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Journal Article

Acceleration and Braking Performance of School Buses

2012-04-16
2012-01-0593
There is a limited amount of data currently available on the acceleration and braking performances of school buses. This paper analyzes the braking performance of various Type A and Type C school buses with hydraulic and air brakes. The effect of ABS and Non-ABS systems as well as driver experience is discussed. A comparison with passenger car braking performance is presented. The acceleration of a school bus is also presented. Evaluations of “normal” and “rapid” accelerations are presented for Type A and Type B buses. A comparison with commonly used acceleration values for various vehicles is presented.
Technical Paper

Accelerator-to-Brake Pedal Transition Movements during On-Road Stopping in an Older Population

2017-03-28
2017-01-1396
Unintended acceleration events due to pedal misapplication have been shown to occur more frequently in older vs. younger drivers. While such occurrences are well documented, the nature of these movement errors is not well-characterized in common pedal error scenarios: namely, on-road, non-emergency stopping or slowing maneuvers. It is commonly assumed that drivers move in a ballistic or “direct hit” trajectory from the accelerator to the brake pedal. However, recent simulator studies show that drivers do not always move directly between pedals, with older drivers displaying more variable foot trajectories than younger drivers. Our study investigated pedal movement trajectories in older drivers ages 67.9 ± 5.2 years (7 males, 8 females) during on-road driving in response to variable traffic light conditions. Three different sedans and a pick-up truck were utilized.
Journal Article

All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Handling and Control, Analysis of Objective Data

2017-03-28
2017-01-1557
Because the great majority of All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) use a solid rear axle for improved off-road mobility, these vehicles typically transition from understeer to oversteer with increased cornering severity in tests customarily used by automobile manufacturers to measure steady-state vehicle handling properties. An oversteer handling response is contrary to the accepted norm for on-road passenger vehicles and, for this reason, has drawn scrutiny from numerous researchers. In this paper, an evaluation of ATV handling is presented in which 10 participants operated an ATV that was configured to have two different steady-state cornering characteristics. One configuration produced an approximately linear understeer response (labeled US) and the other configuration transitioned from understeer to oversteer (labeled US-OS) with increasing lateral acceleration in constant-radius turn tests conducted on a skid pad.
Journal Article

Cone Calorimetry as a Tool for Thermal Hazard Assessment of Li-Ion Cells

2014-04-01
2014-01-1838
The emergence of Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) as a viable means of transportation has been coincident with the development of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology and electronics. These developments have enabled the storage and use of large amounts of energy that were previously only possible with internal combustion engines. However, the safety aspects of using these large energy storage battery packs are a significant challenge to address. In addition, the rapid advances in electrode and electrolyte materials for Li-Ion batteries have made comparisons and ranking of safety parameters difficult because of the substantial variations in cell designs. In this work, we outline a method for quantifying the thermal safety aspects of Li-ion battery technologies using a Cone Calorimeter.
Technical Paper

Effects of Innovation in Automated Vehicles on Occupant Compartment Designs, Evaluation, and Safety: A Review of Public Marketing, Literature, and Standards

2019-04-02
2019-01-1223
In recent years, the discussion around the advent of highly automated vehicles has shifted from “if” to “when.” Commercially available vehicles already incorporate automated vehicle (AV) technologies of varying capability, and the eventual transition to fully automated systems, at least within certain predefined Operational Design Domains, is largely considered inevitable. While the full ramifications of this shift and the eventual depreciation of human driver control are still under intense debate, there is broad agreement on one issue -the advent of driverless systems will remove several constraints on the design of vehicle interior spaces, creating the opportunity for innovation. Even at this early stage, ambitious design concepts of purpose specific vehicles - mobile gyms, offices, bedrooms - have been proposed. More grounded designs, such as rotating passenger seats, have also been put forward.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Ejection Risk and Injury Distribution Using Data from the Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS)

