Refine Your Search



Search Results

Technical Paper

A Computer Model Based Sensitivity Analysis of Parameters of an Automotive Air Conditioning System

The objective of this work is to perform a computer model based sensitivity analysis of parameters of an automotive air conditioning system to identify the critical parameters. Design of Experiment (DOE) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques have been used to identify the critical parameters and their relative effects on the air conditioning system performance. The sensitivity analysis has been verified by running similar tests on an air conditioning system test stand (AC Test Stand).
Technical Paper

A Model for On-Line Monitoring of In-Cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF) and Mass Flowrate in Gasoline Engines

In a gasoline engine, the unswept in-cylinder residual gas and introduction of external EGR is one of the important means of controlling engine raw NOx emissions and improving part load fuel economy via reduction of pumping losses. Since the trapped in-cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF, comprised of both internal, and external) significantly affects the combustion process, on-line diagnosis and monitoring of in-cylinder RGF is very important to the understanding of the in-cylinder dilution condition. This is critical during the combustion system development testing and calibration processes. However, on-line measurement of in-cylinder RGF is difficult and requires an expensive exhaust gas analyzer, making it impractical for every application. Other existing methods, based on measured intake and exhaust pressures (steady state or dynamic traces) to calculate gas mass flowrate across the cylinder ports, provide a fast and economical solution to this problem.
Technical Paper

A Semi-Empirical Model for Fast Residual Gas Fraction Estimation in Gasoline Engines

Accurate accounting for fresh charge (fuel and air) along with trapped RGF is essential for the subsequent thermodynamic analysis of combustion in gasoline engines as well as for on-line and real-time quantification as relevant to engine calibration and control. Cost and complexity of such techniques renders direct measurement of RGF impractical for running engines. In this paper, an empirically-based approach is proposed for on-line RGF, based on an existing semi-empirical model [1]. The model developed expands the range over which the semi-empirical model is valid and further improves its accuracy. The model was rigorously validated against a well correlated GT-POWER model as well as results from 1D gas exchange model [2]. Overall, using this model, RGF estimation error was within ∼1.5% for a wide range of engine operating conditions. The model will be implemented in Dyno development and calibration at Chrysler Group.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Procedure for Vehicle Thermal Protection Development

Vehicle thermal protection is an important aspect of the overall vehicle development process. It involves optimizing the exhaust system routing and designing heat shields to protect various components that are in near proximity to the exhaust system. Reduced time to market necessitates an efficient process for thermal protection development. A robust procedure that utilizes state of the art CFD simulation techniques proactively during the design phase is described. Simulation allows for early detection of thermal issues and development of countermeasures several months before prototype vehicles are built. Physical testing is only used to verify the thermal protection package rather than to develop heat shields. The new procedure reduces the number of physical tests and results in a robust, efficient methodology.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Effect of Intake Primary Runner Blockages on Combustion and Emissions in SI Engines under Part-Load Conditions

Charge motion is known to accelerate and stabilize combustion through its influence on turbulence intensity and flame propagation. The present work investigates the effect of charge motion generated by intake runner blockages on combustion characteristics and emissions under part-load conditions in SI engines. Firing experiments have been conducted on a DaimlerChrysler (DC) 2.4L 4-valve I4 engine, with spark range extending around the Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) timing. Three blockages with 20% open area are compared to the fully open baseline case under two operating conditions: 2.41 bar brake mean effective pressure (bmep) at 1600 rpm, and 0.78 bar bmep at 1200 rpm. The blocked areas are shaped to create different levels of swirl, tumble, and cross-tumble. Crank-angle resolved pressures have been acquired, including cylinders 1 and 4, intake runners 1 and 4 upstream and downstream of the blockage, and exhaust runners 1 and 4.
Technical Paper

Anti-Shudder Property of Automatic Transmission Fluids - A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

In recent years, the slip lock-up mechanism has been adopted widely, because of its fuel efficiency and its ability to improve NVH. This necessitates that the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used in automatic transmissions with slip lock-up clutches requires anti-shudder performance characteristics. The test methods used to evaluate the anti-shudder performance of an ATF can be classified roughly into two types. One is specified to measure whether a μ-V slope of the ATF is positive or negative, the other is the evaluation of the shudder occurrence in the practical vehicle. The former are μ-V property tests from MERCON® V, ATF+4®, and JASO M349-98, the latter is the vehicle test from DEXRON®-III. Additionally, in the evaluation of the μ-V property, there are two tests using the modified SAE No.2 friction machine and the modified low velocity friction apparatus (LVFA).
Technical Paper

