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Technical Paper

A Fundamental Consideration on NOx Adsorber Technology for DI Diesel Application

2002-10-21
2002-01-2889
Diesel engines are far more efficient than gasoline engines of comparable size, and emit less greenhouse gases that have been implicated in global warming. In 2000, the US EPA proposed very stringent emissions standards to be introduced in 2007 along with low sulfur (< 15 ppm) diesel fuel. The California Air Resource Board (CARB) has also established the principle that future diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same low emissions standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the EPA followed suit with its Tier II emissions regulation. Achieving such low emissions cannot be done through engine development and fuel reformulation alone, and requires application of NOx and particulate matter (PM) aftertreatment control devices. There is a widespread consensus that NOx adsorbers and particulate filter are required in order for diesel engines to meet the 2007 emissions regulations for NOx and PM. In this paper, the key exhaust characteristics from an advanced diesel engine are reviewed.
Technical Paper

API CI-4: The First Oil Category for Diesel Engines Using Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation

2002-05-06
2002-01-1673
This oil category was driven by two new cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) engine tests operating with 15% EGR, with used oil soot levels at the end of the test ranging from 6 to 9%. These tests are the Mack T-10 and Cummins M11 EGR, which address ring, cylinder liner, bearing, and valve train wear; filter plugging, and sludge. In addition to these two new EGR tests, there is a Caterpillar single-cylinder test without EGR which measures piston deposits and oil consumption control using an articulated piston. This test is called the Caterpillar 1R and is included in the existing Global DHD-1 specification. In total, the API CI-4 category includes eight fired-engine tests and seven bench tests covering all the engine oil parameters. The new bench tests include a seal compatibility test for fresh oils and a low temperature pumpability test for used oils containing 5% soot. This paper provides a review of the all the tests, matrix results, and limits for this new oil category.
Journal Article

Aftertreatment Architecture and Control Methodologies for Future Light Duty Diesel Emission Regulations

2017-03-28
2017-01-0911
Future light duty vehicles in the United States are required to be certified on the FTP-75 cycle to meet Tier 3 or LEV III emission standards [1, 2]. The cold phase of this cycle is heavily weighted and mitigation of emissions during this phase is crucial to meet the low tail pipe emission targets [3, 4]. In this work, a novel aftertreatment architecture and controls to improve Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Hydrocarbon (HC) or Non Methane Organic gases (NMOG) conversion efficiencies at low temperatures is proposed. This includes a passive NOx & HC adsorber, termed the diesel Cold Start Concept (dCSC™) catalyst, followed by a Selective Catalytic Reduction catalyst on Filter (SCRF®) and an under-floor Selective Catalytic Reduction catalyst (SCR). The system utilizes a gaseous ammonia delivery system capable of dosing at two locations to maximize NOx conversion and minimize parasitic ammonia oxidation and ammonia slip.
Technical Paper

An Emission and Performance Comparison of the Natural Gas Cummins Westport Inc. C-Gas Plus Versus Diesel in Heavy-Duty Trucks

2002-10-21
2002-01-2737
Cummins Westport Inc. (CWI) released for production the latest version of its C8.3G natural gas engine, the C Gas Plus, in July 2001. This engine has increased ratings for horsepower and torque, a full-authority engine controller, wide tolerance to natural gas fuel (the minimum methane number is 65), and improved diagnostics capability. The C Gas Plus also meets the California Air Resources Board optional low-NOx (2.0 g/bhp-h) emission standard for automotive and urban buses. Two pre-production C Gas Plus engines were operated in a Viking Freight fleet for 12 months as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuels Utilization Program. In-use exhaust emissions, fuel economy, and fuel cost were collected and compared with similar 1997 Cummins C8.3 diesel tractors. CWI and the West Virginia University developed an ad-hoc test cycle to simulate the Viking Freight fleet duty cycle from in-service data collected with data loggers.
Journal Article

An Engine and Powertrain Mapping Approach for Simulation of Vehicle CO2 Emissions

