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Active Safety and the Mobility Industry

Safety is a key element in new vehicle design and active safety, together with driver distraction prevention, has become one of the most talked about issues in the mobility industry. This book features 20 SAE technical papers, originally published in 2009 and 2010, which showcase how the mobility industry is considering all aspects of safety in designing and producing safer vehicles. These papers were selected by SAE International's 2010 President Dr. Andrew Brown Jr., Executive Director and Chief Technologist for Delphi Corporation. The contents of this book explore a variety of safety issues in the areas of market and consumer preferences; driver assistance and modeling; active safety system, crash sensing and sensor fusion; communications; and road safety. The publication also includes a number of articles authored by renowned experts in the field of active safety.
Technical Paper

Correlating Port Fuel injection to Wetted Fuel Footprints on Combustion Chamber Walls and UBHC in Engine Start Processes

Unburned hydrocarbon (UBHC) emissions from gasoline engines remain a primary engineering research and development concern due to stricter emission regulations. Gasoline engines produce more UBHC emissions during cold start and warm-up than during any other stage of operation, because of insufficient fuel-air mixing, particularly in view of the additional fuel enrichment used for early starting. Impingement of fuel droplets on the cylinder wall is a major source of UBHC and a concern for oil dilution. This paper describes an experimental study that was carried out to investigate the distribution and “footprint” of fuel droplets impinging on the cylinder wall during the intake stroke under engine starting conditions. Injectors having different targeting and atomization characteristics were used in a 4-Valve engine with optical access to the intake port and combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Effects of B20 Fuel and Catalyst Entrance Section Length on the Performance of UREA SCR in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

The current study focused on the effects B20 fuel (20% soybean-based biodiesel) and SCR entrance shapes on a light-duty, high-speed, 2.8L common-rail 4-cylinder diesel engine, at different exhaust temperatures. The results indicate that B20 has less deNOX efficiency at low temperature than ULSD, and that N₂O emission need to be characterized as well as NH₃ slip. If a mixer and enough mixing length are used, longer divergence section does not improve the deNOX efficiency significantly under the speed ranges tested.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Timings and Intake Port Flow Control on the In-Cylinder Wetted Fuel Footprints during PFI Engine Startup Process

Wall-wetting due to liquid fuel film motion and fuel droplet impingement on combustion chamber walls is a major source of unburned hydrocarbons (UBHC), and is a concern for oil dilution in PFI engines. An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of injection timing, a charge motion control device, and the matching of injector with port geometry, on the “footprints” of liquid fuel inside the combustion chamber during the PFI engine starting process. Using a gasoline-soluble dye and filter paper deployed on the cylinder liner and piston top land surfaces to capture the liquid fuel footprints, the effects of the mixture formation processes on the wetted footprints can be qualitatively and quantitatively examined by comparing the wetted footprint locations and their color intensities. Real-time filming of the development of wetted footprints using a high-speed camera can also show the time history of the fuel wetting process inside an optically accessible engine.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Vehicle Roll Angle and Side Slip for Crash Sensing

Estimation of vehicle roll angle, lateral velocity and side slip angle for the purpose of crash sensing is considered. Only roll rate sensor and the sensors readily available in vehicles equipped with ESC (Electronic Stability Control) systems are used in the estimation process. The algorithms are based on kinematic relationships, thus avoiding dependence on vehicle and tire models, which minimizes tuning efforts and sensitivity to parameter variations. The estimate of roll angle is obtained by blending two preliminary estimates, each valid in different conditions, in such a manner that the final estimate continuously favors the more accurate one. The roll angle estimate is used to compensate the gravity component in measured lateral acceleration due to vehicle roll or road bank angle. This facilitates estimation of lateral velocity and side slip angle from fundamental kinematic relationships involving the gravity-compensated lateral acceleration, yaw rate and longitudinal velocity.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Simulation Study of a Frontal Driver Airbag Deployment for Out-Of-Position Situations

As more and more active restraint devices are added by vehicle manufacturers for occupant protection, the history of driver frontal airbags illustrates that the design performance of such devices for in-position (IP) occupants often have to be limited in order to reduce their aggressiveness for out-of-position (OOP) situations. As of today, a limited number of publications dealing with FE simulation of airbag deployment for OOP are available. The objective of our study was to evaluate the feasibility of airbag deployment simulations based on an extensive set of well-defined physical test matrix. A driver frontal airbag was chosen (European mid-size car sample) for this study. It was deployed against a force plate (14 tests in a total of 6 configurations), and used with Hybrid III 50th percentile dummy (HIII) in OOP tests (6 tests, 4 configurations). Special attention was paid to control the boundary conditions used in experiments in order to improve the modelling process.

Green Technologies and the Mobility Industry

This book features 20 SAE technical papers, originally published in 2009 and 2010, which showcase how the mobility industry is developing greener products and staying responsive - if not ahead of - new standards and legal requirements. These papers were selected by SAE International's 2010 President Dr. Andrew Brown Jr., Executive Director and Chief Technologist for Delphi Corporation. Authored by international experts from both industry and academia, they cover a wide range of cutting-edge subjects including powertrain electrification, alternative fuels, new emissions standards and remediation strategies, nanotechnology, sustainability, in-vehicle networking, and how various countries are also stepping up to the "green challenge".
Technical Paper

In-Vehicle Networking Technology for 2010 and Beyond

This paper is an overview of the current state (calendar year 2010) of in-vehicle multiplexing and what pertinent technologies are emerging. Usage and trends of in-vehicle networking protocols will be presented and categorized. The past few years have seen a large growth in the number and type of communication buses used in automobiles, trucks, construction equipment, and military, among others. Development continues even into boating and recreation vehicles. Areas for discussion will include SAE Class A, B, C, Diagnostics, SafetyBus, Mobile Media, Wireless, and X-by-Wire. All existing mainstream vehicular multiplex protocols (approximately 40) are categorized using the SAE convention as well as categories previously proposed by this author. Top contenders will be pointed out along with a discussion of the protocol in the best position to become the industry standard in each category.