2014-04-01
2014-01-0491
Three years of data from the Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) were analyzed to identify accidents involving heavy trucks (GVWR >10,000 lbs.). Risk of rollover and ejection was determined as well as belt usage rates. Risk of ejection was also analyzed based on rollover status and belt use. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was used as an injury rating system for the involved vehicle occupants. These data were further analyzed to determine injury distribution based on factors such as crash type, ejection, and restraint system use. The maximum AIS score (MAIS) was analyzed and each body region (head, face, spine, thorax, abdomen, upper extremity, and lower extremity) was considered for an AIS score of three or greater (AIS 3+). The majority of heavy truck occupants in this study were belted (71%), only 2.5% of occupants were completely or partially ejected, and 28% experienced a rollover event.
Journal Article

Full-Scale Burn Test of a 2001 Full-Size Pickup Truck

2013-04-08
2013-01-0214
Temperature measurements during a full-scale burn test of a 2001 full-size pickup truck showed that the fire progressed in distinct stages in both the engine and passenger compartments. Although the fire started in the engine compartment and had a relatively long growth period, when a localized area reached about 700°C, a distinct transition occurred where the rate of fire spread increased, leading to full involvement of all engine compartment combustibles. As the engine compartment became fully involved, a hot gas layer then accumulated at the ceiling of the passenger compartment, producing a strong vertical temperature gradient. When the temperature at the ceiling reached about 600°C, another distinct transition occurred where the rate of fire spread increased, leading to full involvement of the passenger compartment. The highest temperature during the test occurred within the engine compartment in an area that had the greatest fuel load, and not the area of origin.
Journal Article

Full-scale Fire Tests of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries

2015-04-14
2015-01-1383
Fires involving cars, trucks, and other highway vehicles are a common concern for emergency responders. In 2013 alone, there were approximately 188,000 highway vehicle fires. Fire Service personnel are accustomed to responding to conventional vehicle (i.e., internal combustion engine [ICE]) fires, and generally receive training on the hazards associated with those vehicles and their subsystems. However, in light of the recent proliferation of electric drive vehicles (EDVs), a key question for emergency responders is, “what is different with EDVs and what tactical adjustments are required when responding to EDV fires?” The overall goal of this research program was to develop the technical basis for best practices for emergency response procedures for EDV battery incidents, with consideration for suppression methods and agents, personal protective equipment (PPE), and clean-up/overhaul operations.
Technical Paper

Head and Neck Loading Conditions over a Decade of IIHS Rear Impact Seat Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-1227
Rear-end impacts are the most common crash scenario in the United States. Although automated vehicle (AV) technologies, such as frontal crash warning (FCW) and automatic emergency braking (AEB), are mitigating and preventing rear-end impacts, the technology is only gradually being introduced and currently has only limited effectiveness. Accordingly, there is a need to evaluate the current state of passive safety technologies, including the performance of seatbacks and head restraints. The objective of this study was to examine trends in head and neck loading during rear impact testing in new vehicle models over the prior decade. Data from 601 simulated rear impact sled tests (model years 2004 to 2018) conducted as a part of the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) Vehicle Seat/Head Restraint Evaluation Protocol were obtained.
Journal Article

Heavy Truck Stability with a Trailing Axle Tire Blowout

2012-04-16
2012-01-0238
Trailing axles, otherwise known as tag axles, are utilized in many states to allow heavy duty dump trucks and cement trucks to maximize their capacity. The trailing axle is an additional axle mounted on an arm on the rear of the truck that can be raised and lowered. When lowered, the axle extends the overall wheelbase of the vehicle and increases the total number of axles, thereby allowing for additional load to be carried without exceeding load-restriction regulations. There are multiple manufactures of trailing axles that utilize different suspension designs. One design uses an articulating axle that is mounted to the framework that lowers it. In this study, the sensitivity of this design to tire blowout on one of the trailing axle tires is studied. Testing was conducted that involved initiating a sudden air-loss event by creating a hole in the sidewall of the tire. The handling response of the vehicle was documented with on-board instrumentation and on-board and off-board video.
Technical Paper

