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Technical Paper

Control System Development for an Advanced-Technology Medium-Duty Hybrid Electric Truck

The power management control system development and vehicle test results for a medium-duty hybrid electric truck are reported in this paper. The design procedure adopted is a model-based approach, and is based on the dynamic programming technique. A vehicle model is first developed, and the optimal control actions to maximize fuel economy are then obtained by the dynamic programming method. A near-optimal control strategy is subsequently extracted and implemented using a rapid-prototyping control development system, which provides a convenient environment to adjust the control algorithms and accommodate various I/O configurations. Dynamometer-testing results confirm that the proposed algorithm helps the prototype hybrid truck to achieve a 45% fuel economy improvement on the benchmark (non-hybrid) vehicle. It also compares favorably to a conventional rule-based control method, which only achieves a 31% fuel economy improvement on the same hybrid vehicle.
Technical Paper

Environmental Standards for Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluids and Correlation of Laboratory and Field Performance

Biodegradable hydraulic fluids have been introduced relatively recently and, initially, acceptable environmental performance and technical performance were neither well specified or controlled. Over the past few years, many standards and specifications have been written, especially in the area of biodegradability and ecotoxicity. Technical performance test requirements are emerging more slowly, however, and there is still some doubt over appropriate tests and limits for some performance areas. The proliferation of standards is confusing to both the product developer and fluid user. This paper summarizes the common biodegradability and ecotoxicity elements in the main environmental performance standards. It also discusses appropriate laboratory performance tests for oxidation stability, hydrolytic stability and wear, and sets acceptable limits in these tests, based on correlation of lab and field performance of two synthetic ester based hydraulic fluids.
Technical Paper

Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) Modeling and Simulation for Diesel Aftertreatment Controls Devlopment

This paper addresses Hardware-In-the-Loop modeling and simulation for Diesel aftertreatment controls system development. Lean NOx Trap (LNT) based aftertreatment system is an efficient way to reduce NOx emission from diesel engines. From control system perspective, the main challenge in aftertreatment system is to predict temperature at various locations and estimate the stored NOx in LNT. Accurate estimation of temperatures and NOx stored in the LNT will result in an efficient system control with less fuel penalty while still maintaining the emission requirements. The optimization of the controls will prolong the lifespan of the system by avoiding overheating the catalysts, and slow the progressive process of component aging. Under real world conditions, it is quite difficult and costly to test the performance of a such complex controller by using only vehicle tests and engine cells.
Technical Paper

Internet-based Vehicle Communication Network

A number of different data networks have been implemented for electronic control unit communication in vehicles to date. Each network serves a particular need, such as low-cost networking of cab components or high-speed networking of powertrain components. Although each communication network performs its original purpose, the different communication networks, especially those using hardware-based messaging protocols, are expensive to integrate for information sharing and are not readily upgradeable with new messages. This is complicated by the growing number of different communication networks for vehicles, often driven by OEM and supplier technology consortiums rather than by end-user requirements. The result is added vehicle-support costs for the OEM, dealership and customer to maintain multiple networks.
Technical Paper

Microprocessor Based Electrohydraulic Control For Car Haulers

Car hauler ramps have historically been hydraulically positioned via banks of manual control valves that provide limited operator visibility and flexibility. On some enclosed type haulers, manual valves are not feasible. An electro-hydraulic system has been developed utilizing on/off solenoid valve stacks. A handheld control unit with a membrane switch pad communicates with a valve interface module near each valve stack. The handheld unit and the interface modules each have microprocessor circuitry to provide intelligent distributed control. Self monitoring circuitry provides safety features and system diagnostics. Wiring harness assemblies connect the valve stacks to the interface modules. A retractile cable from the handheld unit to the trailer allows improved operator mobility and visibility. An infrared wireless interface between the trailer and handheld unit will also be available.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Numerical Analysis of Valve Fatigue in a Checkball Pump for Driveline Applications

Recent studies have shown that hydraulic hybrid drivelines can significantly improve fuel savings for medium weight vehicles on stop-start drive cycles. In a series hydraulic hybrid (SHH) architecture, the conventional mechanical driveline is replaced with a hydraulic driveline that decouples vehicle speed from engine speed. In an effort to increase the design space, this paper explores the use of a fixed displacement checkball piston pump in an SHH driveline. This paper identifies the potential life-limiting components of a fixed displacement checkball piston pump and examines the likelihood of surface fatigue in the check valves themselves. Numerical analysis in ABAQUS software suggests that under worst case operating conditions, cyclic pressure loading will result in low-cycle plastic deformation of check valve surfaces.
Technical Paper

Stability-Enhanced Traction and Yaw Control using Electronic Limited Slip Differential

Typical traction control systems based on brake intervention have the disadvantage of dissipating an amount of energy roughly equal to that spent in biasing the high-friction wheel. Fully locked differentials achieve the best possible longitudinal traction but, in situations such as slippery or split-friction (split-μ) surfaces, the lateral dynamics of the vehicle can be degraded and deviate from the driver's intended direction. This paper presents an active stability control strategy using electronic limited slip differentials to enhance the vehicle lateral dynamics while preserving longitudinal motion. The proposed control system includes stability enhancement of the traction control and yaw stability control. The stability-enhanced traction control is evaluated under the condition of straight-line full-throttle launching on a split-μ ice/snow surface. The experimental data show a significant stability improvement in a traction mode.