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Technical Paper

2-step Variable Valve Actuation: System Optimization and Integration on an SI Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0040
2-step variable valve actuation using early-intake valve closing is a strategy for high fuel economy on spark-ignited gasoline engines. Two discrete valve-lift profiles are used with continuously variable cam phasing. 2-step VVA systems are attractive because of their low cost/benefit, relative simplicity, and ease-of-packaging on new and existing engines. A 2-step VVA system was designed and integrated on a 4-valve-per-cylinder 4.2L line-6 engine. Simulation tools were used to develop valve lift profiles for high fuel economy and low NOx emissions. The intake lift profiles had equal lift for both valves and were designed for high airflow & residual capacity in order to minimize valvetrain switching during the EPA drive cycle. It was determined that an enhanced combustion system was needed to maximize fuel economy benefit with the selected valve lift profiles. A flow-efficient chamber mask was developed to increase in-cylinder tumble motion and combustion rates.
Technical Paper

A Mean-Value Model for Estimating Exhaust Manifold Pressure in Production Engine Applications

2008-04-14
2008-01-1004
A key quantity for use in engine control is the exhaust manifold pressure. For production applications it is an important component in the calculation of the engine volumetric efficiency, as well as EGR flow and residual fraction. For cost reasons, however, it is preferable to not have to measure the exhaust manifold pressure for production applications. For that reason, it is advantageous to develop a model for estimating the exhaust manifold pressure in production application software that is small, accurate, and simple to calibrate. In this paper, a mean-value model for calculating the exhaust manifold pressure is derived from the compressible flow equation, treating the exhaust system as a fixed-geometry restriction between the exhaust manifold and the outlet of the tailpipe. Validation data from production applications is presented.
Technical Paper

A Review of Solid Materials as Alternative Ammonia Sources for Lean NOx Reduction with SCR

2009-04-20
2009-01-0907
The need for improved emissions control in lean exhaust to meet tightening, world-wide NOx emissions standards has led to the development of selective catalytic reduction of NOx with ammonia as a major technology for emissions control. Current systems are being designed to use a solution of urea (32.5 wt %) dissolved in water or Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) as the ammonia source. While DEF or AdBlue® is widely used as a source of ammonia, it has a number of issues at low temperatures, including freezing below −12 °C, solid deposit formation in the exhaust, and difficulties in dosing at exhaust temperatures below 200 °C. Additionally creating a uniform ammonia concentration can be problematic, complicating exhaust packaging and usually requiring a discrete mixer.
Technical Paper

A Systematic Experimental Investigation of Pd-Based Light-Off Catalysts

2005-10-24
2005-01-3848
Close-coupled or manifold catalysts have been extensively employed to reduce emissions during cold start by achieving quick catalyst light-off. These catalysts must have good thermal durability, high intrinsic light-off activity and high HC/CO/NOx conversions at high temperature and flow conditions. A number of studies have been dedicated to engine control, manifold design and converter optimization to reduce cold start emissions. The current paper focuses on the effect of catalyst design parameters and their performance response to different engine operating conditions. Key design parameters such as catalyst formulation (CeO2 vs. non CeO2), precious metal loading and composition (Pd vs. Pd/Rh), washcoat loading, catalyst thermal mass, substrate properties and key application (in use) parameters such as catalyst aging, exhaust A/F ratio, A/F ratio modulation, exhaust temperature, temperature rise rate and exhaust flow rate were studied on engine dynamometers in a systematic manner.
Technical Paper

An Adaptable Software Safety Process for Automotive Safety-Critical Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-1666
In this paper, we review existing software safety standards, guidelines, and other software safety documents. Common software safety elements from these documents are identified. We then describe an adaptable software safety process for automotive safety-critical systems based on these common elements. The process specifies high-level requirements and recommended methods for satisfying the requirements. In addition, we describe how the proposed process may be integrated into a proposed system safety process, and how it may be integrated with an existing software development process.
Technical Paper

An Analytical and Experimental Study of a High Pressure Single Piston Pump for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDi) Engine Applications

2009-04-20
2009-01-1504
In recent years, gasoline direct injection (GDi) engines have been popular due to their inherent potential for reduction of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption to meet stringent EPA standards. These engines require high-pressure fuel injection in order to improve the atomization process and accelerate mixture preparation. The high-pressure fuel pump is an essential component in the GDi system. Therefore, understanding the flow characteristics of this device and its associated behavior is critical for improving the performance of this category of engines. In this paper, the fluid flow characteristics in a high-pressure single-piston pump for use in GDi engines are analyzed using 1-D LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim system and 3-D Ansys Fluent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The flow rate of the fuel pump under various cam speeds has been examined along with characteristics of the pump's control valve.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on Engine Dynamics Model Based In-Cylinder Pressure Estimation