Lane-Keeping Behavior and Cognitive Load with Use of Lane Departure Warning

2017-03-28
2017-01-1407
Lane Departure Warning (LDW) systems, along with other types of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), are becoming more common in passenger vehicles, with the general aim of improving driver safety through automation of various aspects of the driving task. Drivers have generally reported satisfaction with ADAS with the exception of LDW systems, which are often rated poorly or even deactivated by drivers. One potential contributor to this negative response may be an increase in the cognitive load associated with lane-keeping when LDW is in use. The present study sought to examine the relationship between LDW, lane-keeping behavior, and concurrent cognitive load, as measured by performance on a secondary task. Participants drove a vehicle equipped with LDW in a demarcated lane on a closed-course test track with and without the LDW system in use over multiple sessions.
Technical Paper

Lug Nut Trace Analysis to Determine Velocity Ratio

2011-04-12
2011-01-0282
When two vehicles contact in a side swipe collision, if one of the vehicles has lug nuts that protrude outboard of the wheel, gouge marks may be left in the other vehicle's exterior. Hereafter the marked vehicle will be referred to as the car and the vehicle with the lug nuts will be called the truck. If the car is stationary, the marks will be in the form of a curtate trochoid and will reveal no information about the speed of the truck. If the car is not stationary, analysis of the shape of the traces left on the side of the car by the lug nuts of the rotating truck wheel can determine the velocity ratio of the car to that of the truck. If the speed of either vehicle is known or can be determined using other information or accident reconstruction techniques, lug nut mark analysis will enable determination of the other vehicle's speed.
Technical Paper

Micro-Mobility Vehicle Dynamics and Rider Kinematics during Electric Scooter Riding

2020-04-14
2020-01-0935
Micro-mobility is a fast-growing trend in the transportation industry with stand-up electric scooters (e-scooters) becoming increasingly popular in the United States. To date, there are over 350 ride-share e-scooter programs in the United States. As this popularity increases, so does the need to understand the performance capabilities of these vehicles and the associated operator kinematics. Scooter tip-over stability is characterized by the scooter geometry and controls and is maintained through operator inputs such as body position, interaction with the handlebars, and foot placement. In this study, testing was conducted using operators of varying sizes to document the capabilities and limitations of these e-scooters being introduced into the traffic ecosystem. A test course was designed to simulate an urban environment including sidewalk and on-road sections requiring common maneuvers (e.g., turning, stopping points, etc.) for repeatable, controlled data collection.
Technical Paper

Motorcycle Rider Inputs During Typical Maneuvers

2020-04-14
2020-01-1000
The purpose of this research is to document representative examples of control inputs and body positioning experienced riders use to control a motorcycle through maneuvers representative of those encountered during real-world operation. There is limited publicly available data that tracks the magnitude or direction of steering head rotation, steering torque input, etc. used by a rider to initiate and exit a turn as well as maintaining directional control during maneuvers ranging from slow parking lot turns to high speed lane changes. Using Exponent’s Test and Engineering Center (TEC) track and skid pad, a course was defined that included several maneuvers at various speeds and radii. A previous paper [1] investigated the influence of rider kinematics (weight shift) on motorcycle control.
Technical Paper

Motorcycle Rider Kinematics during Low and High Speed Turning Maneuvers

2018-04-03
2018-01-0536
Motorcycle stability during a variety of maneuvers is maintained through both rider steering input and body interactions with the seat, tank, footrests, and handlebars. Exploring how rider-vehicle interactions impact vehicle control is critical to creating a comprehensive understanding of motorcycle handling. The present study aims to understand how experienced motorcycle riders influence motorcycle dynamics by characterizing center of pressure (COP) location, force applied at the seat, rider lean angle and offset relative to the motorcycle, and steering angle for various maneuvers. A course was defined on Exponent’s Test and Engineering Center (TEC) track and skid pad that included sections of straight riding, navigating a banked curve, and sharp turning (low speed U-turns, 90 degree turn after a stop, and obstacle avoidance). The task influenced rider response and, in particular, lateral COP location at the seat.
Journal Article

Quantification of Combustion Hazards of Thermal Runaway Failures in Lithium-Ion Batteries

