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Technical Paper

2-step Variable Valve Actuation: System Optimization and Integration on an SI Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0040
2-step variable valve actuation using early-intake valve closing is a strategy for high fuel economy on spark-ignited gasoline engines. Two discrete valve-lift profiles are used with continuously variable cam phasing. 2-step VVA systems are attractive because of their low cost/benefit, relative simplicity, and ease-of-packaging on new and existing engines. A 2-step VVA system was designed and integrated on a 4-valve-per-cylinder 4.2L line-6 engine. Simulation tools were used to develop valve lift profiles for high fuel economy and low NOx emissions. The intake lift profiles had equal lift for both valves and were designed for high airflow & residual capacity in order to minimize valvetrain switching during the EPA drive cycle. It was determined that an enhanced combustion system was needed to maximize fuel economy benefit with the selected valve lift profiles. A flow-efficient chamber mask was developed to increase in-cylinder tumble motion and combustion rates.
Technical Paper

A Review of Solid Materials as Alternative Ammonia Sources for Lean NOx Reduction with SCR

2009-04-20
2009-01-0907
The need for improved emissions control in lean exhaust to meet tightening, world-wide NOx emissions standards has led to the development of selective catalytic reduction of NOx with ammonia as a major technology for emissions control. Current systems are being designed to use a solution of urea (32.5 wt %) dissolved in water or Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) as the ammonia source. While DEF or AdBlue® is widely used as a source of ammonia, it has a number of issues at low temperatures, including freezing below −12 °C, solid deposit formation in the exhaust, and difficulties in dosing at exhaust temperatures below 200 °C. Additionally creating a uniform ammonia concentration can be problematic, complicating exhaust packaging and usually requiring a discrete mixer.
Technical Paper

A Systematic Experimental Investigation of Pd-Based Light-Off Catalysts

2005-10-24
2005-01-3848
Close-coupled or manifold catalysts have been extensively employed to reduce emissions during cold start by achieving quick catalyst light-off. These catalysts must have good thermal durability, high intrinsic light-off activity and high HC/CO/NOx conversions at high temperature and flow conditions. A number of studies have been dedicated to engine control, manifold design and converter optimization to reduce cold start emissions. The current paper focuses on the effect of catalyst design parameters and their performance response to different engine operating conditions. Key design parameters such as catalyst formulation (CeO2 vs. non CeO2), precious metal loading and composition (Pd vs. Pd/Rh), washcoat loading, catalyst thermal mass, substrate properties and key application (in use) parameters such as catalyst aging, exhaust A/F ratio, A/F ratio modulation, exhaust temperature, temperature rise rate and exhaust flow rate were studied on engine dynamometers in a systematic manner.
Technical Paper

An Adaptable Software Safety Process for Automotive Safety-Critical Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-1666
In this paper, we review existing software safety standards, guidelines, and other software safety documents. Common software safety elements from these documents are identified. We then describe an adaptable software safety process for automotive safety-critical systems based on these common elements. The process specifies high-level requirements and recommended methods for satisfying the requirements. In addition, we describe how the proposed process may be integrated into a proposed system safety process, and how it may be integrated with an existing software development process.
Technical Paper

Controller Integrity in Automotive Failsafe System Architectures

2006-04-03
2006-01-0840
Embedded controllers and digital signal processors are increasingly being used in automotive safety critical control systems. Controller integrity is a significant concern in these systems. Over the past decade, several techniques have been published about controller safety and integrity verification. These techniques include: single processor with watchdog, dual processors, dual core processor, and asymmetric processor (intelligent watchdog). Each of these techniques have benefits, however, many new non-distributed safety-critical systems are applying the asymmetric processor technique to help verify controller integrity. This paper discusses an overview of five controller integrity techniques, and then provides a detailed discussion of an asymmetric processor approach. This paper presents two different options within the asymmetric processor approach.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure-Based Control of Pre-Mixed Diesel Combustion

2007-04-16
2007-01-0773
Implementation of real-time combustion feedback for use in closed-loop combustion control is a technology that has potential to assist in the successful production implementation of advanced diesel combustion modes. Low-temperature, pre-mixed diesel combustion is presently of interest because it offers the ability to lower the engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). The need for lowering these two emissions is driven by tighter regulations enacted worldwide, especially the NOx limits in the United States. Reducing engine-out emissions eases the need for additional exhaust aftertreatment devices and their associated cost and mass. In this paper we will describe an experimental cylinder pressure-based control system and present both steady-state and transient results from a diesel engine employing a pre-mixed type of combustion.
Journal Article

