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Journal Article

A Review of Oxidation on Steel Surfaces in the Context of Fire Investigations

2012-04-16
2012-01-0990
During the course of a fire and subsequent exposure to the environment, iron and low-carbon steels oxidize by two mechanisms: high temperature oxidation and atmospheric corrosion. Of particular interest to fire investigators are oxide properties and distribution that could be of use to better understand important characteristics of the fire such as the location the fire originated, the direction the fire traveled or even temperature versus time characteristics. This could be particularly valuable in cases where burn damage to combustible material, which is known to be an important indicator of fire origin, is so extensive that little if any material remains after the fire. However, there is little data in the literature that specifically addresses the utility of oxide properties in the context of fire investigations.
Technical Paper

A Study of Vehicle Impacts during Dolly Rollover Tests and Comparison to Frontal and Side Impact Tests

2014-04-01
2014-01-0529
Studies of rollover accidents have reported crash attributes such as the number of rolls, rollout distance, initial over-the-ground speed, average roll rate, average over-the-ground deceleration, magnitude of roof deformation, cumulative damage, time and post-crash headroom. While these more general attributes are related to the repeated vehicle-to-ground impacts during a rollover, it has been previously shown [1] that a specific ground impact during a rollover and its consequences can be studied in more detail by using its acceleration time history (crash pulse or impulse) and energy loss. These two quantities are particularly meaningful to use when studying impact mechanics, however, they are limited to circumstances where the data exists, which means real-world on-road crashes cannot be used directly. Acceleration and energy data have been collected and previously published for three Subaru Forester dolly rollover tests, and have been studied in more detail in this writing.
Journal Article

Acceleration and Braking Performance of School Buses

2012-04-16
2012-01-0593
There is a limited amount of data currently available on the acceleration and braking performances of school buses. This paper analyzes the braking performance of various Type A and Type C school buses with hydraulic and air brakes. The effect of ABS and Non-ABS systems as well as driver experience is discussed. A comparison with passenger car braking performance is presented. The acceleration of a school bus is also presented. Evaluations of “normal” and “rapid” accelerations are presented for Type A and Type B buses. A comparison with commonly used acceleration values for various vehicles is presented.
Technical Paper

Accelerator-to-Brake Pedal Transition Movements during On-Road Stopping in an Older Population

2017-03-28
2017-01-1396
Unintended acceleration events due to pedal misapplication have been shown to occur more frequently in older vs. younger drivers. While such occurrences are well documented, the nature of these movement errors is not well-characterized in common pedal error scenarios: namely, on-road, non-emergency stopping or slowing maneuvers. It is commonly assumed that drivers move in a ballistic or “direct hit” trajectory from the accelerator to the brake pedal. However, recent simulator studies show that drivers do not always move directly between pedals, with older drivers displaying more variable foot trajectories than younger drivers. Our study investigated pedal movement trajectories in older drivers ages 67.9 ± 5.2 years (7 males, 8 females) during on-road driving in response to variable traffic light conditions. Three different sedans and a pick-up truck were utilized.
Journal Article

All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Handling and Control, Analysis of Objective Data

2017-03-28
2017-01-1557
Because the great majority of All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) use a solid rear axle for improved off-road mobility, these vehicles typically transition from understeer to oversteer with increased cornering severity in tests customarily used by automobile manufacturers to measure steady-state vehicle handling properties. An oversteer handling response is contrary to the accepted norm for on-road passenger vehicles and, for this reason, has drawn scrutiny from numerous researchers. In this paper, an evaluation of ATV handling is presented in which 10 participants operated an ATV that was configured to have two different steady-state cornering characteristics. One configuration produced an approximately linear understeer response (labeled US) and the other configuration transitioned from understeer to oversteer (labeled US-OS) with increasing lateral acceleration in constant-radius turn tests conducted on a skid pad.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Non-Injurious Head Accelerations of Young Children