2012-04-16
2012-01-0896
The information provided by the in-cylinder pressure signal is of great importance for modern engine management systems. The obtained information is implemented to improve the control and diagnostics of the combustion process in order to meet the stringent emission regulations and to improve vehicle reliability and drivability. The work presented in this paper covers the experimental study and proposes a comprehensive and practical solution for the estimation of the in-cylinder pressure from the crankshaft speed fluctuation. Also, the paper emphasizes the feasibility and practicality aspects of the estimation techniques, for the real-time online application. In this study an engine dynamics model based estimation method is proposed. A discrete-time transformed form of a rigid-body crankshaft dynamics model is constructed based on the kinetic energy theorem, as the basis expression for total torque estimation.
Technical Paper

Brake Squeal Analysis Incorporating Contact Conditions and Other Nonlinear Effects

2003-10-19
2003-01-3343
A squeal analysis on a front disc brake is presented here utilizing the new complex eigenvalue capability in ABAQUS/Standard. As opposed to the direct matrix input approach that requires users to tailor the friction coupling matrix, this method uses nonlinear static analyses to calculate the friction coupling prior to the complex eigenvalue extraction. As a result, the effect of non-uniform contact pressure and other nonlinear effects are incorporated. Friction damping is used to reduce over-predictions and the velocity dependent friction coefficient is defined to contribute negative damping. Complex eigenvalue predictions of the example cases show very good correlation with test data for a wide range of frequencies. Finally, the participation of rotor tangential modes is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Characterization of a Catalytic Converter Internal Flow

2007-10-29
2007-01-4024
This paper includes a numerical and experimental study of fluid flow in automotive catalytic converters. The numerical work involves using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to perform three-dimensional calculations of turbulent flow in an inlet pipe, inlet cone, catalyst substrate (porous medium), outlet cone, and outlet pipe. The experimental work includes using hot-wire anemometry to measure the velocity profile at the outlet of the catalyst substrate, and pressure drop measurements across the system. Very often, the designer may have to resort to offset inlet and outlet cones, or angled inlet pipes due to space limitations. Hence, it is very difficult to achieve a good flow distribution at the inlet cross section of the catalyst substrate. Therefore, it is important to study the effect of the geometry of the catalytic converter on flow uniformity in the substrate.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Development for an Automatic Transmission

2009-04-20
2009-01-0951
This paper presents the development of a transmission closed loop pressure control system. The objective of this system is to improve transmission pressure control accuracy by employing closed-loop technology. The control system design includes both feed forward and feedback control. The feed forward control algorithm continuously learns solenoid P-I characteristics. The closed loop feedback control has a conventional PID control with multi-level gain selections for each control channel, as well as different operating points. To further improve the system performance, Robust Optimization is carried out to determine the optimal set of control parameters and controller hardware design factors. The optimized design is verified via an L18 experiment on spin dynamometer. The design is also tested on vehicle.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Requirements and Implementation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0391
Electro-hydraulic actuation has been used widely in automatic transmission designs. With greater demand for premium shift quality of automatic transmissions, higher pressure control accuracy of the transmission electro-hydraulic control system has become one of the main factors for meeting this growing demand. This demand has been the driving force for the development of closed loop pressure controls technology. This paper presents the further research done based upon a previously developed closed loop system. The focus for this research is on the system requirements, such as solenoid driver selection and system latency handling. Both spin-stand and test vehicle setups are discussed in detail. Test results for various configurations are given.
Technical Paper

Controller Integrity in Automotive Failsafe System Architectures

2006-04-03
2006-01-0840
Embedded controllers and digital signal processors are increasingly being used in automotive safety critical control systems. Controller integrity is a significant concern in these systems. Over the past decade, several techniques have been published about controller safety and integrity verification. These techniques include: single processor with watchdog, dual processors, dual core processor, and asymmetric processor (intelligent watchdog). Each of these techniques have benefits, however, many new non-distributed safety-critical systems are applying the asymmetric processor technique to help verify controller integrity. This paper discusses an overview of five controller integrity techniques, and then provides a detailed discussion of an asymmetric processor approach. This paper presents two different options within the asymmetric processor approach.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure-Based Control of Pre-Mixed Diesel Combustion

2007-04-16
2007-01-0773
Implementation of real-time combustion feedback for use in closed-loop combustion control is a technology that has potential to assist in the successful production implementation of advanced diesel combustion modes. Low-temperature, pre-mixed diesel combustion is presently of interest because it offers the ability to lower the engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). The need for lowering these two emissions is driven by tighter regulations enacted worldwide, especially the NOx limits in the United States. Reducing engine-out emissions eases the need for additional exhaust aftertreatment devices and their associated cost and mass. In this paper we will describe an experimental cylinder pressure-based control system and present both steady-state and transient results from a diesel engine employing a pre-mixed type of combustion.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Prototype Midsize Parallel Hybrid-Electric Sport Utility

