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Technical Paper

3D Simulation Models Simplified to 2D Planar/Axisymmetric Problems in Automotive Structures

2016-04-05
2016-01-0397
In automotive FEA analysis, there are many components or assemblies which can be simplified to two-dimensional (2D) plane or axisymmetric analytical problems instead of three-dimensional (3D) simulation models for quick modeling and efficient analysis to meet the timing in the design development process, especially in the advanced design phase and iteration studies. Even though some situations are not perfectly planar or axisymmetric problems, they may still be approximated in 2D planar or axisymmetric models, achieving results accurate enough to meet engineering requirements. In this paper, the authors have presented and summarized several complex 3D analytical situations which can be replaced by simplified plane axisymmetric models or 2D plane strain analytical models.
Technical Paper

3rd Generation AHSS Virtual and Physical Stamping Evaluation

2020-04-14
2020-01-0757
Developing lightweight, stiff and crash-resistant vehicle body structures requires a balance between part geometry and material properties. High strength materials suitable for crash resistance impose geometry limitations on depth of draw, radii and wall angles that reduce geometric efficiency. The introduction of 3rd generation Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) can potentially change the relationship between strength and geometry and enable simultaneous improvements in both. This paper will demonstrate applicability of 3rd generation AHSS with higher strength and ductility to replace the 780 MPa Dual Phase steel in a sill reinforcement on the current Jeep Cherokee. The focus will be on formability, beginning with virtual simulation and continuing through a demonstration run on the current production stamping tools and press.
Journal Article

A Case Study on Clean Side Duct Radiated Shell Noise Prediction

2017-03-28
2017-01-0444
Engine air induction shell noise is a structure borne noise that radiates from the surface of the air induction system. The noise is driven by pulsating engine induction air and is perceived as annoying by vehicle passengers. The problem is aggravated by the vehicle design demands for low weight components packaged in an increasingly tight under hood environment. Shell noise problems are often not discovered until production intent parts are available and tested on the vehicle. Part changes are often necessary which threatens program timing. Shell noise should be analyzed in the air induction system design phase and a good shell noise analytical process and targets must be defined. Several air induction clean side ducts are selected for this study. The ducts shell noise is assessed in terms of material strength and structural stiffness. A measurement process is developed to evaluate shell noise of the air induction components. Noise levels are measured inside of the clean side ducts.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on Reducing the Fuel Pulse Noise from Gasoline Engine Injectors

2020-04-14
2020-01-1276
There are many noise sources from the vehicle fuel system to generate noise inside a vehicle. Among them, the pressure pulsation due to the rapid opening and closing of gasoline engine injectors can cause undesirable fuel pulse noise. As the pressure pulsation propagates in the fuel supply line toward to rear end of the vehicle, the pressure energy is transferred from fuel lines to the vehicle underbody through clips and into the passenger compartment. It is crucial to attenuate the pressure pulsation inside the fuel line to reduce the fuel pulse noise. In this paper, a case study on developing an effective countermeasure to reduce the objectionable fuel pulse noise of a V8 gasoline injection system at engine idle condition is presented. First, the interior noise of a prototype vehicle was tested and the objectionable fuel pulse noise is exhibited. The problem frequency ranges of the pulse noise were identified.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis for Six-Phase Motor Configurations

2020-04-14
2020-01-0465
In this paper, a comparison between different six-phase machine topologies is conducted considering their technical performance for automotive applications. Asymmetrical and symmetrical configurations, as well as neutral point connection, are considered as candidate topologies and modelled using vector space decomposition (VSD) and double stator or double dq transformations. In both cases, a generalized model to include an arbitrary phase shift between the windings is presented as well as the effect of the neutral connection on the inverter model. For the selection, the steady-state and post-fault performance are considered in terms of control flexibility, fault-tolerant capability, and dc-link voltage utilization. For the latest, the different topologies are evaluated operating in both linear and overmodulation regions based on space vector modulation (SVM).
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Approach for Estimation of Automotive Component Life due to Thermal Effects

2018-05-30
2018-37-0019
Due to stringent environmental requirements, the vehicle under-hood and underbody temperatures have been steadily increasing. The increased temperatures affect components life and therefore, more thermal protection measures may be necessary. In this paper, we present an algorithm for estimation of automotive component life due to thermal effects through the vehicle life. Traditional approaches consider only the maximum temperature that a component will experience during severe driving maneuvers. However, that approach does not consider the time duration or frequency of exposure to temperature. We have envisioned a more realistic and science based approach to estimate component life based on vehicle duty cycles, component temperature profile, frequency and characteristics of material thermal degradation. In the proposed algorithm, a transient thermal analysis model provides the exhaust gas and exhaust surface temperatures for all exhaust system segments, and for any driving scenario.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study of Hole Punching Force for AHSS