New Energy Vehicle (NEV) Progress in China

Vehicle electrification is shaping the future of automotive mobility in terms of automotive power and propulsion. The market for New Energy Vehicles (HEV/PHEV/REEV/EV) as well as clean vehicle technologies is expected to grow steadily driven by government regulations mandating increased fuel economy and lower emissions. The fastest growth in this market will be in Asia Pacific, most notably China. The Chinese government has made its intentions clear on how important it considers the development and consumer purchase of hybrid and electric vehicles. The mandate is that by year 2012, vehicle manufacturers produce at least 500,000 units (or 5%) per year of their total output as hybrid and/or electric. All Chinese vehicle manufacturers must have at least one HEV or EV model in the market by the same year. Thus far China has invested over US$3.5 billion to stimulate the production of NEVs and the necessary infrastructure to support them.
Technical Paper

Non-contact Pressure Switch Package Optimization for Improved Reliability of Diagnostics in Automatic Transmissions

Modern automatic transmissions use various methods to estimate fluid line pressures in order to improve shift quality and reduce energy losses. These estimations lead to improvements in fuel economy, customer satisfaction and reduced exhaust emissions. The further addition of pressure feedback switches improves operational knowledge by verifying when clutches have received their commanded pressures. Product reliability above the industry standard for transmission pressure switches was developed through the use of multiple FEA platforms combined with advanced design optimization software, robust optimization and Shainin® tools. In this optimized design, ferromagnetic non-contact pressure switches operate by translating fluid pressure into piston motion, isolated by a sealed proprietary diaphragm.

Occupant and Vehicle Responses in Rollovers

During the past decade, there has been a steady increase in studies addressing rollover crashes and injuries. Though rollovers are not the most frequent crash type, they are significant with respect to serious injury and interest in rollovers has grown with the introduction of SUVs, vans, and light trucks. A review of Occupant and Vehicle Responses in Rollovers examines relevant conditions for field roll overs, vehicle responses, and occupant kinetics in the vehicle. This book edited by Dr. David C. Viano and Dr. Chantal S. Parenteau includes 62 technical documents covering 15 years of rollover crash safety, including field crash statistics, pre- and rollover dynamics, test procedures and dummy responses.
Technical Paper

Open Innovation: An Automotive Supplier's Perspective

In order to survive and thrive in harsh economic environments and capitalize on opportunities driven by the current regional and global needs for Safe, Green, and Connected solutions, companies are required to constantly create/innovate new products while shortening their time to market. These new requirements cannot be met with the traditional closed innovation approach. A new approach calls for working with “others” in order to benefit from complementary resources. Open Innovation is a means to empower collaborative innovation aimed at meeting the new requirements for fast paced, cost effective and yet innovative technology. This paper presents the key elements of Open Innovation from its birth to its implementation. Firstly, it describes Henry Chesbrough's OI model. Secondly, it suggests that a successful implementation of an OI model can be achieved though the application of Everett Rogers' theory of Diffusion of Innovations.
Technical Paper

Replacing Volumetric Efficiency Calibration Look-up Tables with Artificial Neural Network-based Algorithm for Variable Valve Actuation

Signal processing incorporating Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) has been shown to be well suited for modeling engine-related performance indicators [ 1 , 2 , 3 ] that require multi-dimensional parametric calibration space. However, to obtain acceptable accuracy, traditional ANN implementation may require processing resources beyond the capability of current engine controllers. This paper explores the practicality of implementing an ANN-based algorithm performing real-time calculations of the volumetric efficiency (VE) for an engine with variable valve actuation (phasing and lift variation). This alternative approach was considered attractive since the additional degree of freedom introduced by variable lift would be cumbersome to add to the traditional multi-dimensional table-based representation of VE.
Technical Paper

Risk Reducing Product and Process Design During New Product Development

In today's dynamic automotive environment, reducing the lead-time to introduce new product technologies to the market place can be a key competitive advantage. Employing proactive risk reduction techniques to define key product and process relationships is essential to enhance the production worthiness of a design while it is still in the advanced development phase of the program. This paper describes how Delphi Powertrain Systems applied the Shainin proactive risk reduction methodology in advanced product development to focus resources on understanding and mitigating the risk associated with the development of a new Delphi ammonia sensor. Organizational and technical strategies to accelerate profound knowledge capture, along with corresponding test results, are presented and discussed.
Journal Article

Systems to Silicon: A Complete System Approach to Power Semiconductor Selection for Environmentally Friendly Vehicles

A complete system approach to power semiconductor analysis and selection is set forth in this paper. In order to address design overkill, a suitable power profile across the desired drive schedule is obtained through vehicle simulation in lieu of worse case operating conditions. The representative profile is then applied to detailed models of the inverter, power device, and power device thermal stack-up in order to predict worse case, silicon junction temperature rise. The simulation stream includes a closed silicon thermal loop that leads to more accurate power loss and junction temperature calculations. The models are combined and exercised in a single platform for ease of integration and fast simulation. Herein, the methods will be applied to a working example of an inverter for motor drives, and analytical results will be reviewed.