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Technical Paper

A Study on Homogeneous Combustion in Porous Medium Internal Combustion Engine: A Review

2017-03-28
2017-01-0788
Rapid depletion in fuel resources owing to the low efficiency of current automobiles has been a major threat to future generations for fuel availability as well as environmental health. Advanced new generation of internal combustion (IC) engines are expected to have far better emissions levels both gaseous (NOx and CO) and particulate matter, at the same time having far lower fuel consumption on a wide range of operating condition. These criteria could be improved having a homogeneous combustion process in an engine. Homogeneous mixing of fuel and air in HCCI leads to cleaner combustion and lower emissions. Since peak temperatures are significantly lower than in typical SI engines, NOx levels and soot are reduced to some extent. Because of absence of complete homogeneous combustion but quasi homogeneous combustion present in HCCI, there is still a possibility of further reducing the emissions as well as enhancing the engine performance.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study of Emissions and Performance of Hydrogen Boosted SI Engine Powered by Gasoline Methanol Blend and Gasoline Ethanol Blend

2015-04-14
2015-01-1677
Increased dependency on fossil fuels has led to its depletion as well as affected the environment adversely. Moreover, increasing crude oil prices is pressurizing vehicle manufacturers to invent new technology so as to increase fuel economy and at the same time to keep emissions under control. Hydrogen has gained popularity not just in terms of being an abundant alternative but also due to being a very clean propellant. In the present investigation, hydrogen boosting has been performed on an SI engine running on gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends to determine the additional advantages of the same compared to pure gasoline operation. The engine selected for experimental analysis is a single cylinder, air cooled spark ignition engine that has been modified for hydrogen injection in the intake manifold prior to the port with the injection timing being held constant throughout the experiment.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study of Emissions and Performance of Hythane Boosted SI Engine Powered by Gasoline-Methanol Blend and Gasoline-Ethanol Blend

2016-04-05
2016-01-1281
The continued reliance on fossil fuel energy resources is not sufficient to cater to the current energy demands. The excessive and continuous use of crude oil is now recognized as unviable due to its depleting supplies and elevating environmental degradation by increased emissions from automobile exhaust. There is an urgent need for a renewable and cleaner source of energy to meet the stringent emission norms. Hythane is a mixture of 20% hydrogen and 80% methane. It has benefits of low capital and operating costs and is a cleaner alternative than crude oil. It significantly reduces tailpipe emissions and is the cheapest way to meet new emission standards that is BS-IV. Hythane produces low carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrocarbons (HC) on combustion than crude oil and helps in reduction of greenhouse gases.
Technical Paper

Development of a Dedicated Hydrogen Port Injection Kit for Small Engines

2015-09-29
2015-01-2881
The danger posed by climate change and the striving for securities of energy supply are issues high on the political agenda these days. Governments are putting strategic plans in motion to decrease primary energy use, take carbon out of fuels and facilitate modal shifts. Man's energy requirements are touching astronomical heights. The natural resources of the Earth can no longer cope with it as their rate of consumption far outruns their rate of regeneration. The automotive sector is without a doubt a chief contributor to this mayhem as fossil fuel resources are fast depleting. The harmful emissions from vehicles using these fuels are destroying our forests and contaminating our water bodies and even the air that we breathe. The need of the hour is to look not only for new alternative energy resources but also clean energy resources. Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future to meet the stringent emission norms.
Technical Paper

Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Performance of an SI Engine Fueled with Methanol-Gasoline and Ethanol-Gasoline Blend with Hydrogen Boosting

