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Technical Paper

A Numerical Methodology to Compute Temperatures of a Rotating Cardan Shaft

2013-04-08
2013-01-0843
In this paper a new numerical methodology to compute component temperatures of a rotating cardan shaft is described. In general temperatures of the cardan shaft are mainly dominated by radiation from the exhaust gas system and air temperatures in the transmission tunnel and underbody. While driving the cardan shaft is rotating. This yields a uniform temperature distribution of the circumference of the shaft. However most simulation approaches for heat protection are nowadays steady-state computations. In these simulations the rotation of the cardan shaft is not considered. In particular next to the exhaust gas system the distribution of the temperatures of the cardan shaft is not uniform but shows hot temperatures due to radiation at the side facing the exhaust gas system and lower temperatures at the other side. This paper describes a new computational approach that is averaging the radiative and convective heat fluxes circumferentially over bands of the cardan shaft.
Technical Paper

Bluetec Emission Control System for the US Tier 2 Bin 5 Legislation

2008-04-14
2008-01-1184
While the market share for diesel engines for LD vehicles in Europe has grown continuously in the past years, the market share in North America is still negligible. Until now, it has been possible to fulfill the limits for nitrogen oxides (NOx) both in Europe and in North America by engine measures alone, without using an active NOx aftertreatment system. With the introduction of Tier II Bin 8 and Tier II Bin 5 emissions legislation in the US in 2007, most new diesel applications will now require NOx aftertreatment. One of the possible technologies for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in lean exhaust gas is the NOx storage catalyst which has become the generally-accepted choice for engines with gasoline direct injection systems and which is also utilized in the current diesel Bluetec I systems from Daimler. For heavier applications urea-SCR is the preferred technology to fulfill NOx legislation limits.
Video

Challenges in Automotive Electrification and Powertrain Component Development

2011-11-07
An overview of Daimler?s progression to advance powertrain technology in a growth industry shows many different solutions to improvement in transportation. Daimler continues to make breakthroughs in technology development and application building on 125 years of automotive development. Optimization of current powertrains will enable a significant gain in CO2/mi reductions, that dependent on product mix can be augmented with additional technologies. There is however no bypass to some form of electrification, enabling efficiency gains and alternative forms of power supply. Development of hybrid powertrains continues in an established manner and enhanced development of further electrified powertrains are in development. Organizationally and technically, significant skills and adjustments need to continue to be undertaken enabling OEMs and in particular the supply base to develop optimized solutions efficiently. The outlook is bright for novel component development and innovation.
Journal Article

Cold Start Effect Phenomena over Zeolite SCR Catalysts for Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment

2013-04-08
2013-01-1064
NH₃/urea SCR is a very effective and widely used technology for the abatement of NOx from diesel exhaust. The SCR mechanism is well understood and the catalyst behavior can be predicted by mathematical models - as long as operation above the temperature limit for AdBlue® injection is considered. The behavior below this level is less understood. During the first seconds up to minutes after cold start, complete NOx abatement can be observed over an SCR catalyst in test bench experiments, together with a significant increase in temperature after the converter (ca. 100 K). In this work these effects have been investigated over a monolith Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst. Concentration step experiments varying NO, NO₂ and H₂O have been carried out in lab scale, starting from room temperature. Further, the interaction of C₃H₆ and CO with NOx over the SCR has been investigated.
Technical Paper

Daimler Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel: 5 Years of Operational Experience and Recent Improvements

2018-09-24
2018-01-5038
Since 2013 the new Daimler Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel (AAWT) is in operation at the Mercedes-Benz Technology Center in Sindelfingen, Germany. This construction was the second stage of a wind tunnel center project, which was launched in 2007 and started with the climatic wind tunnels including workshop and office areas. The AAWT features a test facility for full-scale cars and vans with a nozzle exit area of 28 m2, a five-belt system, and underfloor balance to measure forces with best possible road simulation. With a remarkable low background noise level of the wind tunnel, vehicle acoustics can be investigated under excellent conditions using high-performance measurement systems. An overview is given about the building and the design features of the wind tunnel layout. The aerodynamic and aeroacoustic properties are summarized. During the first years of operation, further improvements regarding the wind tunnel background noise and vehicle handling were made.
Technical Paper

