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Technical Paper

3D-CFD Simulation of DI-Diesel Combustion Applying a Progress Variable Approach Accounting for Detailed Chemistry

A chemical sub-model for realistic CFD simulations of Diesel engines is developed and demonstrated by application to some test cases. The model uses a newly developed progress variable approach to incorporate a realistic treatment of chemical reactions into the description of the reactive flow. The progress variable model is based on defining variables that represent the onset and temporal development of chemical reactions before and during self ignition, as well as the stage of the actual combustion. Fundamental aspects of the model, especially its physical motivation and finding a proper progress variable, are discussed, as well as issues of practical implementation. Sample calculations of Diesel-typical combustion scenarios are presented which are based on the progress-variable model, showing the capability of the model to realistically describe the ignition-and combustion phase.
Technical Paper

A Failure Criterion for Stretch Bendability of Advanced High Strength Steels

Studies in an Angular Stretch Bend Test (ASBT) have demonstrated that the failure location moves from the side wall to punch nose area. This occurs as the R/T ratio decreases below a certain limit and applies to most low carbon steels with the exception of Dual Phase (DP) steels. Such behavior in DP steels indicates that bending effects have a severe impact on the formability of DP materials. Therefore, the traditional criterion using the forming limit curve (FLC) is not suitable to assess the formability at punch radius areas for DP steels due in part to its uniqueness of unconventional microstructures. In this paper, a new failure criterion, ‘Bending-modified’ FLC (BFLC), is proposed by extending the traditional FLC using the “Stretch Bendability Index” (SBI) concept for the stretch bendability assessment.
Technical Paper

A Model for On-Line Monitoring of In-Cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF) and Mass Flowrate in Gasoline Engines

In a gasoline engine, the unswept in-cylinder residual gas and introduction of external EGR is one of the important means of controlling engine raw NOx emissions and improving part load fuel economy via reduction of pumping losses. Since the trapped in-cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF, comprised of both internal, and external) significantly affects the combustion process, on-line diagnosis and monitoring of in-cylinder RGF is very important to the understanding of the in-cylinder dilution condition. This is critical during the combustion system development testing and calibration processes. However, on-line measurement of in-cylinder RGF is difficult and requires an expensive exhaust gas analyzer, making it impractical for every application. Other existing methods, based on measured intake and exhaust pressures (steady state or dynamic traces) to calculate gas mass flowrate across the cylinder ports, provide a fast and economical solution to this problem.
Technical Paper

A Nozzle-Integrated Flow Sensor for Common-Rail Injection Systems

We are the first to report about a micromachined flow sensor directly integrated in the Common Rail injection nozzle body between the double guidance and the tip of the nozzle. The thermal measurement principle is chosen, because it enables a very precise and fast detection of gaseous and liquid mass flows. Additionally, the velocity field in the nozzle is only slightly influenced by the integration of the sensor in the nozzle body due to the negligible height of the sensitive layer. For a hot film anemometer, a high pressure stable ceramic substrate can be used, fabricated in a low cost batch process. The technology, to fabricate the sensor, as well as the first flow measurements, carried out at a high pressure test set up, are presented.
Technical Paper

A Semi-Empirical Model for Fast Residual Gas Fraction Estimation in Gasoline Engines

Accurate accounting for fresh charge (fuel and air) along with trapped RGF is essential for the subsequent thermodynamic analysis of combustion in gasoline engines as well as for on-line and real-time quantification as relevant to engine calibration and control. Cost and complexity of such techniques renders direct measurement of RGF impractical for running engines. In this paper, an empirically-based approach is proposed for on-line RGF, based on an existing semi-empirical model [1]. The model developed expands the range over which the semi-empirical model is valid and further improves its accuracy. The model was rigorously validated against a well correlated GT-POWER model as well as results from 1D gas exchange model [2]. Overall, using this model, RGF estimation error was within ∼1.5% for a wide range of engine operating conditions. The model will be implemented in Dyno development and calibration at Chrysler Group.
Technical Paper

A Simple Approach to Selecting Automotive Body-in-White Primary-Structural Materials

A simple strategy for building lightweight automobile body-in-whites (BIWs) is developed and discussed herein. Because cost is a critical factor, expensive advanced materials, such as carbon fiber composites and magnesium, must only be used where they will be most effective. Constitutive laws for mass savings under various loading conditions indicate that these materials afford greater opportunity for mass saving when used in bending, buckling or torsion than in tensile, shear or compression. Consequently, it is recommended that these advanced materials be used in BIW components subject to bending and torsion such as rails, sills, “A-B-C” pillars, etc. Furthermore, BIW components primarily subject to tension, compression, or shear, such as floor pans, roofs, shock towers, etc., should be made from lower cost steel. Recommendations for future research that are consistent with this strategy are included.
Technical Paper

A Study on Vehicle Elastomer Mount Preloading and Impact Response with Test Validation