Automotive Seat Suspension Model for Ride Quality Studies

A high fidelity seat suspension model, which can be used for ride quality predictions, is developed in this work. The coil-spring seat suspension model includes unique nonlinear forms for the stiffness and damping characteristics. This is the first paper to consider the nonlinear geometric effects of the suspension, derive the coil-spring suspension model from physical principles, and compare theoretical and experimental results. A simplified nonlinear form is achieved via an admissible function describing the vertical suspension deflection as a function of the lateral position. This simplified nonlinear form is compared to experimental data and demonstrated to have exceptional fidelity.
Technical Paper

Body/Chassis Dynamic Response Under Experimental Modal Test

Mode management is an essential part of the design process for NVH performance. System resonances must be sufficiently separated to minimize interaction from source inputs and each other [1]. Such resonances are typically determined through experimental modal testing conducted in a lab environment under controlled and repeatable conditions. Global vehicle and suspension system response demonstrate soft nonlinear behavior, however. Their resonant frequencies may thus decrease under on-road input not reproducible in a lab environment. Subsequently, mode management charts derived from lab testing may not be representative of the vehicle's on-road dynamic response. This paper presents modal model determination methodologies, and examines suspension system and vehicle global dynamic response under lab modal test and operating conditions. Vehicle suspension modes measured under static and dynamic (rolling) conditions will be compared.
Technical Paper

Clamp Load Consideration in Fatigue Life Prediction of a Cast Aluminum Wheel Using Finite Element Analysis

Loads generated during assembly may cause significant stress levels in components. Under test conditions, these stresses alter the mean stress which in turn, alters the fatigue life and critical stress area of the components as well. This paper describes the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) procedure to evaluate behavior of a cast aluminum wheel subjected to the rotary fatigue test condition as specified in the SAE test procedure (SAE J328 JUN94). Fatigue life of the wheel is determined using the S-N approach for a constant reversed loading condition. In addition, fatigue life predictions with and without clamp loads are compared. It is concluded that the inclusion of clamp load is necessary for better prediction of the critical stress areas and fatigue life of the wheel.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cross Flow on Performance of a PEM Fuel Cell

A serpentine flow channel is one of the most common and practical channel layouts for a PEM fuel cell since it ensures the removal of water produced in a cell. While the reactant flows along the flow channel, it can also leak or cross to neighboring channels via the porous gas diffusion layer due to a high pressure gradient. Such a cross flow leads to effective water removal in a gas diffusion layer thus enlarging the active area for reaction although this cross flow has largely been ignored in previous studies. In this study, neutron radiography is applied to investigate the liquid water accumulation and its effect on the performance of a PEM fuel cell. Liquid water tends to accumulate in the gas diffusion layer adjacent to the flow channel area while the liquid water formed in the gas diffusion layer next to the channel land area seems to be effectively removed by the cross leakage flow between the adjacent flow channels.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Cylinder Pressure Transducer Accuracy based upon Mounting Style, Heat Shields, and Watercooling

This investigation evaluated different pressure transducers in one cylinder to examine the combustion measurement differences between them simultaneously. There were a total of eleven transducers ranging in both diameter and type of transducer (piezo-electric, piezoresistive, and optical). Furthermore, the sensors differed in the methodology for minimizing signal distortion due to temperature. This methodology could take the form of various size mounting passages, heat shields, watercooling or heat transfer paths. To evaluate the sensors, different engine operating conditions were conducted, focusing at full load and low speeds. Other hardware configurations of the same engine family were used to exaggerate the combustion environment, specifically a tumble-motion plate and turbocharging.
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of an Engine's Inertial Properties

Determination of an engine's inertial properties is critical during vehicle dynamic analysis and the early stages of engine mounting system design. Traditionally, the inertia tensor can be determined by torsional pendulum method with a reasonable precision, while the center of gravity can be determined by placing it in a stable position on three scales with less accuracy. Other common experimental approaches include the use of frequency response functions. The difficulty of this method is to align the directions of the transducers mounted on various positions on the engine. In this paper, an experimental method to estimate an engine's inertia tensor and center of gravity is presented. The method utilizes the traditional torsional pendulum method, but with additional measurement data. With this method, the inertia tensor and center of gravity are estimated in a least squares sense.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Evaluations of a Vacuum-Insulated Catalytic Converter

Vehicle evaluations and model calculations were conducted on a vacuum-insulated catalytic converter (VICC). This converter uses vacuum and a eutectic PCM (phase-change material) to prolong the temperature cool-down time and hence, may keep the converter above catalyst light-off between starts. Tailpipe emissions from a 1992 Tier 0 5.2L van were evaluated after 3hr, 12hr, and 24hr soak periods. After a 12hr soak the HC emissions were reduced by about 55% over the baseline HC emissions; after a 24hr soak the device did not exhibit any benefit in light-off compared to a conventional converter. Cool-down characteristics of this VICC indicated that the catalyst mid-bed temperature was about 180°C after 24hrs. Model calculations of the temperature warm-up were conducted on a VICC converter. Different warm-up profiles within the converter were predicted depending on the initial temperature of the device.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Enhancement through Impingement of Flows and its Application in Lock-up Clutches

