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Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of the Production Applications of Hybrid Electric Powertrains

2003-06-23
2003-01-2307
In this paper, a comparative study of the production applications of hybrid electric powertrains is presented. Vehicles studied include the Toyota Prius, Honda Insight, Toyota Estima, Toyota Crown, Honda Civic Hybrid, and Nissan Tino. The upcoming Ford Escape Hybrid and General Motors Parallel Hybrid Truck (PHT) will also be included, although advance information is limited. The goal of this paper is to look at what hybrid drivetrain architectures have actually been selected for production and what are the underlying details of these drivetrains. Since hybridizing a powertrain involves significant changes, the powertrain architectures are presented in diagram form, with analysis as to the similarities and advantages represented in these architectures. The specific hybrid functions used to save fuel are discussed. Peak power-to-weight ratio and degree of hybridization are plotted for the vehicles. System voltage versus electric power level are also plotted and analyzed.
Technical Paper

A Review of Solid Materials as Alternative Ammonia Sources for Lean NOx Reduction with SCR

2009-04-20
2009-01-0907
The need for improved emissions control in lean exhaust to meet tightening, world-wide NOx emissions standards has led to the development of selective catalytic reduction of NOx with ammonia as a major technology for emissions control. Current systems are being designed to use a solution of urea (32.5 wt %) dissolved in water or Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) as the ammonia source. While DEF or AdBlue® is widely used as a source of ammonia, it has a number of issues at low temperatures, including freezing below −12 °C, solid deposit formation in the exhaust, and difficulties in dosing at exhaust temperatures below 200 °C. Additionally creating a uniform ammonia concentration can be problematic, complicating exhaust packaging and usually requiring a discrete mixer.
Technical Paper

An Adaptable Software Safety Process for Automotive Safety-Critical Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-1666
In this paper, we review existing software safety standards, guidelines, and other software safety documents. Common software safety elements from these documents are identified. We then describe an adaptable software safety process for automotive safety-critical systems based on these common elements. The process specifies high-level requirements and recommended methods for satisfying the requirements. In addition, we describe how the proposed process may be integrated into a proposed system safety process, and how it may be integrated with an existing software development process.
Technical Paper

Controller Integrity in Automotive Failsafe System Architectures

2006-04-03
2006-01-0840
Embedded controllers and digital signal processors are increasingly being used in automotive safety critical control systems. Controller integrity is a significant concern in these systems. Over the past decade, several techniques have been published about controller safety and integrity verification. These techniques include: single processor with watchdog, dual processors, dual core processor, and asymmetric processor (intelligent watchdog). Each of these techniques have benefits, however, many new non-distributed safety-critical systems are applying the asymmetric processor technique to help verify controller integrity. This paper discusses an overview of five controller integrity techniques, and then provides a detailed discussion of an asymmetric processor approach. This paper presents two different options within the asymmetric processor approach.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Prototype Midsize Parallel Hybrid-Electric Sport Utility

2004-10-25
2004-01-3062
The University of Wisconsin - Madison hybrid vehicle team has designed and constructed a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid-electric sport utility vehicle for entry into the FutureTruck 2003 competition. This is a multi-year project utilizing a 2002 4.0 liter Ford Explorer as the base vehicle. Wisconsin's FutureTruck, nicknamed the ‘Moolander’, weighs 2000 kg and includes a prototype aluminum frame. The Moolander uses a high efficiency, 1.8 liter, common rail, turbo-charged, compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine supplying 85 kW of peak power and an AC induction motor that provides an additional 60 kW of peak power. The 145 kW hybrid drivetrain will out-accelerate the stock V6 powertrain while producing similar emissions and drastically reducing fuel consumption. The PNGV Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model predicts a Federal Testing Procedure (FTP) combined driving cycle fuel economy of 16.05 km/L (37.8 mpg).
Technical Paper

Economic Analysis of Powertrain Control Technologies

2002-10-21
2002-21-0035
Regulatory and market pressures continue to challenge the automotive industry to develop technologies focused on reducing exhaust emissions and improving fuel economy. This paper introduces a practical model, which evaluates the economic value of various technologies based on their ability to reduce fuel consumption, improve emissions or provide consumer benefits such as improved performance. By evaluating the individual elements of economic value as viewed by the OEM manufacturer, while keeping the end consumer in mind, technology selection decisions can be made. These elements include annual fuel usage, vehicle performance, mass reduction and emissions, among others. The following technologies are discussed and evaluated: gasoline direct injection, variable valvetrain technologies, common-rail diesel and hybrid vehicles.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Power Devices for Automotive Hybrid and 42V Based Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-1682
With the requirements for reducing the emissions and improving the fuel economy, the automotive companies are developing hybrid, 42 V and fuel cell vehicles. Power electronics is an enabling technology for the development of environmental friendly vehicles, and to implement the various vehicle electrical architectures to obtain the best performance. In this paper, the requirements of the power semiconductor devices and the criteria for selecting the power devices for various types of low emission vehicles are presented. A comparative study of the most commonly used power devices is presented. A brief review of the future power devices that would enhance the performance of the automotive power conversion systems is also presented.
Technical Paper

Logistics and Capability Implications of a Bradley Fighting Vehicle with a Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

2004-03-08
2004-01-1586
Modern military ground vehicles are dependent not only on armor and munitions, but also on their electronic equipment. Advances in battlefield sensing, targeting, and communications devices have resulted in military vehicles with a wide array of electrical and electronic loads requiring power. These vehicles are typically designed to supply this power via a main internal combustion engine outfitted with a generator. Batteries are also incorporated to allow power to be supplied for a limited time when the engine is off. It is desirable to use a subset of the battlefield electronics in the vehicle while the engine is off, in a mode called “silent watch.” Operating time in this mode is limited, however, by battery capacity unless an auxiliary power unit (APU) is used or the main engines are restarted.
Technical Paper

Overview of Remote Diagnosis and Maintenance for Automotive Systems

2005-04-11
2005-01-1428
Advances in wireless communications, model-based diagnostics, human-machine interfaces, electronics and embedded system technologies have created the foundation for a dramatic shift in the way the vehicles are diagnosed and maintained. These advances will enable vehicle diagnosis and maintenance to be performed remotely while the vehicle is being driven. There also has been recent strong consumer interest in Remote Diagnosis and Maintenance (RD&M). As a consequence, RD&M is drawing increased attention in the automotive industry. This paper provides the current status of vehicle remote diagnosis and maintenance, analyses the potential features of RD&M and their significance, and discusses how next generation automotive products could benefit from research and development in this area.
Journal Article

Stability and Control Considerations of Vehicle-Trailer Combination

2008-04-14
2008-01-1228
In this paper, dynamics and stability of an articulated vehicle in the yaw plane are examined through analysis, simulations, and vehicle testing. Control of a vehicle-trailer combination using active braking of the towing vehicle is discussed. A linear analytical model describing lateral and yaw motions of a vehicle-trailer combination is used to study the effects of parameter variations of the trailer on the dynamic stability of the system and limitations of different control strategies. The results predicted by the analytical model are confirmed by testing using a vehicle with a trailer in several configurations. Design of the trailer makes it possible to vary several critical parameters of the trailer. The test data for vehicle with trailer in different configurations is used to validate the detailed non-linear simulation model of the vehicle-trailer combination.
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