2015-09-29
2015-01-2777
Simulations used to estimate carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and fuel consumption of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles over prescribed drive cycles often employ engine fuel maps consisting of engine measurements at numerous steady-state operating conditions. However, simulating the engine in this way has limitations as engine controls become more complex, particularly when attempting to use steady-state measurements to represent transient operation. This paper explores an alternative approach to vehicle simulation that uses a “cycle average” engine map rather than a steady state engine fuel map. The map contains engine CO2 values measured on an engine dynamometer on cycles derived from vehicle drive cycles for a range of generic vehicles. A similar cycle average mapping approach is developed for a powertrain (engine and transmission) in order to show the specific CO2 improvements due to powertrain optimization that would not be recognized in other approaches.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Particulate Matter Sensor Signals

2012-04-16
2012-01-0871
Production PM sensors are now available and are likely to be key components of PM aftertreatment systems designed to meet 2013 OBD requirements. In this paper a highly simplified analysis is used to give insight into the sensor response of resistive-based devices, and to motivate possible diagnostic strategies. The method has been applied to successive sets of FTP data recorded with DPF's of different failure levels, and despite the very approximate nature of the underlying model, the method appears to discriminate reliably between them.
Journal Article

Analytic Solution for the Flow Distribution and Pressure Drop of Ceramic Partially-Plugged Wall Flow Diesel Particulate Filters

2015-04-14
2015-01-1056
A 1-dimensional analytic solution has been developed to evaluate the pressure drop and filtration performance of ceramic wall-flow partial diesel particulate filters (PFs). An axially resolved mathematical model for the static pressure and velocity profiles prevailing inside wall-flow filters, with such unique plugging configurations, is being proposed for the first time. So far, the PF models that have been developed are either iterative/numerical in nature [1], or based on commercial CFD packages [7]. In comparison, an analytic solution approach is a transparent and computationally inexpensive tool that is capable of accurately predicting trends as well as, offering explanations to fundamental performance behavior. The simple mathematical expressions that have been obtained facilitate rational decision-making when designing partial filters, and could also reduce the complexity of OBD logic necessary to control onboard filter performance.
Technical Paper

Application of Artificial Neural Networks to Aftertreatment Thermal Modeling

2012-04-16
2012-01-1302
Accurate estimation of catalyst bed temperatures is very crucial for effective control and diagnostics of aftertreatment systems. The architecture of most aftertreatment systems contains temperature sensors for measuring the exhaust gas temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the aftertreatment systems. However, the temperature that correctly reflects the temperature of the chemical reactions taking place on the catalyst surface is the catalyst bed temperature. From the Arrhenius relationship which governs the chemical reaction kinetics occurring in different aftertreatment systems, the rate of chemical reaction is very sensitive to the reaction temperature. Considerable changes in tailpipe emissions can result from small changes in the reaction temperature and robust emissions control systems should be able to compensate for these changes in reaction temperature to achieve the desired tailpipe emissions.
Technical Paper

Axial NO2 Utilization Measurements within a Partial Flow Filter during Passive Regeneration

2017-03-28
2017-01-0988
Measuring axial exhaust species concentration distributions within a wall-flow aftertreatment device provides unique and significant insights regarding the performance of complex devices like the SCR-on-filter. In this particular study, a less complex aftertreatment configuration which includes a DOC followed by two uncoated partial flow filters (PFF) was used to demonstrate the potential and challenges. The PFF design in this study was a particulate filter with alternating open and plugged channels. A SpaciMS [1] instrument was used to measure the axial NO2 profiles within adjacent open and plugged channels of each filter element during an extended passive regeneration event using a full-scale engine and catalyst system. By estimating the mass flow through the open and plugged channels, the axial soot load profile history could be assessed.
Technical Paper

Brake Thermal Efficiency Improvements of a Commercially Based Diesel Engine Modified for Operation on JP 8 Fuel

2011-04-12
2011-01-0120
The majority of commercial diesel engines rely on EGR to meet increasingly stringent emissions standards, creating a potential issue for military applications that use JP-8 as a fuel. EGR components would be susceptible to corrosion from sulfur in JP-8, which can reach levels of 3000 ppm. Starting with a Cummins 2007 ISL 8.9L production engine, modifications to remove EGR and operate on JP-8 fuel are investigated with a key goal of demonstrating 48% brake thermal efficiency (BTE) at an emissions level consistent with 1998 EPA standards. The effects of injector cup flow, improved turbo match, increased compression ratio with revised piston bowl geometry, increased cylinder pressure, and revised intake manifold for improved breathing, are all investigated. Testing focused on a single operating point, full load at 1600 RPM. This engine uses a variable geometry turbo and high pressure common rail fuel system, allowing control over air fuel ratio, rail pressure, and start of injection.
Technical Paper