Development of Energy Management Strategies and Analysis with Standard Drive Cycles for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

2012-09-10
2012-01-1609
In order to reduce fuel consumption in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles, effective distribution of power demand between Fuel Cell and Battery is required. Energy management strategies can improve fuel economy by meeting power demand efficiently. This paper explains development of various energy management strategies for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle with Lithium Ion Battery. Drive cycles used for optimization and analysis of the strategies are New European Drive cycles (NEDC), Japanese Drive cycles (JAP1015), City Drive cycles, Highway Drive cycles (FHDS) and Federal Urban Drive cycles (FUDS). All Fuel consumption and ageing calculations are done using backward model implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK.
Technical Paper

Development of Universal Brake Test Data Exchange Format and Evaluation Standard

2010-10-10
2010-01-1698
Brake system development and testing is spread over vehicle manufacturers, system and component suppliers. Test equipment from different sources, even resulting from different technology generations, different data analysis and report tools - comprising different and sometimes undocumented algorithms - lead to a difficult exchange and analysis of test results and, at the same time, contributes to unwanted test variability. Other studies regarding the test variability brought up that only a unified and unambiguous data format will allow a meaningful and comparative evaluation of these data and only standardization will reveal the actual reasons of test variability. The text at hand illustrates that a substantial part of test variability is caused by a misinterpretation of data and/or by the application of different algorithms.
Technical Paper

Development of a LIF-Imaging System for Simultaneous High-Speed Visualization of Liquid Fuel and Oil Films in an Optically Accessible DISI Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0634
Downsizing and direct injection in modern DISI engines can lead to fuel impinging on the cylinder walls. The interaction of liquid fuel and engine oil due to fuel impinging on the cylinder wall causes problems in both lubrication and combustion. To analyze this issue with temporal and spatial resolution, we developed a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system for simultaneous kHz-rate imaging of fuel and oil films on the cylinder wall. Engine oil was doped with traces of the laser dye pyrromethene 567, which fluoresces red after excitation by 532 nm laser radiation. Simultaneously, the liquid fuel was visualized by UV fluorescence of an aromatic “tracer” in a non-fluorescent surrogate fuel excited at 266 nm. Two combinations of fuel and tracer were investigated, iso-octane and toluene as well as a multi-component surrogate and anisole. The fluorescence from oil and fuel was spectrally separated and detected by two cameras.
Journal Article

Durability Simulation with Chassis Control Systems: Model Depth for a Handling Maneuver

2016-09-02
2016-01-9111
This paper makes a contribution toward a more efficient chassis durability process for the development of passenger cars, in which the simulation of relevant load data is a time-consuming part. This is especially due to the full vehicle model complexity which is usually determined by the demands of rough road simulations. However, for the load calculation on a racetrack, time saving model approaches that are more simplified might be sufficient. Our investigation comprises two levels of vehicle model complexity: one with all chassis parts modeled in a multibody system environment and one characteristic curve based model in an internal simulation environment. Both approaches consider an original chassis control system as a Software-in-the-Loop model. By the evaluation of real-world experiments the main influence factors in terms of durability are demonstrated. With the help of those highly sensitive durability criteria the measurement and simulation results are then compared.
Technical Paper

Finding All Potential Run-Time Errors and Data Races in Automotive Software

2017-03-28
2017-01-0054
Safety-critical embedded software has to satisfy stringent quality requirements. All contemporary safety standards require evidence that no data races and no critical run-time errors occur, such as invalid pointer accesses, buffer overflows, or arithmetic overflows. Such errors can cause software crashes, invalidate separation mechanisms in mixed-criticality software, and are a frequent cause of errors in concurrent and multi-core applications. The static analyzer Astrée has been extended to soundly and automatically analyze concurrent software. This novel extension employs a scalable abstraction which covers all possible thread interleavings, and reports all potential run-time errors, data races, deadlocks, and lock/unlock problems. When the analyzer does not report any alarm, the program is proven free from those classes of errors. Dedicated support for ARINC 653 and OSEK/AUTOSAR enables a fully automatic OS-aware analysis.
Journal Article

