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Technical Paper

A Dynamic Durability Analysis Method and Application to a Battery Support Subsystem

2004-03-08
2004-01-0874
The battery support in a small car is an example of a subsystem that lends itself to mounted component dynamic fatigue analysis, due to its weight and localized attachments. This paper describes a durability analysis method that was developed to define the required enforced motion, stress response, and fatigue life for such subsystems. The method combines the large mass method with the modal transient formulation to determine the dynamic stress responses. The large mass method was selected over others for its ease of use and efficiency when working with the modal formulation and known accelerations from a single driving point. In this example, these known accelerations were obtained from the drive files of a 4-DOF shake table that was used for corresponding lab tests of a rear compartment body structure. These drive files, originally displacements, were differentiated twice and filtered to produce prescribed accelerations to the finite element model.
Technical Paper

Application of Principle Component Analysis to Low Speed Rear Impact - Design for Six Sigma Project at General Motors

2009-04-20
2009-01-1204
This study involves an application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) conducted in support of a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project. Primary focus of the project is to optimize seat parameters that influence Low Speed Rear Impact (LSRI) whiplash performance. During the DFSS study, the project team identified a need to rank order critical design factors statistically and establish their contribution to LSRI performance. It is also required to develop a transfer function for the LSRI rating in terms of test response parameters that can be used for optimization. This statistical approach resulted in a reliable transfer function that can applied across all seat designs and enabled us to separate vital few parameters from several many.
Technical Paper

Automation of Structural Fatigue/Reliability Assessment Using iSIGHT, MSC/Nastran and nCode

2005-04-11
2005-01-0823
The goal was to automate the entire analytical process of structural fatigue life variation assessment with respect to the variations associated with the geometry such as thickness, material properties and loading conditions. Consequently, the structural reliability is evaluated systematically. This process automation has been realized by using an internally developed software package called Structural Fatigue/Reliability Sensitivity II (i.e. FRS II). The package is a bundle of MSC/Nastran, nCode, iSIGHT, and internally developed program scripts.
Technical Paper

Brake and Cruise System Integration using Robust Engineering

2003-03-03
2003-01-1095
This paper presents a project that was done to solve an integration problem between a brake system and a cruise control system on a GM vehicle program, each of which was supplied by a different supplier. This paper presents how the problem was resolved using a CAE tool which was a combination of formulated MS/Excel spreadsheet, Overdrive (GM internal code), and iSIGHT of Engineous Software Inc, which is a process integrator and process automator. A sensitivity study of system reliability was conducted using iSIGHT. The most sensitive factor was found through the sensitivity study. Thereafter, a Robust design was obtained. The recommended Robust Design was implemented in the vehicle program, which led to a substantial cost saving. The CAE software tool (the combination) developed through the problem solving process will be used to ensure quality of brake and cruise system performance for future vehicle programs.
Technical Paper

Changing Inspection and Maintenance Requirements: … A Result of New Emission Control Technology

1979-02-01
790783
Amendments to the Clean Air Act require the implementation of inspection/maintenance (I/M) programs in areas designated as non-attainment and unable to meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standards by 1982. Current I/M programs have been developed using data representative of pre- and early-catalyst emission control technology. Changes to current emission control systems and electronic computer controlled systems represent new emission control technology. This paper addresses the I/M situation as related to these system changes. Results of tests on a prototype system are presented. Parameter inspection and the utilization of built-in diagnostics on future systems have the potential to maximize the effectiveness of I/M programs.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Explicit Finite Element Road Load Calculations for Vehicle Durability Simulations

2006-03-01
2006-01-1980
Durability of automotive structures is a primary engineering consideration that is evaluated during a vehicle's design and development. In addition, it is a basic expectation of consumers, who demand ever-increasing levels of quality and dependability. Automakers have developed corporate requirements for vehicle system durability which must be met before a products is delivered to the customer. To provide early predictions of vehicle durability, prior to the construction and testing of prototypes, it is necessary to predict the forces generated in the vehicle structure due to road inputs. This paper describes an application of the “virtual proving ground” approach for vehicle durability load prediction for a vehicle on proving ground road surfaces. Correlation of the results of such a series of simulations will be described, and the modeling and simulation requirements to provide accurate simulations will be presented.
Technical Paper

Coupling Meshfree Methods with Reliability Analysis Techniques

2003-03-03
2003-01-0145
This report describes the use of meshfree methods for response and design sensitivity calculations within structural reliability analysis when geometric shape is a random variable. Brief descriptions of meshfree methods and advanced probabilistic methods are provided. An existing interface between the probabilistic analysis and traditional finite element method is modified to allow the use of meshfree methods for response and design sensitivity calculations within the probabilistic analysis routine. Two examples that treat design shape as a random variable are presented to assess the accuracy and use of meshfree methods for reliability analysis.
Technical Paper