Comparison of SCR Catalyst Performance on RMC SET Emission Cycle between an Engine and a High Flow Burner Rig

2013-04-08
2013-01-1070
Government agencies like EPA play an important role through regulation to reduce emissions and fuel consumption and to drive technological developments to reduce the environmental impact of burning petroleum fuels. Emissions testing and control is one of the leading and growing fields in the development of modern vehicles. Recently, Cummins Emissions Solutions (CES) and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) worked jointly in order to achieve a method to conduct emissions testing efficiently and effectively. The collaborative work between the two organizations led to the usage of FOCAS HGTR™ (a diesel-based burner test rig at SwRI) to simulate the exhaust conditions generated by a 2010 ISX Cummins production engine operating over an EPA standard Ramped Modal Cycle Supplemental Emissions Test (RMC SET) cycle.
Technical Paper

Concept Analysis and Initial Results of Engine-Out NOx Estimator Suitable for on ECM Implementation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0611
The interest for NOx estimators (also known as virtual sensors or inferential sensors) has increased over the recent years due to benefits attributed to cost and performance. NOx estimators are typically installed to improve On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) monitors or to lower bill of material costs by replacing physical NOx sensors. This paper presents initial development results of a virtual engine-out NOx estimator planned for the implementation on an ECM. The presented estimator consists of an airpath observer and a NOx combustion model. The role of the airpath observer is to provide input values for the NOx combustion model such as the states of the gas at the intake and exhaust manifolds. It contains a nonlinear mean-value model of the airpath suitably transformed for an efficient and robust implementation on an ECM. The airpath model uses available sensory information in the vehicle to correct predictions of the gas states.
Journal Article

Critical Performance and Durability Parameters of an Integrated Aftertreatment System used to Meet 2007 Tier II Emission Standards

2008-04-14
2008-01-0769
Over the last decade, diesel engine emissions have been reduced significantly. The Tier II emissions requirements drive very low levels of NOx, PM, and NMHC. Meeting these standards with changes in engine operation and architecture is not feasible, thus exhaust aftertreatment systems are required. Key to successful application of after treatment systems is the thorough integration of the engine and aftertreatment system operation, and a detailed understanding of the critical parameters controlling emissions reduction. The objective of this paper is to present the results of an integrated aftertreatment system used to meet 2007 EPA emissions standards for a diesel engine. In this paper, the functional aspect of each aftertreatment system component will be described followed by a description of the total system function in order to lay the foundation for understanding the integration of the aftertreatment system with the engine.
Technical Paper

Cummins Light Truck Diesel Engine Progress Report, 2001

2001-05-14
2001-01-2065
Cummins has studied requirements of the Light Truck Automotive market in the United States and believes that the proposed V-family of engines meets those needs. Design and development of the V-family engine system continues and has expanded. The engine system is a difficult one, since the combined requirements of a very fuel-efficient commercial diesel, and the performance and sociability requirements of a gasoline engine are needed. Results of testing show that the engine can meet requirements for fuel economy and emissions in the Tier 2 interim period from 2004 to 2008. Advanced results show that the full Tier 2 results for 2008 and beyond can be achieved on a laboratory basis.
Technical Paper