Fire Fighting of Li-Ion Traction Batteries

2013-04-08
2013-01-0213
The number of full electric and hybrid electric vehicles is rapidly growing [1][2][3]. The new technologies accompanying this trend are increasingly becoming a focal point of interest for rescue services. There is much uncertainty about the right techniques to free trapped occupants after an accident. The same applies to vehicle fires. Can car fires involving vehicles with a lithium ion traction battery be handled in the same way as conventional vehicle fires? Is water the right extinguishing agent? Is there a risk of explosion? There are many unanswered questions surrounding the topic of electric vehicle safety. The lack of information is a breeding ground for rumours, misinformation and superficial knowledge. Discussions on various internet platforms further this trend. Tests were conducted on three lithium ion traction batteries, which were fuel-fired until burning on their own. The batteries were then extinguished with water, a surfactant and a gelling agent.
Technical Paper

Improved Full Vehicle Finite Element Tire Road Noise Prediction

2017-06-05
2017-01-1901
This paper presents the application to full vehicle finite element simulation of a steady state rolling tire/wheel/cavity finite element model developed in previous work and validated at the subsystem level. Its originality consists in presenting validation results not only for a wheel on a test bench, but for a full vehicle on the road. The excitation is based on measured road data. Two methods are considered: enforced displacement on the patch centerline and enforced displacement on a 2D patch mesh. Finally the importance of taking the rotation of the tire into account is highlighted. Numerical results and test track measurements are compared in the 20-300 Hz frequency range showing good agreement for wheel hub vibration as well as for acoustic pressure at the occupant’s ears.
Journal Article

Influence of a Multispark Ignition System on the inflammation in a Spray-guided Combustion Process

2009-09-13
2009-24-0117
This study describes tests with a fast clocked multispark ignition system intended to improve the stability of inflammation during charge stratification. The advantage of this ignition system is the capability it provides to adjust the number of sparks, the duration of single sparks and the intensity of the primary current. The basic engine test parameters were first set in an optically accessible pressure chamber under conditions approximating an engine. Two strategies were examined to analyze their effect on inflammation in stratified charge mode. On the one hand, the multispark ignition (MSI) system allows implementing an intermittent spark sequence in the spark gap between the spark plug electrodes. On the other hand, precisely timed pulsing of spark energy into the plasma channel during charge motion can generate a very large deflection of the ignition spark.
Journal Article

Investigation of Tire-Road Noise with Respect to Road Induced Wheel Forces and Radiated Airborne Noise

2014-06-30
2014-01-2075
Low interior noise levels in combination with a comfortable sound is an important task for passenger cars. Due to the reduction of many noise sources over the last decades, nowadays tire-road noise has become one of the dominant sources for the interior noise. Especially for manufactures of luxury cars, the reduction of tire-road noise is a big challenge and therefore a central part of NVH development. The knowledge of the noise transmission behavior based on the characteristics of the relevant sources is a fundamental of a modern NVH - development process. For tire-road noise the source characteristics can be described by wheel forces and radiated airborne noise. In combination with the related vehicle transfer functions it is possible to describe the noise transmission behavior in detail. A method for estimating wheel forces and radiated airborne noise is presented.
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Performance of a Mechanistic Electric Turbocharger Model for a Vehicular Fuel Cell System

