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Technical Paper

A 6-Speed Automatic Transmission Plant Dynamics Model for HIL Test Bench

2008-04-14
2008-01-0630
During the production controller and software development process, one critical step is the controller and software verification. There are various ways to perform this verification. One of the commonly used methods is to utilize an HIL (hardware-in-the-loop) test bench to emulate powertrain hardware for development and validation of powertrain controllers and software. A key piece of an HIL bench is the plant dynamics model used to emulate the external environment of a modern controller, such as engine (ECM), transmission (TCM) or powertrain controller (PCM), so that the algorithms and their software implementation can be exercised to confirm the desired results. This paper presents a 6-speed automatic transmission plant dynamics model development for hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for the validation of production transmission controls software. The modeling method, model validation, and application in an HIL test environment are described in details.
Technical Paper

A Control System Methodology for Steer by Wire Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-1106
Steer by Wire systems provide many benefits in terms of functionality, and at the same time present significant challenges too. Chief among them is to make sure that an acceptable steering feel is achieved. Various aspects of this subjective attribute will be defined mathematically. A control system that is architected specifically to meet these challenges is presented. Furthermore, the design is made such that it would be robust to tire and loading variations. Supporting vehicle data and model results are shown as needed.
Technical Paper

A Hardware-in-the-loop Test Bench for Production Transmission Controls Software Quality Validation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0502
Production software validation is critical during software development, allowing potential quality issues that could occur in the field to be minimized. By developing automated and repeatable software test methods, test cases can be created to validate targeted areas of the control software for confirmation of the expected results from software release to release. This is especially important when algorithm/software development timing is aggressive and the management of development activities in a global work environment requires high quality, and timely test results. This paper presents a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for the validation of production transmission controls software. The powertrain model used within the HIL consists of an engine model and a detailed automatic transmission dynamics model. The model runs in an OPAL-RT TestDrive based HIL system.
Technical Paper

An Adaptable Software Safety Process for Automotive Safety-Critical Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-1666
In this paper, we review existing software safety standards, guidelines, and other software safety documents. Common software safety elements from these documents are identified. We then describe an adaptable software safety process for automotive safety-critical systems based on these common elements. The process specifies high-level requirements and recommended methods for satisfying the requirements. In addition, we describe how the proposed process may be integrated into a proposed system safety process, and how it may be integrated with an existing software development process.
Technical Paper

Application of Robust Engineering Methods to Improve ECU Software Testing

2006-04-03
2006-01-1600
Robust Engineering techniques developed by Taguchi have traditionally applied to the optimization of engineering designs. Robust Engineering methods also may be applied to software testing of ECU algorithms. The net result is an approach capable of improving the software algorithm in one of two ways. First the approach can identify the range of areas which prove problematic to the software such that a robust solution may be developed. Conversely, the approach can be used as a general strategy to verify that the software is robust over the range of inputs tested. The robust engineering methods applied to software testing utilize orthogonal array experiments to test software over a range of inputs. The actual software trials are best performed in the simulation environment and also via automated test hardware in the loop configurations in realtime. This paper outlines a process for applying Robust Engineering methods to software testing.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Development for an Automatic Transmission

2009-04-20
2009-01-0951
This paper presents the development of a transmission closed loop pressure control system. The objective of this system is to improve transmission pressure control accuracy by employing closed-loop technology. The control system design includes both feed forward and feedback control. The feed forward control algorithm continuously learns solenoid P-I characteristics. The closed loop feedback control has a conventional PID control with multi-level gain selections for each control channel, as well as different operating points. To further improve the system performance, Robust Optimization is carried out to determine the optimal set of control parameters and controller hardware design factors. The optimized design is verified via an L18 experiment on spin dynamometer. The design is also tested on vehicle.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Requirements and Implementation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0391
Electro-hydraulic actuation has been used widely in automatic transmission designs. With greater demand for premium shift quality of automatic transmissions, higher pressure control accuracy of the transmission electro-hydraulic control system has become one of the main factors for meeting this growing demand. This demand has been the driving force for the development of closed loop pressure controls technology. This paper presents the further research done based upon a previously developed closed loop system. The focus for this research is on the system requirements, such as solenoid driver selection and system latency handling. Both spin-stand and test vehicle setups are discussed in detail. Test results for various configurations are given.
Technical Paper

