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Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions as a Function of Alternate Fuels

Emissions from a modern heavy-duty Diesel truck engine were characterized with five different fuels during transient and steady-state operation. A control fuel (Phillips D-2) was used for baseline emissions, and as base stock in three alternate fuel blends containing EDS or SRC-II middle distillates, or used lubricating oil. The fifth fuel tested was neat soybean oil, heated to 145°C. HC, CO, NOX, and particulate emissions were similar for this engine on all fuels tested, with the exception of higher particulates for the soybean oil and higher NOX for the SRC-II blend.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions from Operation on Crude and Minimally-Processed Shale Oils

Three crude shale oils were chosen from six candidates to investigate their possible use as substitutes for No. 2 diesel fuel. Satisfactory hot engine operation was achieved on the crudes using a fuel heating system, allowing emissions characterization during transient and steady-state operation. Regulated gaseous emissions changed little with the crudes compared to diesel fuel; but total particulate and soluble organics increased, and larger injector tip deposits and piston crown erosion were observed. After engine rebuild, two minimally-processed shale oils were run without the fuel heating system, causing no engine problems. Most emissions were higher than for No. 2 fuel using an SO percent distillate of crude shale oil, but lower using a hydrotreated form of the distillate.