Designing Automotive Subsystems Using Virtual Manufacturing and Distributed Computing

2008-04-14
2008-01-0288
Adopting robust design principles is a proven methodology for increasing design reliability. General Motors Powertrain (GMPT) has incorporated robust design principles into their Signal Delivery Subsystem (SDSS) development process by moving traditional prototype manufacturing and test functions from hardware to software. This virtual manufacturing technique, where subsystems are built and tested using simulation software, increases the number of possible prototype iterations while simultaneously decreasing the time required to gather statistically meaningful test results. This paper describes how virtual manufacturing was developed using distributed computing.
Technical Paper

Dual Catalytic Converters

1975-02-01
750176
The stringent 1978 emission standards of 0.41 gm/mi HC, 3.4 gm/mile CO, and 0.4 gm/mi NOx may require the use of a dual catalytic converter system (reducing and oxidizing catalyst). These emission requirements have been achieved at low mileage with such a system, but it is complex and has exhibited poor durability. This system also results in the loss of fuel economy at the 1978 emission levels.
Technical Paper

Full Vehicle Finite Element Model 4-Post Durability Analysis

2005-04-11
2005-01-1402
4-Post durability test simulations using a nonlinear FEA model have been executed by engineers responsible for structural durability performance and validation. An integrated Body and Chassis, full FEA model has been used. All components of the test load input were screened and only the most damaging events were incorporated in the simulation. These events included the Potholes, Belgian Block Tracks, Chatter Bump Stops, Twist Ditches, and Driveway Ramps. The CAE technology Virtual Proving Ground (eta/VPG®*) was used to model the full system and the 4-Post test fixtures. The nonlinear dynamic FE solver LS-DYNA** was used in this analysis. The fatigue damage of each selected event was calculated separately and then added together according to the test schedule. Due to the lack of stress/strain information from hardware test, only the analyzed fatigue damage results of the baseline model were scaled to correlate with physical test data.
Technical Paper

Future Truck Steering Effort Optimization

2007-04-16
2007-01-1155
In an endeavor to improve upon historically subjective and hardware-based steering tuning development, a team was formed to find an optimal and objective solution using Design For Six Sigma (DFSS). The goal was to determine the best valve assembly design within a hydraulic power-steering assist system to yield improved steering effort and feel robustness for all vehicle models in a future truck program. The methodology utilized was not only multifaceted with several Design of Experiments (DOEs), but also took advantage of a CAE-based approach leveraging modeling capabilities in ADAMS for simulating full-vehicle, On-Center Handling behavior. The team investigated thirteen control factors to determine which minimized a realistic, compounded noise strategy while also considering the ideal steering effort function (SEF) desired by the customer. In the end, it was found that response-dependent variability dominated the physics of our valve assembly design concept.
Technical Paper

Improving a Vehicle Theft Deterrent System's Communication Using Design for Six Sigma (DFSS)

2007-04-16
2007-01-0800
General Motors' vehicles are designed with an engine immobilizer theft deterrent system. An engine immobilizer theft deterrent system only allows starting of the vehicle engine after assuring the key is the correct key. The communication link from the vehicle to the key is a critical interface for the starting of the engine. This communication link must be reliable. The vehicle theft deterrent system's ability to communicate between the vehicle and transponder in the key is measured by the coupling factor. There are a number of physical interfaces that affect the coupling factor. The focus of this work is to understand the physics and critical design parameters involved in achieving optimal coupling factor to improve the first time quality in future designs. Achieving this objective will lead to designs robust to variances in material and packaging design and result in less testing. The process used in the past on these systems was the Design-Test-Fix approach.
Technical Paper

Multi-Disciplinary Robust Optimization for Performances of Noise & Vibration and Impact Hardness & Memory Shake

2009-04-20
2009-01-0341
This paper demonstrates the benefit of using simulation and robust optimization for the problem of balancing vehicle noise, vibration, and ride performance over road impacts. The psychophysics associated with perception of vehicle performance on an impact is complex because the occupants encounter both tactile and audible stimuli. Tactile impact vibration has multiple dimensions, such as impact hardness and memory shake. Audible impact sound also affects occupant perception of the vehicle quality. This paper uses multiple approaches to produce the similar, robust, optimized tuning strategies for impact performance. A Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project was established to help identify a balanced, optimized solution. The CAE simulations were combined with software tools such as iSIGHT and internally developed Kriging software to identify response surfaces and find optimal tuning.
Technical Paper