A variety of elastomer mounts are being used for vehicles as isolators/dampers between body and frame, on the engine cradle, etc. These vehicle flexible mounts, made of mainly rubber materials and housed in a metallic tube, are indispensable components affecting the quality of the vehicle ride, noise and vibration. In the auto industry, the usual practice when designing vehicle flexible mounts is to minimally reflect impact considerations in the mount design features. However, in most high-speed vehicle crash events where the mounts fail, the crash responses, including occupant injury severity, are known to be very different from the responses of non-failure cases. Even in low-speed vehicle impact cases, excessive deformation of the flexible mounts could cause significant variance in the compliance of the vehicle acceleration level to the air-bag firing and timing threshold requirements.
Technical Paper

An Exploration of Failure Modes in Rolled, Ductile, Cast-Iron Crankshafts Using a Resonant Bending Testing Rig

This report explores the relationship of different failure criteria - specifically, surface cracks, stiffness changes, and two-piece failures - on rolled, ductile, cast-iron crankshafts. Crankshaft samples were closely monitored throughout resonant bending fatigue testing and were taken to near complete fracture. By monitoring resonance shifts of the samples during testing, stiffness changes and cracks were monitored. These data showed that an accelerating frequency shift was sufficient to indicate imminent two-piece failure and that this condition can be used as a failure criterion. Fatigue studies on two different crankshafts using this failure criterion were compared to those using a surface crack failure criterion. This comparison showed that using the surface crack failure criterion erroneously decreased the apparent fatigue life of the crankshaft significantly.
Technical Paper

Application of a Structural Reinforcing Material to Improve Vehicle NVH Characteristics

Cavity reinforcement materials are used in the automotive industry to stiffen hollow cavities in vehicle body constructions. Typical areas of use include the engine rails, rocker panels, roof support or any other cavity in need of structural reinforcement. Use of these materials can allow for significant reductions in vehicle weight and increase structural stiffness with minimal impact to production tooling. Additional benefits can be gained by using the material as a physical barrier to the propagation of noise, water and dust. The objective of this paper is to describe a case study which implemented a new type of cavity reinforcing material to improve low frequency vehicle noise and vibration characteristics.
Technical Paper

CAE Fatigue Prediction of Fuel Tank Straps using Proving Ground Loads

The durability of fuel tank straps is essential for vehicle safety. Extensive physical tests are conducted to verify designs for durability. Due to the complexity of the loads and the fuel-to-tank interaction, computer-aided-engineering (CAE) simulation has had limited application in this area. This paper presents a CAE method for fuel tank strap durability prediction. It discusses the analytical loads, modeling of fuel-to-tank interaction, dynamic analysis methods, and fatigue analysis methods. Analysis results are compared to physical test results. This method can be used in either a fuel-tank-system model or a full vehicle model. It can give directional design guidance for fuel tank strap durability in the early stages of product development to reduce vehicle development costs.
Technical Paper

Clamp Load Consideration in Fatigue Life Prediction of a Cast Aluminum Wheel Using Finite Element Analysis

Loads generated during assembly may cause significant stress levels in components. Under test conditions, these stresses alter the mean stress which in turn, alters the fatigue life and critical stress area of the components as well. This paper describes the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) procedure to evaluate behavior of a cast aluminum wheel subjected to the rotary fatigue test condition as specified in the SAE test procedure (SAE J328 JUN94). Fatigue life of the wheel is determined using the S-N approach for a constant reversed loading condition. In addition, fatigue life predictions with and without clamp loads are compared. It is concluded that the inclusion of clamp load is necessary for better prediction of the critical stress areas and fatigue life of the wheel.
Technical Paper

Contact Mechanics Simulation for Hot Spots Investigation

Rapid wear out of a disk brake due to phenomena commonly known as hot spots is one of various problems faced by brake manufacturers. Hot spots are localized high temperature areas generated on the frictional surface of a disk brake during braking. The non-uniform surface expansion caused by hot spots on the disk surface may cause pedal pulsation or known as thermal judder. This effect in the long run will shorten a brake's life. Numerical simulation of a disk brake requires the use of nonlinear contact mechanics approach. The simulation is computationally very expensive and difficult to perform. A computer simulation technique has been developed at the DaimlerChrysler Brake Core Group to investigate the hot spot phenomena since 1997. The technique was implemented on 3-D finite element models to simulate frictional contacts between the disk and its pads. Computer code ABAQUS is used for these analyses and computations are performed in Silicon Graphics, Origin 2000 machines.
Technical Paper

Determination of Proper Test Conditions for Thermal Protection

This paper addresses the critical parameters required for development of automotive thermal protection plans. The test conditions should consider the ambient air temperature, exhaust gas temperature, vehicle speed and engine speed. The choice of test conditions is critical in determining potential thermal issues during the development phase. Appropriate design alternatives can then be implemented.
Technical Paper

Development of Portable Self Contained Phase Shifting Digital Shearography for Composite Material Testing