Cummins Vehicle Mission Simulation Tool: Software Architecture and Applications

2010-10-05
2010-01-1997
This paper presents the business purpose, software architecture, technology integration, and applications of the Cummins Vehicle Mission Simulation (VMS) software. VMS is the value-based analysis tool used by the marketing, sales, and product engineering functions to simulate vehicle missions quickly and to gauge, communicate, and improve the value proposition of Cummins engines to customers. VMS leverages the best of software architecture practices and proven technologies available today. It consists of a close integration of MATLAB and Simulink with Java, XML, and JDBC technologies. This Windows compatible application software uses stand-alone mathematical models compiled using Real Time Workshop. A built-in MySQL database contains product data for engines, driveline components, vehicles, and topographic routes. This paper outlines the database governance model that facilitates effective management, control, and distribution of engine and vehicle data across the enterprise.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Deactivation for Increased Engine Efficiency and Aftertreatment Thermal Management in Diesel Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0384
Diesel engine cylinder deactivation (CDA) can be used to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the global freight transportation system. Heavy duty trucks require complex exhaust aftertreatment (A/T) in order to meet stringent emission regulations. Efficient reduction of engine-out emissions require a certain A/T system temperature range, which is achieved by thermal management via control of engine exhaust flow and temperature. Fuel efficient thermal management is a significant challenge, particularly during cold start, extended idle, urban driving, and vehicle operation in cold ambient conditions. CDA results in airflow reductions at low loads. Airflow reductions generally result in higher exhaust gas temperatures and lower exhaust flow rates, which are beneficial for maintaining already elevated component temperatures. Airflow reductions also reduce pumping work, which improves fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

Decoupling the Interactions of Hydrocarbons and Oxides of Nitrogen Over Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

2011-04-12
2011-01-1137
Oxidation of NO to NO₂ over a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) plays an important role in different types of aftertreatment systems, by enhancing NOx storage on adsorber catalysts, improving the NOx reduction efficiency of SCR catalysts, and enabling the passive regeneration of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF). The presence of hydrocarbon (HC) species in the exhaust is known to affect the NO oxidation performance over a DOC; however, specific details of this effect, including its underlying mechanism, remain poorly understood. Two major pathways are commonly considered to be responsible for the overall effect: NO oxidation inhibition, due to the presence of HC, and the consumption of the NO₂ produced by reaction with hydrocarbons. In this work we have attempted to decouple these two pathways, by adjusting the catalyst inlet concentrations of NO and NO₂ to the thermodynamic equilibrium levels and measuring the composition changes over the catalyst in the presence of HC species.
Technical Paper

Developing Diesel Engines to Meet Ultra-low Emission Standards

2005-11-01
2005-01-3628
The modern diesel engine is used around the world to power applications as diverse as passenger cars, heavy-duty trucks, electrical power generators, ships, locomotives, agricultural and industrial equipment. The success of the diesel engine results from its unique combination of fuel economy, durability, reliability and affordability - which drive the lowest total cost of ownership. The diesel engine has been developed to meet the most demanding on-highway emission standards, through the introduction of advanced technologies such as: electronic controls, high pressure fuel injection, and cooled exhaust gas recirculation. The standards to be introduced in the U.S. in 2007 will see the introduction of the Clean Diesel which will achieve near-zero NOx and particulate emissions, while retaining the customer values outlined above.
Technical Paper

Development and Demonstration of a Soot Generator Integrated Bench Reactor

2014-04-01
2014-01-1589
Experimental evaluation of soot trapping and oxidation behaviors of various diesel particulate filters (DPF) has been traditionally hampered by several experimental difficulties, such as the deposition of soot particles with well-characterized and consistent properties, and the tracking of the soot oxidation rate in real time. In the present study, an integrated bench flow-reactor system with a soot generator has been developed and its capabilities were demonstrated with regards to: Consistently and controllably loading soot on DPF samples; Monitoring the exhaust gas composition by FTIR, including quantification of the soot oxidation rate using CO and CO2; Measuring soot oxidation characteristics of various DPF samples. Soot particles were produced from a laminar propane co-flow diffusion flame.
Technical Paper

Development of a Compression Ignition Heavy Duty Pilot-Ignited Natural Gas Fuelled Engine for Low NOx Emissions

2004-10-25
2004-01-2954
A heavy-duty compression ignition engine using EGR and pilot-ignited directly injected natural gas fueling was calibrated for low NOx emissions. A Cummins ISX engine using cooled EGR was fitted with a Westport HPDI™ fuel system and an oxidation catalyst. The base engine hardware was modified to increase EGR rates (up to 40%). The engine, rated at 336 kW (450 hp) and 2236Nm (1650 ft-lbs), was calibrated and tested over steady state and transient test cycles. Steady state testing over the ESC 13-mode test cycle resulted in weighted composite NOx emissions of 0.36 g/bhp-hr and particulate matter emissions of 0.04 g/bhp-hr. Transient testing over the US EPA specified FTP cycle resulted in average NOx emissions of 0.6 g/bhp-hr and PM emissions of 0.03 g/bhp-hr.
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