Design Process Changes Enabling Rapid Development

2004-10-18
2004-21-0085
This paper will address the electronic development in the wireless industry and compare it to the electronic development in the automotive industry. The wireless industry is characterized by rapid, dramatic high tech changes with a less than two-year cycle time and an equivalent life cycle. The automotive electronics industry is working toward reducing the typical 2 to 3 year development cycle down 1 to 2 years but with a life cycle of 10 years or more. In addition to realizing the electronic development benefits seen in the wireless industry, the automotive industry places significantly more emphasis on the quality and reliability aspects of their designs as many of them are targeted toward, or interface with, safety critical applications. One of the lessons learned from the wireless industry is the development process; where the hardware selection process can be accomplished in a virtual environment in conjunction with concurrent software development.
Technical Paper

Design of an Automotive Grade Controller for In-Cylinder Pressure Based Engine Control Development

2007-04-16
2007-01-0774
This paper describes a new tool to capture cylinder pressure information, calculate combustion parameters, and implement control algorithms. There are numerous instrumentation and prototyping systems which can provide some or all of this capability. The Cylinder Pressure Development Controller (CPDC) is unique in that it uses advanced high volume automotive grade circuitry, packaging, and software methodologies. This approach provides insight regarding the implementation of cylinder pressure based controls in a production engine management system. A high performance data acquisition system is described along with a data reduction technique to minimize data processing requirements. The CPDC software architecture is discussed along with model-based algorithm development and autocoding. Finally, CPDC calculated combustion parameters are compared with those from a well established combustion analysis system and thermodynamic simulations.
Technical Paper

Diagnosis Concept for Future Vehicle Electronic Systems

2004-10-18
2004-21-0010
As automotive electronic control systems continue to increase in usage and complexity, the challenges for developing automotive diagnostics also increase. Reduced development cycle times, the increased significance of diagnostics for safety critical systems, and the integration of vehicle systems across multiple control systems all add to the tasks of developing diagnostics for the automobiles of today and tomorrow. Addressing automotive diagnostics now requires the Tier 1 supplier to utilize a formal diagnostic development methodology. There are also opportunities for Tier 1 suppliers to add value by developing vehicle-level supervisory diagnostic strategies, in addition to subsystem and system-level diagnostic strategies. There is also a prospect to provide strategies and tools to enhance service at the vehicle level. This paper proposes an approach for Tier 1 suppliers to address diagnostic and service issues at the component, system, and vehicle level.
Technical Paper

Effective Application of Software Safety Techniques for Automotive Embedded Control Systems

2005-04-11
2005-01-0785
Execution of a software safety program is an accepted best practice to help verify that potential software hazards are identified and their associated risks are mitigated. Successful execution of a software safety program involves selecting and applying effective analysis methods and tasks that are appropriate for the specific needs of the development project and that satisfy software safety program requirements. This paper describes the effective application of a set of software safety methods and tasks that satisfy software safety program requirements for many applications. A key element of this approach is a tightly coupled fault tree analysis and failure modes and effects analysis. The approach has been successfully applied to several automotive embedded control systems with positive results.
Technical Paper

Exploring the Trade-Off of Handling Stability and Responsiveness with Advanced Control Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-0812
Advanced chassis control systems enable a vehicle to achieve new levels of performance in handling stability and responsiveness. In recent work by NHTSA and others, the performance of Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems has been studied with focus on yaw stability and roll stability of vehicles on high friction surfaces. However, it is recognized that vehicle handling responsiveness is also an important aspect that should be maintained. This paper explores the trade-offs between yaw rate, side slip, and roll motions of a vehicle, and their relationships to handling stability and handling responsiveness. This paper further describes how various control systems are able to manage these motions. The paper also discusses methods to assess vehicle stability and responsiveness using specific maneuvers and measurements, and it includes data from vehicle tests on a slippery surface.
Technical Paper