2004-10-25
2004-01-3062
The University of Wisconsin - Madison hybrid vehicle team has designed and constructed a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid-electric sport utility vehicle for entry into the FutureTruck 2003 competition. This is a multi-year project utilizing a 2002 4.0 liter Ford Explorer as the base vehicle. Wisconsin's FutureTruck, nicknamed the ‘Moolander’, weighs 2000 kg and includes a prototype aluminum frame. The Moolander uses a high efficiency, 1.8 liter, common rail, turbo-charged, compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine supplying 85 kW of peak power and an AC induction motor that provides an additional 60 kW of peak power. The 145 kW hybrid drivetrain will out-accelerate the stock V6 powertrain while producing similar emissions and drastically reducing fuel consumption. The PNGV Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model predicts a Federal Testing Procedure (FTP) combined driving cycle fuel economy of 16.05 km/L (37.8 mpg).
Technical Paper

Design of an Automotive Grade Controller for In-Cylinder Pressure Based Engine Control Development

2007-04-16
2007-01-0774
This paper describes a new tool to capture cylinder pressure information, calculate combustion parameters, and implement control algorithms. There are numerous instrumentation and prototyping systems which can provide some or all of this capability. The Cylinder Pressure Development Controller (CPDC) is unique in that it uses advanced high volume automotive grade circuitry, packaging, and software methodologies. This approach provides insight regarding the implementation of cylinder pressure based controls in a production engine management system. A high performance data acquisition system is described along with a data reduction technique to minimize data processing requirements. The CPDC software architecture is discussed along with model-based algorithm development and autocoding. Finally, CPDC calculated combustion parameters are compared with those from a well established combustion analysis system and thermodynamic simulations.
Journal Article

Dual SCR Aftertreatment for Lean NOx Reduction

2009-04-20
2009-01-0277
Low-cost lean NOx aftertreatment is one of the main challenges facing high-efficiency gasoline and diesel engines operating with lean mixtures. While there are many candidate technologies, they all offer tradeoffs. We have investigated a multi-component Dual SCR aftertreatment system that is capable of obtaining NOx reduction efficiencies of greater than 90% under lean conditions, without the use of precious metals or urea injection into the exhaust. The Dual SCR approach here uses an Ag HC-SCR catalyst followed by an NH3-SCR catalyst. In bench reactor studies from 150 °C to 500 °C, we have found, for modest C/N ratios, that NOx reacts over the first catalyst to predominantly form nitrogen. In addition, it also forms ammonia in sufficient quantities to react on the second NH3-SCR catalyst to improve system performance. The operational window and the formation of NH3 are improved in the presence of small quantities of hydrogen (0.1–1.0%).
Technical Paper

Economic Analysis of Powertrain Control Technologies

2002-10-21
2002-21-0035
Regulatory and market pressures continue to challenge the automotive industry to develop technologies focused on reducing exhaust emissions and improving fuel economy. This paper introduces a practical model, which evaluates the economic value of various technologies based on their ability to reduce fuel consumption, improve emissions or provide consumer benefits such as improved performance. By evaluating the individual elements of economic value as viewed by the OEM manufacturer, while keeping the end consumer in mind, technology selection decisions can be made. These elements include annual fuel usage, vehicle performance, mass reduction and emissions, among others. The following technologies are discussed and evaluated: gasoline direct injection, variable valvetrain technologies, common-rail diesel and hybrid vehicles.
Journal Article

Effects of Fuel Type on Dual SCR Aftertreatment for Lean NOx Reduction

2009-11-02
2009-01-2818
Global demand for alternative fuels to combat rising energy costs has sparked a renewed interest in catalysts that can effectively remediate NOx emissions resulting from combustion of a range of HC based fuels. Because many of these new engine technologies rely on lean operating environments to produce efficient power, the resulting emissions are also present in a lean atmosphere. While HCs are easily controlled in such environments, achieving high NOx conversion to N2 has continued to elude fully satisfactory solution. Until recently, most approaches have relied on catalysts with precious metals to either store NOx and subsequently release it as N2 under rich conditions, or use NH3 SCR catalysts with urea injection to reduce NOx under lean conditions. However, new improvements in Ag based technologies also look very promising for NOx reduction in lean environments.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Power Devices for Automotive Hybrid and 42V Based Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-1682
With the requirements for reducing the emissions and improving the fuel economy, the automotive companies are developing hybrid, 42 V and fuel cell vehicles. Power electronics is an enabling technology for the development of environmental friendly vehicles, and to implement the various vehicle electrical architectures to obtain the best performance. In this paper, the requirements of the power semiconductor devices and the criteria for selecting the power devices for various types of low emission vehicles are presented. A comparative study of the most commonly used power devices is presented. A brief review of the future power devices that would enhance the performance of the automotive power conversion systems is also presented.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of R134a Emission with Various Hose Constructions

2005-05-10
2005-01-2032
The focus of this paper is to understand, from experimental data, the R134a refrigerant emission rates of various hose materials due to permeation. This paper focuses on four main points for hose assembly emission of R134a: (1) characteristics of hose permeation in response to the effect of oil in R134a and the characteristics of hose permeation of vapor vs. liquid refrigerant; (2) conditioning of the hose material over time to reach steady state R134a emission; (3) the relative contribution of hose permeation and coupling emission to the overall hose assembly refrigerant emission; (4) transient emission rates due to transient temperature and pressure conditions. Studies include hoses with different materials and constructions resulting in various levels of R134a permeation.
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