2014-04-01
2014-01-0493
Few studies have investigated pediatric head injury mechanics with subjects below the age of 8 years. This paper presents non-injurious head accelerations during various activities for young children (2 to 7 years old). Eight males and five females aged 2-7 years old were equipped with a head sensor package and head kinematics were measured while performing a series of playground-type activities. The maximum peak resultant accelerations were 29.5 G and 2745 rad/s2. The range of peak accelerations was 2.7 G to 29.5 G. The range of peak angular velocities was 4.2 rad/s to 22.4 rad/s. The range of peak angular accelerations was 174 rad/s2 to 2745 rad/s2. Mean peak resultant values across all participants and activities were 13.8 G (range 2.4 G to 13.8 G), 12.8 rad/s (range 4.0 rad/s to 12.8 rad/s), and 1375 rad/s2 (range 105 rad/s2 to 1375 rad/s2) for linear acceleration, angular velocity, and angular acceleration, respectively.
Technical Paper

Passenger Vehicle Response and Damage Characteristics of Front and Rear Structures during Low- to Moderate-Speed Impacts

2019-04-02
2019-01-0415
A significant number of vehicle-to-vehicle collisions involve front-to-rear impacts at low- to moderate-speeds. While a variety of studies have been conducted since the 1990s involving fore-aft collisions, those discussing the response of late model passenger vehicles during progressively more severe impacts are limited. In this study, four inline, front-rear tests were conducted using two midsize sedans of the same make, model, and year. An instrumented Hybrid III 50th percentile-male Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) was located in the driver seat of each sedan and was restrained using the standard three-point seat belt system. Instrumentation on the vehicles included tri-axis accelerometers and seat belt load cells. For each test, the centerlines of the vehicles were aligned, and the striking vehicle impacted the stationary target vehicle at closing speeds of 4.6, 7.9, 13.5, and 20.9 mph (7.4, 12.7, 21.7, and 33.6 kph).
Technical Paper

Six-Degree-of-Freedom Accelerations: Linear Arrays Compared with Angular Rate Sensors

2010-04-12
2010-01-1017
A 3-2-2-2 array of linear accelerometers and a combination of a triaxial linear accelerometer and a triaxial angular rate sensor were mounted into a Hybrid III 50th percentile male ATD head-form and compared in a variety of short- and long-duration events. An appropriate low-pass filter cutoff frequency for differentiating the angular rate sensor data into angular accelerations was found by using a residual analysis to find individual cutoff frequencies for the three center of mass (COM) linear accelerometer channels and the three angular rate sensor channels and taking the arithmetic mean of the six cutoffs. The angular rate sensors provide more accurate rotational rates than integrated angular accelerations calculated from arrays of linear accelerometers and are less cumbersome, especially for events lasting longer than 200 ms.
Journal Article

Timber Utility Pole Fracture Mechanics Due to Non-Deformable and Deformable Moving Barrier Impacts

2011-04-12
2011-01-0288
The energy dissipated by the fracture of wooden utility poles during vehicle impacts is not currently well documented, is dependent upon non-homogenous timber characteristics, and can therefore be difficult to quantify. While there is significant literature regarding the static and quasi-static properties of wood as a building material, there is a narrow body of literature regarding the viscoelastic properties of timber used for utility poles. Although some theoretical and small-scale testing research has been published, full-scale testing has not been conducted for the purpose of studying the vehicle-pole interaction during impacts. The parameters that define the severity of the impact include the acceleration profile, vehicle velocity change, and energy dissipation. Seven full-scale crash tests were conducted at Exponent's Arizona test facility utilizing both moving deformable and non-deformable barriers into new wooden utility poles.
Technical Paper

Validation of High Dynamic Range Photography as a Tool to Accurately Represent Low-Illumination Scenes

2012-04-16
2012-01-0078
Previous research [1] described a procedure for creating prints from digital photographs that accurately represent critical features of visual scenes at low levels of illumination. In this procedure, observers adjust the brightness of a digital photographs captured using standard photography until it best matches the visible characteristics of the actual scene. However, standard digital photography cannot capture the full dynamic range of a scene's luminous intensities in many low-illumination settings. High dynamic range (HDR) photography has the potential to more accurately represent a viewer's perception under low illumination. Such a capability can be critical to representing nighttime roadway scenes, where HDR photography can enable the creation of more accurate photographic representations of bright visual stimuli (e.g., vehicle headlamps, street lighting) while also maintaining the integrity of the photograph's darker portions.
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