An impinging-flow based methodology of enhancing the heat transfer in the grooves of a lockup clutch is proposed and studied. In order to evaluate its efficacy and reveal the mechanism, the three-dimensional flow within the groove was solved as a conjugate heat transfer problem in a rotating reference frame using the commercial CFD code FLUENT. The turbulence characteristics were predicted using k-ε model. The comparison of cooling effect was made between a simple baseline groove pattern and a typical flow-impingement based groove pattern of the same groove-to-total area ratio in terms of heat rejection ratio, maximum surface temperature, and heat transfer coefficient. It is found that more heat can be rejected with the impinging-flow based groove from the friction surface than with the baseline while the maximum surface temperature is lower in the former case.
Technical Paper

Information Flow Analysis for Air Bag Sensor Development

A statistical theory is used to quantify the amount of information transmitted from a transducer (i.e., accelerometer) to the air bag controller during a vehicle crash. The amount of information relevant to the assessment of the crash severity is evaluated. This quantification procedure helps determine the effectiveness of different testing conditions for the calibration of sensor algorithms. The amount of information in an acceleration signal is interpreted as a measure of the ability to separate signals based on parameters that are used to assess the severity of an impact. Applications to a linear spring-mass model and to actual crash signals from a development vehicle are presented. In particular, the comparison of rigid barrier (RB) and offset deformable barrier (ODB) testing modes is analyzed. Also, the performance of front-mounted and passenger compartment accelerometers are compared.
Technical Paper

Laminar Flow Whistle on a Vehicle Side Mirror

In the development of several outside mirror designs for vehicles, a high frequency noise (whistling) phenomenon was experienced. First impression was that this might be due to another source on the vehicle (such as water management channels) or a cavity noise; however, upon further investigation the source was found to be the mirror housing. This “laminar whistle” is related to the separation of a laminar boundary layer near the trailing edges of the mirror housing. When there is a free stream impingement on the mirror housing, the boundary layer starts out as laminar, but as the boundary layer travels from the impingement point, distance, speed, and roughness combine to trigger the transition turbulent. However, when the transition is not complete, pressure fluctuations can cause rapidly changing flow patterns that sound like a whistle to the observer. Because the laminar boundary layer has very little energy, it does not allow the flow to stay attached on curved surfaces.
Technical Paper

Modeling of an Automotive Air Conditioning System and Validation with Experimental Data

A 1-Dimensional model was developed to simulate the performance of an automotive Air Conditioning (AC) system. Its architecture and validation with vehicle test data (over a wide range of environmental and engine load conditions) are presented in this paper. This study demonstrates the ability of a simplified AC model to capture real system phenomena. Its sensitivity and limitations are evaluated, along with its potential as a system design tool.
Technical Paper

Multi-Disciplinary Aerodynamics Analysis for Vehicles: Application of External Flow Simulations to Aerodynamics, Aeroacoustics and Thermal Management of a Pickup Truck

During the design process for a vehicle, the CAD surface geometry becomes available at an early stage so that numerical assessment of aerodynamic performance may accompany the design of the vehicle's shape. Accurate prediction requires open grille models with detailed underhood and underbody geometry with a high level of detail on the upper body surface, such as moldings, trim and parting lines. These details are also needed for aeroacoustics simulations to compute wall-pressure fluctuations, and for thermal management simulations to compute underhood cooling, surface temperatures and heat exchanger effectiveness. This paper presents the results of a significant effort to capitalize on the investment required to build a detailed virtual model of a pickup truck in order to simultaneously assess performance factors for aerodynamics, aeroacoustics and thermal management.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Damping Treatment for Structure Borne Noise Reduction

In automotive industry, all passenger vehicles are treated with damping materials to reduce structure borne noise. The effectiveness of damping treatments depends upon design parameters such as choice of damping materials, locations and size of the treatment. This paper proposes a CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) methodology based on finite element analysis to optimize damping treatments. The developed method uses modal strain-energy information of bare structural panels to identify flexible regions, which in turn facilitates optimization of damping treatments with respect to location and size. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated by optimizing damping treatment for a full-size pick-up truck. Moreover, simulated road noise performances of the truck with and without damping treatments are compared, which show the benefits of applying damping treatment.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Stability of Automatic Transmission Fluids -A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF subcommittee members have compared the two oxidation bench test methods, Aluminum Beaker Oxidation Test (ABOT) and Indiana Stirring Oxidation Stability Test (ISOT), using a number of factory-fill and service-fill ATFs obtained in Japan and in the US. In many cases, the ATFs were more severely oxidized after the ABOT procedure than after the same duration of the ISOT procedure. The relative severity of these two tests was influenced by the composition of the ATFs. The bench test oxidation data were compared with the transmission and the vehicle oxidation test data.