The use of composite materials in the automotive industry has become increasingly widespread. With this increase in use, techniques for non-destructive testing (NDT) have become more and more important. Various optical NDT inspective methods such as holography, moiré techniques, and shearography have been used for material testing. Among these methods, shearography appears to be most practical. Shearography has a simple optical setup due to its “self-referencing” system, and it is relatively insensitive against rigid-body motions. Measurements of displacement derivatives, and thus strain directly, rather than the displacement itself is achieved through this method. Therefore shearography detects defects in objects by correlating anomalies of strain which are usually easier than correlating the anomalies of the displacement itself, as in holography. To date shearography has shown potential as a NDT tool for identifying defects in small structures.
Technical Paper

Development of a Computerized Digital Resonance Fatigue Test Controller with Load Feedback Management

In this report, the DCX Stress Lab and the Tool Development & Test Support groups investigated automating a resonant bending crankshaft fatigue test. Fatigue testing, in general, is a laborious process since many samples are needed for analysis. This makes development cost and speed dependant on the component test efficiency. In the case of crankshaft resonant bending testing, both cost and speed are influenced by the manual feedback operation needed to run the current procedure. In order to increase the efficiency of this process, this project sought to automate the following tasks: maintaining the load on the part, reacting to resonance changes in the part, mapping resonance changes, logging the number of cycles, and discerning resonance frequency shift failure modes objectively.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cross Flow on Performance of a PEM Fuel Cell

A serpentine flow channel is one of the most common and practical channel layouts for a PEM fuel cell since it ensures the removal of water produced in a cell. While the reactant flows along the flow channel, it can also leak or cross to neighboring channels via the porous gas diffusion layer due to a high pressure gradient. Such a cross flow leads to effective water removal in a gas diffusion layer thus enlarging the active area for reaction although this cross flow has largely been ignored in previous studies. In this study, neutron radiography is applied to investigate the liquid water accumulation and its effect on the performance of a PEM fuel cell. Liquid water tends to accumulate in the gas diffusion layer adjacent to the flow channel area while the liquid water formed in the gas diffusion layer next to the channel land area seems to be effectively removed by the cross leakage flow between the adjacent flow channels.
Technical Paper

Effect of Thermal Treatments and Carbon Potential on Bending Fatigue Performance of SAE 4320 Gear Steel

This project investigated the effect of carburizing carbon-potential and thermal history on the bending fatigue performance of carburized SAE 4320 gear steel. Modified-Brugger cantilever bending fatigue specimens were carburized at carbon potentials of 0.60, 0.85, 1.05, and 1.25 wt. pct. carbon, and were either quenched and tempered or quenched, tempered, reheated, quenched, and tempered. The reheat treatment was designed to lower the solute carbon content in the case through the formation of transition carbides and refine the prior austenite grain size. Specimens were fatigue tested in a tension/tension cycle with a minimum to maximum stress ratio of 0.1. The bending fatigue results were correlated with case and core microstructures, hardness profiles, residual stress profiles, retained austenite profiles, and component distortion.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Catalytic Converter Bench Fatigue Test Specification Based on Equivalent Damage

Component bench fatigue testing is a cost-effective way to evaluate the durability of exhaust catalytic converters. A successful bench fatigue test depends on the development of a test specification. The test specification should represent the actual customer duty cycle that the component is exposed to. Based on the concept of equivalent fatigue damage, a systematic approach is presented to obtain the test specification from the acquired road load data. A method based on damage analysis is proposed to determine the effective notch factor, and an empirical relationship is presented to account for the thermal effect on the test specification. The principles and procedures of multiple block testing and constant amplitude testing are also presented.
Technical Paper

Injection Molded, Extruded-In-Color Film Fascia

A new multi-layer co-extruded in-color Ionomer film is developed to provide an alternative decoration process to replace paint on Dodge Neon Fascias. The Ionomer film provides a high-gloss “class-A” surface in both non-metallic and metallic colors that match the car body paint finish. Using the Ionomer film to decorate fascias reduces cost; eliminates VOCs; increases manufacturing flexibility and improves performance (weatherability and durability). The molding process consists of thermoforming a film blank and injection molding Polypropylene or TPO behind the film. The paper will include the background, the benefits, the technology development objectives, the film materials development, tooling optimization, film fascia processing (co-extrusion; thermoforming and injection molding) and validation testing of the film.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Post Oxidation and Its Dependency on Engine Combustion and Exhaust Manifold Design

In response to ever more stringent emission limits (EURO IV, SULEV), engine developers are increasingly turning their attention to engine start-up and warm-up phases. Since in this phase the catalytic converter has not yet reached its operating temperature, problems occur especially with regard to hydrocarbon emissions (HC) which are emitted untreated. Secondary air injection represents one option for heating up the catalytic converter more quickly. The engine is operated during the heating up cycle with retarded ignition angles and a rich mixture. Ambient air (secondary air) is injected close to the exhaust valve seat. During the spontaneously occurring post oxidation phase, the reactive exhaust components ignite and heat up the catalytic converter while simultaneously reducing HC. The various processes which affect the post oxidation, are not well known up to now. In order to achieve concrete improvements, detailed knowledge of its influences are necessary.