Optimum Customer Based Specification: Part of DFSS Case Study

2005-04-11
2005-01-1209
Maximizing customer satisfaction is one key factor for marketing success. It is crucial to have engineering specifications reflecting customer expectations. This paper describes the strategy and methodologies used to generate optimum engineering specification in a case study. This study is part of the DFSS project, which focused on electrical delay time prior to engine crank.
Technical Paper

Optimum Design of Hood Ajar Switch For Quality

2006-04-03
2006-01-0735
The Hood ajar sensing system provides customer feedback regarding the latch positional state of hood. If the sensing system is not robust to variation due to manufacturing, thermal conditions, and assembly, diagnostic failures can result. Executing various elements of the design for six sigma process can reduce the potential for diagnostic failures. This paper presents a method for achieving quality improvements by developing transfer functions, and using them for sensitivity and variance analysis. Control parameters were optimized to minimize non-conformal situations in the presence of various noise conditions.
Technical Paper

Plane Stress Fracture Toughness Testing of Die Cast Magnesium Alloys

2002-03-04
2002-01-0077
Plane stress fracture behavior was measured for magnesium alloys AM60B, AM50A, and AZ91D produced by high-pressure die casting. Compact Tension (CT) specimens were obtained from plate samples with approximately 2-5 mm thickness. The compliance unloading technique was used to record crack extension for each specimen. The AM50A and AM60B specimens exhibited stable crack extension beyond ASTM E 1820 limits for Jmax (∼ 33 kJ m-2 and 22 kJ m-2, respectively) and Δamax (2.1 mm and 1.3 mm, respectively). The data were in good agreement with a power law fit for J vs. Δa. The AZ91D samples had unstable crack extension, with a flat R-curve and a critical fracture energy Jc of ∼ 7.5 kJ m-2. All fractures were by microvoid coalescence, initiated between the primary Mg grains and the brittle Mg17Al12 phase.
Journal Article

Power Dense and Robust Traction Power Inverter for the Second-Generation Chevrolet Volt Extended-Range EV

2015-04-14
2015-01-1201
The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle with extended-range that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on engine power after depletion of the battery charge. First generation Chevrolet Volts were driven over half a billion miles in North America from October 2013 through September 2014, 74% of which were all-electric [1, 12]. For 2016, GM has developed the second-generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. By significantly re-engineering the traction power inverter module (TPIM) for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle (EREV), we were able to meet all performance targets while maintaining extremely high reliability and environmental robustness. The power switch was re-designed to achieve efficiency targets and meet thermal challenges. A novel cooling approach enables high power density while maintaining a very high overall conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Residual Forming Effects on Full Vehicle Frontal Impact and Body-in-White Durability Analyses

2002-03-04
2002-01-0640
Forming of sheet metal structures induces pre-strains, thickness variations, and residual stresses. Pre-strains in the formed structures introduce work hardening effects and change material fatigue properties such as stress-life or strain-life. In the past, crashworthiness and durability analyses have been carried out using uniform sheet thickness and stress- and strain-free initial conditions. In this paper, crashworthiness and durability analyses of hydroformed front rails, stamped engine rails and shock towers on a full vehicle and a Body-In-White structure are performed considering the residual forming effects. The forming effects on the crash performance and fatigue life are evaluated.
Technical Paper

Robust Assessment of USCAR Electrical Connectors Using Standardized Signal-To-Noise

2008-04-14
2008-01-0364
Robust assessment using standardized signal-to-noise (SS/N) is a Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology used to assess the mating quality of USCAR electrical connectors. When the insertion force vs. distance relationship is compared to a standard under varying environmental and system-related noise conditions, the ideal function is transformed into a linear relationship between actual and ideal force at the sample points acquired during the mating displacement. Since the ideal function used in the robust assessment of competing designs has a linear slope of 1 through the origin, the SS/N function used is of the form 10 log (1/σ2), also known as nominal-the-best type 2. Using this assessment methodology, designs are compared, with a higher SS/N indicating lower variation from the standard.
Technical Paper

Robust Design of Glass Run-Channel Seal

2004-03-08
2004-01-1687
Glass run-channel seals are located between DIW (Door in White) and window glass. They are designed to allow window glass to move smoothly while other two major requirements are met; (1) Provide insulation to water leakage and noise, and (2) Stabilize the window glass during glass movement, door slamming and vehicle operation. For a robust glass guidance system, it is critical to minimize the variation of seal compression force. In addition, it is desired to maintain a low seal compression force, which meets the minimum requirement for insulating water leakage/noise and stabilizing the window glass, for enhancing the durability of glass guidance system. In this paper, a robust synthesis and design concepts on the glass run-channel seal is presented. The developed concept is demonstrated with test data.
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