Hierarchical Component-based Fault Diagnostics for By-Wire Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-0285
This paper proposes the concept of Generalized Diagnostic Component (GDC) and presents a modular fault diagnostic strategy for safety critical automotive systems. The diagnostic strategy makes full use of hierarchical techniques, integrates the generalized diagnostic design into all-purpose vehicle diagnoses based on reconfiguration of the GDCs, and inherits the model-based diagnostic algorithms developed for Steering/Braking-By-Wire systems. The GDC-based approach simplifies the design and integration of diagnostics in complex dynamical control systems, and has been successfully implemented in an eight degrees of freedom NAVDyn (Non-Linear Analysis of Vehicle Dynamics) simulation model using Matlab Simulink. The simulation results are provided in this paper to testify that the diagnostic strategy and implementation are feasible, efficient and dependable.
Technical Paper

Performance, Robustness, and Durability of an Automatic Brake System for Vehicle Adaptive Cruise Control

2004-03-08
2004-01-0255
Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) technology is presently emerging in the automotive market as a convenience function intended to reduce driver workload. It allows the host vehicle to maintain a set speed and distance from preceding vehicles by a forward object detection sensor. The forward object detection sensor is the focal point of the ACC control system, which determines and regulates vehicle acceleration and deceleration through a powertrain torque control system and an automatic brake control system. This paper presents a design of an automatic braking system that utilizes a microprocessor-controlled brake hydraulic modulator. The alternatively qualified automatic braking means is reviewed first. The product level requirements of the performance, robustness, and durability for an automatic brake system are addressed. A brief overview of the presented system architecture is described.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity of Contact Electronic Throttle Control Sensor to Control System Variation

2006-04-03
2006-01-0763
The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of the advantages of a non-contact electronic throttle control (ETC) air control valve position sensor over the potentiometer technology of contacting position sensors. The non-contact position sensing offers the industry an opportunity to take advantage of an improved ability to assess reliability of the product and utilize accelerated testing techniques with improved robustness to control system perturbations. Specifically; eliminating the contact wear failure mechanism reduces the complexity, and duration of ETC air control valve life testing and increases the robustness of the ETC system to noise factors from the control system variation.
Technical Paper

Survey of Software Failsafe Techniques for Safety-Critical Automotive Applications

2005-04-11
2005-01-0779
A requirement of many modern safety-critical automotive applications is to provide failsafe operation. Several analysis methods are available to help confirm that automotive safety-critical systems are designed properly and operate as intended to prevent potential hazards from occurring in the event of system failures. One element of safety-critical system design is to help verify that the software and microcontroller are operating correctly. The task of incorporating failsafe capability within an embedded microcontroller design may be achieved via hardware or software techniques. This paper surveys software failsafe techniques that are available for application within a microcontroller design suitable for use with safety-critical automotive systems. Safety analysis techniques are discussed in terms of how to identify adequate failsafe coverage.
Technical Paper

The Auto-Generation of Calibration Guides from MATLAB® Simulink®

2019-03-19
2019-01-1332
With the inception of model-based design and automatic code generation, many organizations are developing controls and diagnostics algorithms in model-based development tools to meet customer and regulatory requirements. Advances in model-based design have made it easier to generate C code from models and help software engineers streamline their workflow. Typically, after the software has been developed, the models are handed over to a calibration team responsible for calibrating the features to meet specified customer and regulatory requirements. However, once the models are handed over to the calibration team, the calibration engineers are unaware of how to calibrate the features because documentation is not available. Typically, model documentation trails behind the software process because it is created manually, most of this time is spent on formatting. As a result, lack of model documentation or up-to date documentation causes a lot of pain for OEM’s and Tier 1 suppliers.
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