2011-08-30
2011-01-1742
The electric turbocharger is a promising type of air supply unit for future automotive fuel cell drive systems. It comprises of a centrifugal compressor, a variable geometry turbine and a permanent magnet synchronous motor assembled on a single shaft. Compared to other types of vehicular fuel cell air supplies, like for example a screw or roots compressor, it needs less installation space and has lower weight while also causing less noise and vibration. This paper presents a validated mechanistic model of the electric turbocharger. The stationary compressor model is based on a set of aerodynamic loss models with surge and stone wall line prediction capability. Similarly, the stationary variable axial turbine is a detailed station based model derived from aerodynamic losses at the turbine wheel and the stator blades. The aerodynamic losses incorporated in the compressor and the turbine models are implemented under MATLAB/Simulink and show a good correlation with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Low-speed Boom Noise - Escalating Relevance According to CO2- Targets and High Torque Engines

2012-06-13
2012-01-1547
The increasing shift of drive operation towards efficient engine operation points at very low engine speeds demands a concerted design and tuning of engine, drive-train, assembly attachment and body to avoid annoying low speed boom noise. An additional challenge in this area of conflict is the increasing torque of modern engines at low engine speeds. As an example for a standard passenger car, the modes of operation, which may lead to low speed boom noise, are described. Setting levers along the complete chain of effect are characterised - from cylinder pressure up to the radiating surfaces of the interior. To achieve challenging NVH-targets the application of nonlinear simulation systems is indispensable, in particular in the concept phase of a vehicle. The use of multi-body simulation is presented for a concentrated NVH-optimisation of powertrain and rear axle vibration behaviour to reduce low-speed boom noise. On entire vehicle level hybrid simulation models are useful.
Video

Maturity Level and Variant Validation of Mechatronic Systems in Commercial Vehicles

2011-12-05
Driver assistance systems (e.g. the emergency brake assist Active Brake Assist2, or ABA2 for short, in the Mercedes-Benz Actros) are becoming increasingly common in heavy-duty commercial vehicles. Due to the close interconnection with drivetrain and suspension control systems, the integration and validation of the functions make the most exacting demands on processes and tools involved in mechatronics development. Presenter Thomas Bardelang, Daimler AG
Technical Paper

Maturity Level and Variant Validation of Mechatronic Systems in Commercial Vehicles

2011-09-13
2011-01-2263
Driver assistance systems (e.g. the emergency brake assist Active Brake Assist2, or ABA2 for short, in the Mercedes-Benz Actros) are becoming increasingly common in heavy-duty commercial vehicles. Due to the close interconnection with drivetrain and suspension control systems, the integration and validation of the functions make the most exacting demands on processes and tools involved in mechatronics development. In addition to a multi-stage test process focusing on the functions of the driver assistance systems (software), the “electrical” aspects (hardware) also form part of holistic maturity level validation. The test process is supported by state-of-the-art, high-performance tools (e.g. automatable component test benches and overall vehicle HiL systems) which, in particular, allow quick and accurate configuration in line with different vehicle variants.
Journal Article

Numerical Simulation of DOC+DPF+SCR systems:DOC Influence on SCR Performance

2008-04-14
2008-01-0867
A numerical model for a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is presented. It is based on a spatially 1D, physical and chemically based modeling of the relevant processes within the catalytic monolith. A global reaction kinetic approach has been chosen to describe the chemical reactions. Water condensation and evaporation was also considered, in order to predict the cold start behavior. Reaction kinetic parameters have been evaluated from a series of laboratory experiments. A correlation between the kinetic parameters and the noble metal loading was developed. The model was used in combination with a SCR-Model to study the influence of changes of noble metal loading and DOC volume on the overall transient NOx performance of a DOC+DPF+SCR system.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of the Flow through an Alternator inside an Engine Compartment of a Passenger Car

2009-10-01
2009-01-3068
In this study the numerical simulation of the flow through an alternator inside an engine compartment of a passenger car is investigated. Specifically the interaction of the flow through the alternator with the flow through the engine compartment is explored in detail. The results are compared with a corresponding numerical simulation of an alternator in a surrounding of a test facility and with a numerical simulation of the flow through an engine compartment without taking into account the internal flow through the alternator. Finally the air temperature near the alternator and also the temperature of some components inside the alternator are compared with experimental values measured during a typical load case used for the thermal protection of the passenger car.
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