2014-04-01
2014-01-1857
As lithium-ion cells and systems become larger and more ubiquitous in automotive applications, fire and explosion hazards that are rare or non-existent in smaller systems may exist in these larger systems. One potential hazard can occur when flammable gases emitted from a lithium-ion cell failure accumulate in or around automobiles and are ignited by electrical activity or by the cells themselves and result in a fire or explosion. In some instances, the safety aspects related to fires and explosions protection of electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles using these large energy storage battery packs are a significant challenge to address. This paper describes and characterizes the combustion and explosion hazards that can occur when a lithium ion battery pack fails and goes into thermal runaway in an enclosed space. Metrics such as gas composition, maximum overpressure, rate of pressure rise, and flammability limits are described.
Technical Paper

Recreational Off-Highway Vehicle (ROV) Handling and Control

2012-04-16
2012-01-0239
Through testing conducted by multiple facilities, it has been observed that the class of compact two-person vehicles designed exclusively for off-road operation known as Recreational Off-Highway Vehicles (ROVs) exhibit a range of steady-state handling characteristics - including both understeer and understeer transitioning to oversteer as measured in circle-turn tests similar to those set forth in SAEJ266. This handling characteristic is different from on-road passenger cars and light trucks which, under all but heavy loading conditions, exhibit linear range and limit understeer steady-state cornering behavior. Limit understeer is considered desirable for on-road vehicles because it provides a directionally stable and generally predictable control response. In the research presented in this paper, the handling qualities, including controllability, of a ROV which was modified to have different steady-state handling characteristics ranging from understeer to oversteer is examined.
Technical Paper

Steering Maneuver with Furrow-Tripped Rollovers of a Pickup and Passenger Car

2015-04-14
2015-01-1477
Extensive testing has been conducted to evaluate both the dynamic response of vehicle structures and occupant protection systems in rollover collisions though the use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs). Rollover test methods that utilize a fixture to initiate the rollover event include the SAE2114 dolly, inverted drop tests, accelerating vehicle body buck on a decelerating sled, ramp-induced rollovers, and Controlled Rollover Impact System (CRIS) Tests. More recently, programmable steering controllers have been used with sedans, vans, pickup trucks, and SUVs to induce a rollover, primarily for studying the vehicle kinematics for accident reconstruction applications. The goal of this study was to create a prototypical rollover crash test for the study of vehicle dynamics and occupant injury risk where the rollover is initiated by a steering input over realistic terrain without the constraints of previously used test methods.
Technical Paper

Steering Shaft Separation with a Collision Involved Heavy Duty Steering Gear

2018-04-03
2018-01-0524
A crash of a medium duty truck led to a study of the failure mechanism of the truck’s steering system. The truck, after being involved in a multi-vehicle vehicle collision, was found with its steering input shaft disconnected from the steering gear. The question arose whether the steering gear failure was a result of the collision, or causative to the collision. An in-depth investigation was conducted into whether forces on the vehicle due to the collision could cause the steering shaft to separate from the steering gear. Additionally, the performance of the steering gear with the adjuster nut progressively backed off was studied to determine the feedback a driver would receive if the steering gear came progressively apart. From the results of these studies, conclusions with regard to the crash causation were reached.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Crash Severity and Structural Intrusion on ATD Responses in Rear-End Crashes

2020-04-14
2020-01-1224
This study assesses vehicle and occupant responses in six vehicle-to-vehicle high-speed rear impact crash tests conducted at the Exponent Test and Engineering Center. The struck vehicle delta Vs ranged from 32 to 76 km/h and the vehicle centerline offsets varied from 5.7 to 114 cm. Five of the six tests were conducted with Hybrid III ATDs (Anthropometric Test Device) with two tests using the 50th male belted in the driver seat, one test with an unbelted 50th male in the driver seat, one test with a 95th male belted in the driver seat, and one with the 5th female lap belted in the left rear seat. All tests included vehicle instrumentation and three tests included ATD instrumentation. The ATD responses were analyzed and compared to corresponding IARVs (injury assessment reference values). Ground-based and onboard vehicle videos were synchronized with the vehicle kinematic data and biomechanical responses.
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