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Journal Article

A Demonstration of Dedicated EGR on a 2.0 L GDI Engine

Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) converted a 2012 Buick Regal GS to use an engine with Dedicated EGR™ (D-EGR™). D-EGR is an engine concept that uses fuel reforming and high levels of recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) to achieve very high levels of thermal efficiency [1]. To accomplish reformation of the gasoline in a cost-effective, energy efficient manner, a dedicated cylinder is used for both the production of EGR and reformate. By operating the engine in this manner, many of the sources of losses from traditional reforming technology are eliminated and the engine can take full advantage of the benefits of reformate. The engine in the vehicle was modified to add the following components: the dedicated EGR loop, an additional injector for delivering extra fuel for reformation, a modified boost system that included a supercharger, high energy dual coil offset (DCO) ignition and other actuators used to enable the control of D-EGR combustion.
Journal Article

Boosting Simulation of High Efficiency Alternative Combustion Mode Engines

Four high-efficiency alternative combustion modes were modeled to determine the potential brake thermal efficiency (BTE) relative to a traditional lean burn compression ignition diesel engine with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment. The four combustion modes include stoichiometric pilot-ignited gasoline with EGR dilution (SwRI HEDGE technology), dual fuel premixed compression ignition (University of Wisconsin), gasoline partially premixed combustion (Lund University), and homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) (SwRI Clean Diesel IV). For each of the alternative combustion modes, zero-D simulation of the peak torque condition was used to show the expected BTE. For all alternative combustion modes, simulation showed that the BTE was very dependent on dilution levels, whether air or EGR. While the gross indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) could be shown to improve as the dilution was increased, the required pumping work decreased the BTE at EGR rates above 40%.
Journal Article

Dedicated EGR Vehicle Demonstration

Dedicated EGR (D-EGR) is an EGR strategy that uses in-cylinder reformation to improve fuel economy and reduce emissions. The entire exhaust of a sub-group of power cylinders (dedicated cylinders) is routed directly into the intake. These cylinders are run fuel-rich, producing H2 and CO (reformate), with the potential to improve combustion stability, knock tolerance and burn duration. A 2.0 L turbocharged D-EGR engine was packaged into a 2012 Buick Regal and evaluated on drive cycle performance. City and highway fuel consumption were reduced by 13% and 9%, respectively. NOx + NMOG were 31 mg/mile, well below the Tier 2 Bin 5 limit and just outside the Tier 3 Bin 30 limit (30 mg/mile).
Technical Paper

Demonstration of a Novel, Off Road, Diesel Combustion Concept

There are numerous off-road diesel engine applications. In some applications there is more focus on metrics such as initial cost, packaging and transient response and less emphasis on fuel economy. In this paper a combustion concept is presented that may be well suited to these applications. The novel combustion concept operates in two distinct operation modes: lean operation at light engine loads and stoichiometric operation at intermediate and high engine loads. One advantage to the two mode approach is the ability to simplify the aftertreatment and reduce cost. The simplified aftertreatment system utilizes a non-catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a relatively small lean NOx trap (LNT). Under stoichiometric operation the LNT has the ability to act as a three way catalyst (TWC) for excellent control of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx).
Technical Paper

Parametric Study and Secondary Circuit Model Calibration Using Spark Calorimeter Testing

The presented work describes how spark calorimeter testing was used for parametric study and secondary circuit model calibration. Tests were conducted at different pressures, sparkplug gaps and supplied primary energies. The conversion efficiency increases and the spark duration decreases when the gas pressure or the sparkplug gap size is increased. Both gas pressure and sparkplug gas size increase the positive column voltage which represents part of the electrical energy delivered to the gas. The opposite direction occurs when the supplied primary energy is increased. The testing results were then used to calibrate the secondary circuit model which consisted of the sparkplug, the sparkplug gap and the secondary wiring. A step-by-step method was used to calibrate the three constants of the model to match the calculated delivered energy with test data during arc / glow phase.