Dual SCR Aftertreatment for Lean NOx Reduction

2009-04-20
2009-01-0277
Low-cost lean NOx aftertreatment is one of the main challenges facing high-efficiency gasoline and diesel engines operating with lean mixtures. While there are many candidate technologies, they all offer tradeoffs. We have investigated a multi-component Dual SCR aftertreatment system that is capable of obtaining NOx reduction efficiencies of greater than 90% under lean conditions, without the use of precious metals or urea injection into the exhaust. The Dual SCR approach here uses an Ag HC-SCR catalyst followed by an NH3-SCR catalyst. In bench reactor studies from 150 °C to 500 °C, we have found, for modest C/N ratios, that NOx reacts over the first catalyst to predominantly form nitrogen. In addition, it also forms ammonia in sufficient quantities to react on the second NH3-SCR catalyst to improve system performance. The operational window and the formation of NH3 are improved in the presence of small quantities of hydrogen (0.1–1.0%).
Journal Article

Effects of Fuel Type on Dual SCR Aftertreatment for Lean NOx Reduction

2009-11-02
2009-01-2818
Global demand for alternative fuels to combat rising energy costs has sparked a renewed interest in catalysts that can effectively remediate NOx emissions resulting from combustion of a range of HC based fuels. Because many of these new engine technologies rely on lean operating environments to produce efficient power, the resulting emissions are also present in a lean atmosphere. While HCs are easily controlled in such environments, achieving high NOx conversion to N2 has continued to elude fully satisfactory solution. Until recently, most approaches have relied on catalysts with precious metals to either store NOx and subsequently release it as N2 under rich conditions, or use NH3 SCR catalysts with urea injection to reduce NOx under lean conditions. However, new improvements in Ag based technologies also look very promising for NOx reduction in lean environments.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Power Devices for Automotive Hybrid and 42V Based Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-1682
With the requirements for reducing the emissions and improving the fuel economy, the automotive companies are developing hybrid, 42 V and fuel cell vehicles. Power electronics is an enabling technology for the development of environmental friendly vehicles, and to implement the various vehicle electrical architectures to obtain the best performance. In this paper, the requirements of the power semiconductor devices and the criteria for selecting the power devices for various types of low emission vehicles are presented. A comparative study of the most commonly used power devices is presented. A brief review of the future power devices that would enhance the performance of the automotive power conversion systems is also presented.
Technical Paper

NOx-Trap Catalyst Development for Mitsubishi 1.8L GDI™ Application

2003-10-27
2003-01-3078
A new single-brick Ba + alkali metals NOx-Trap catalyst has been developed to replace a two-brick NOx-Trap system containing a downstream three-way catalyst. Major development efforts include: 1) platinum group metals selection for higher HC oxidation with potassium-containing washcoat, 2) alumina and ceria selection, and Rh architecture design for more efficient NOx reduction and 3) NiO to suppress H2S odor. Mitsubishi Motors' 1.8L GDI™ with this Delphi new NOx-Trap catalyst with H2S control achieves J-LEV standard with less cost and lower backpressure compared to the previous model. It is further discovered that incorporation of NiO into the NOx-Trap washcoat is effective for H2S control during sulfur purge but has a negative impact on thermal durability and sulfur resistance. Further study to improve this trade-off has been made and preliminary results of an advanced washcoat design are presented in this paper. Details will be reported in a future publication.
Technical Paper

Overview of Remote Diagnosis and Maintenance for Automotive Systems

2005-04-11
2005-01-1428
Advances in wireless communications, model-based diagnostics, human-machine interfaces, electronics and embedded system technologies have created the foundation for a dramatic shift in the way the vehicles are diagnosed and maintained. These advances will enable vehicle diagnosis and maintenance to be performed remotely while the vehicle is being driven. There also has been recent strong consumer interest in Remote Diagnosis and Maintenance (RD&M). As a consequence, RD&M is drawing increased attention in the automotive industry. This paper provides the current status of vehicle remote diagnosis and maintenance, analyses the potential features of RD&M and their significance, and discusses how next generation automotive products could benefit from research and development in this area.
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