2017-03-28
2017-01-1282
Dependency and increase in use of fossil fuels is leading to its depletion and raises serious environmental concerns. There are international obligations to reduce emissions and requirements to strengthen security of fuel supply which is pressuring the automobile industry to use cleaner and more sustainable fuels. Hydrogen fits these criteria as it is not just an abundant alternative but also a clean propellant and Hydrogen engines represent an economic alternative to fuel cells. In the present investigation, EGR has been used on hydrogen boosted SI engine running on gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends to determine the additional advantages of the same compared to pure gasoline operation and gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends without EGR.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Retarding the Spark Timing in a Hydrogen Enriched Gasoline and Alcohol Blend Powered Spark Ignition Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1277
Gasoline has been the major fuel in transportation, its good calorific value and high volatility have made it suitable for use in different injection methods. The drastic increase in use of carbon based fuels has led to increase in harmful emissions, thus resulting in implementation of stricter emissions norms. These harmful emissions include carbon monoxide and NOx. To meet the new norms and reduce the harmful emissions, better techniques have to be implemented to achieve better combustion of gasoline and reduce the amount of carbon monoxide in the exhaust. One such way of doing this is by enriching gasoline with hydrogen. Due to its low activation energy and high calorific value, the high energy released from hydrogen can be used to achieve complete combustion of gasoline fuel. However, there are certain drawbacks to the use of hydrogen in spark ignition engine, knocking and overheating of engine parts being the major problems.
Technical Paper

Optimisation of Expansion Ratio of an Advanced Compressed Air Engine Kit

2016-04-05
2016-01-1283
Worldwide, research is going on numerous types of engines that practice green and alternative energy such as natural gas engines, hydrogen engines, and electric engines. One of the possible alternatives is the air powered car. Air is abundantly available and can be effortlessly compressed to higher pressure at a very low cost. After the successful development of Compressed Air Engines, engineers shifted their focus in making this technology cost effective and feasible. This led to advancement in the field of pneumatics that is advanced Compressed Air Engine Kit (used for conversion of a small-two stroke SI engine to Compressed Air Engine) where its frugality and compatibility is kept at high priority. This research is in continuation with our previous project of development of an advanced Compressed Air Engine kit and optimisation of injection angle and injector nozzle area for maximum performance.
Technical Paper

Optimization Analysis of Injection Angle and Injector Nozzle of an Advanced Compressed Air Engine Kit

2015-04-14
2015-01-1678
Increased demand and use of fossil fuels in transportation sector accompanied by the global oil crisis does not support sustainable development for the future generations to come. Not only that, today's on-road vehicles produce over one third of the CO and NOX present in our atmosphere and over twenty per cent of the global warming pollution. This air pollution carries significant risks for human health and the environment. Through clean vehicle and fuel technologies, it is possible to significantly reduce air pollution from our vehicles. In such a grim situation, Compressed Air Vehicles (CAV) powered by pressurized air stored in high pressure storage tanks seem to be one of the practical solutions available for tackling the fuel crisis and environment related issues.
Technical Paper

Performance Based Optimization of Intake and Injection Parameters of an Advanced Compressed Air Engine Kit

2017-03-28
2017-01-1291
The increment in the application of fossil fuels is leading the world into a catastrophic state both environmentally and economically. Current demand for fuels exceeds its imminent supply and rather sooner than later energy demands will have to shift towards non-conventional fuels to cope with the situation. With constant developments in the automotive sector, several solutions have been found but none have been as good as gasoline to substitute it in the commercial market. One such solution being compressed air might solve this global fuel crisis, which serves a glowing advantage of being cheaper and greener as it produces zero tail-pipe emissions, and can help in decreasing automobile’s contribution to global warming. Though the potential energy stored in the compressed air limits its application to light duty vehicles and still there will be a need for other alternative solutions for the heavy duty vehicles in order to relieve the pressure from the fossil fuels.
Technical Paper

Potential Utilization of CNG in Stationary HCCI Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2508
Internal combustion engines are extensively used in every field of life in today's world. Diesel engines being more efficient are preferred in the industrial and transportation sector in comparison to spark ignition engines for their higher efficiency, versatility and ruggedness. The major emissions of diesel engines are oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particulate matter (PM), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO). Among these emissions, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and the particulate matter are the reasons of serious concern. For reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter simultaneously, the use of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) have provided a sustainable solution in the present scenario. Further, the use of CNG in HCCI engine along with pilot diesel injection; the emissions have been decreased drastically. Homogeneous mixing of fuel and air leads to cleaner combustion and lower emissions.
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