-cylinder illumination, image transmission and a source of ignition. This technical paper presents the results of the initial evaluation of the device. The evaluation of the durability of the device, in terms of its ability to operate as a spark plug and its permissible operating range is presented. In addition, images of events in the cylinder captured using the device are provided.
Technical Paper

Effect of Supercharging on Cycle-To-Cycle Variation in a Two-Stroke Spark Ignition Engine

Fluctuations in the operational output of spark ignition engines are observed from one engine cycle to the other, when an engine is run at technically identical operating condition. These fluctuations known as cycle-to-cycle variations, when high, adversely affect the performance of an engine. Reduction in cycle-to-cycle variation in engines has been noted by researchers as one of the methods of improving engine efficiency and operational stability. This study investigated the combustion performance characteristics of two fuels: E5 (95% gasoline and 5% ethanol) and ULG98 (unleaded gasoline) in a spark ignition engine, operating at varying inlet pressure conditions and ignition timing. A two-stroke, 80mm bore, spark ignition engine was operated at an engine speed of 750 rpm, inlet pressures of 1.6 and 2.0 bar and spark-timings ranging from 2 to 13 bTDC. A top cylinder head with a centralized spark plug was used in all the experiments.
Technical Paper

Knock Properties of Oxygenated Blends in Strongly Charged and Variable Compression Ratio Engines

Replacing the conventional fossil fuel totally or partially with alcohols or ethers in spark-ignition (SI) engine is a promising way to reduce pollutant emissions. A large number of studies on alcohol-containing blends in SI engines could be found in the literature. Nonetheless, investigations of ether-containing blends are by far much less numerous, especially for modern boosted engines. Blending with ether compounds might change the burning rate at high pressure, which consequently changes the anti-knock properties of these fuels and leads to a deterioration in the vehicle drivability. This work reports experiments carried out in two one-cylinder engines: one is a naturally aspirated, variable compression ratio engine, and the other is a strongly charged optical engine. Three fuels with different RON and MON numbers were tested: Iso-octane, a blend Ethyl Tert Butyl Ether (ETBE) with a primary reference fuel, and a commercial gasoline fuel containing 5% by volume of ethanol (E05).
Technical Paper

Multiple Laser Sheet Imaging Investigation of Turbulent Flame Structure in a Spark Ignition Engine

A range of multiple and sequential Mie scattering imaging techniques have been employed to investigate turbulent flame propagation in a relatively quiescent optically accessed two-stroke spark ignition engine. Flame structure and turbulence scales have been characterised by a number of methods. These include fractal analysis, simple flame perimeter to area ratios and techniques based on Fourier analysis of an independent stationary coordinate. From this was derived an integral scale of flame wrinkling and a parameter related to turbulent flame thickness. Fully developed values of these turbulence parameters proved independent of cyclic variation, mixture strength and (apart from increasing flame thickness) apparent flame extinction. Islands of unburned gas behind the flame front were associated with encirclement by large scale structures rather than partial quench or total quenching due to flame stretch.
Technical Paper

Real World Cold Start Emissions from a Diesel Vehicle

This study uses on-board measurement systems to analyze emissions from a diesel engine vehicle during the cold start period. An in-vehicle FTIR (Fourier Transform Inferred) spectrometer and a Horiba on-board measurement system (OBS-1300) were installed on a EURO3 emission-compliant 1.8 TDCi diesel van, in order to measure the emissions. Both regulated and non-regulated emissions were measured, along with an analysis of the NO/NO₂ split. A VBOX GPS system was used to log coordinates and road speed for driving parameters and emission analysis. Thermal couples were installed along the exhaust system to measure the temperatures of exhaust gases during cold start. The real-time fuel consumption was measured. The study also looks at the influence of velocity on emissions of hydrocarbons (HCs) and NOx. The cold start period of an SI-engine-powered vehicle, was typically around 200 seconds in urban driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Real World Diesel Engine Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Diesel Fuel and B100

The transport sector is one of the major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. This study investigated three greenhouse gases emitted from road transport using a probe vehicle: CO₂, N₂O and CH₄ emissions as a function temperature. It should be highlighted that methane is a greenhouse gas that similarly to carbon dioxide contributes to global warming and climate change. An oxidation catalyst was used to investigate CO₂, N₂O and CH₄ GHG emissions over a real-world driving cycle that included urban congested traffic and extra-urban driving conditions. The results were determined under hot start conditions, but in congested traffic the catalyst cooled below its light-off temperature and this resulted in considerable N₂O emissions as the oxidation catalyst temperature was in the N₂O formation band. This showed higher N₂O during hot start than for diesel fuel and B100 were compared. The B100 fuel was Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME), derived from waste cooking oil, which was mainly RME.
Technical Paper

Spatial Structure in End-Gas Autoignition

Numerical investigations are reported on the location of sites at which autoignition first develops in the end-gas ahead of a spark-ignited flame in a combustion chamber following rapid compression of an alkane + air mixture to high pressures and temperatures. Attention is drawn to the part played by the reactions that give rise to a negative temperature coefficient of reaction rate in an inhomogeneous temperature field. A ‘reduced’ kinetic mechanism was employed to model the spontaneous oxidation of n-alkanes. Flame propagation was described in terms of the ‘eddy dissipation concept’ and coupled to the more detailed mechanism by means of a switching algorithm. The CFD calculations were performed by use of KIVA II.
Technical Paper

The Design of Turbocharged Engines Using 1D Simulation

1D wave action simulation has been used to construct models of a number of turbocharged spark ignition engines. This paper describes how the models have been applied in the development of those engines. The simulation has been used to optimise a number of components including the inlet and exhaust manifolds, the valve timing and the turbo match. The models have been validated against test data. The method of modelling unsteady flow is described and the behaviour of the turbocharger in unsteady flow investigated.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Simulated Residual and NO Concentrations on Knock Onset for PRFs and Gasolines

Modern engine developments result in very different gas pressure-temperature histories to those in RON/MON determination tests and strain the usefulness of those knock scales and their applicability in SI engine knock and HCCI autoignition onset models. In practice, autoignition times are complex functions of fuel chemistry and burning velocity (which affects pressure-temperature history), residual gas concentration and content of species such as NO. As a result, autoignition expressions prove inadequate for engine conditions straying far from those under which they were derived. The currently reported study was designed to separate some of these effects. Experimental pressure crank-angle histories were derived for an engine operated in skip-fire mode to eliminate residuals. The unburned temperature history was derived for each cycle and was used with a number of autoignition/knock models.