2018-04-03
2018-01-0802
The elevated strength of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) leads to enormous challenges for the sheet metal processing, one of which is hole punching operation. The total tonnage must be estimated at each trimming stage to ensure successful cutting and protect the press machine. This paper presents the effects of hole punch configurations on the punching force with the consideration of punch shape, cutting clearance and material grade. The hole punching experiments were performed with DP590, DP980, DP1180 and one mild steel as a reference. The punching force coefficient is defined and presents a negative correlation with the material strength based on the experimental data. Surface quality was examined to analyze the damage accumulation during the punching process. The cutting mechanisms with various punch shapes were revealed through an extensive finite element simulation study.
Technical Paper

A DFSS Approach Study on the Effects of Vehicle Cabin Properties on HVAC System’s Cool Down Performance Using 1D Simulation

2020-04-14
2020-01-1258
Due to the increase in heat wave across the globe, maintaining the thermal comfort of passengers in a vehicle is becoming a challenge. Considering global warming, there is a need to shift towards greener refrigerants which in itself causes a marginal degradation in the Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system performance. Also the emission norms and regulations demanding for a smaller engine if not for a hybrid or electric vehicle, there is a need for optimally designing the HVAC system since it is directly related with the efficiency of the vehicle and also plays a vital role in the customer comfort. Hence maintaining the comfort level of the passengers needs further exploration and challenging rather than optimizing the HVAC system alone in the competitive market. Conventionally for given system where we need sufficient cooling, the capacity of the components can be increased in order to meet the customer comfort.
Technical Paper

A DFSS Approach to Optimize the Second Row Floor Duct Using Parametric Modelling

2017-03-28
2017-01-0176
The main function of mobile air conditioning system in a vehicle is to provide the thermal comfort to the occupants sitting inside the vehicle at all environmental conditions. The function of ducts is to get the sufficient airflow from the HVAC system and distribute the airflow evenly throughout the cabin. In this paper, the focus is to optimize the rear passenger floor duct system to meet the target requirements through design for six sigma (DFSS) methodology. Computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD) has been used extensively to optimize system performance and shorten the product development time. In this methodology, a parametric modeling of floor duct design using the factors such as crossectional area, duct length, insulation type, insulation thickness and thickness of duct were created using CATIA. L12 orthogonal design array matrix has been created and the 3D CFD analysis has been carried out individually to check the velocity and temperature.
Journal Article

A Decision Based Mobility Model for Semi and Fully Autonomous Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-0747
With the emergence of intelligent ground vehicles, an objective evaluation of vehicle mobility has become an even more challenging task. Vehicle mobility refers to the ability of a ground vehicle to traverse from one point to another, preferably in an optimal way. Numerous techniques exist for evaluating the mobility of vehicles on paved roads, both quantitatively and qualitatively, however, capabilities to evaluate their off-road performance remains limited. Whereas a vehicle’s off-road mobility may be significantly enhanced with intelligence, it also introduces many new variables into the decision making process that must be considered. In this paper, we present a decision analytic framework to accomplish this task. In our approach, a vehicle’s mobility is modeled using an operator’s preferences over multiple mobility attributes of concern. We also provide a method to analyze various operating scenarios including the ability to mitigate uncertainty in the vehicles inputs.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Programming Algorithm for HEV Powertrains Using Battery Power as State Variable

2020-04-14
2020-01-0271
One of the first steps in powertrain design is to assess its best performance and consumption in a virtual phase. Regarding hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), it is important to define the best mode profile through a cycle in order to maximize fuel economy. To assist in that task, several off-line optimization algorithms were developed, with Dynamic Programming (DP) being the most common one. The DP algorithm generates the control actions that will result in the most optimal fuel economy of the powertrain for a known driving cycle. Although this method results in the global optimum behavior, the DP tool comes with a high computational cost. The charge-sustaining requirement and the necessity of capturing extremely small variations in the battery state of charge (SOC) makes this state vector an enormous variable. As things move fast in the industry, a rapid tool with the same performance is required.
Journal Article

A Fatigue Life Prediction Method of Laser Assisted Self-Piercing Rivet Joint for Magnesium Alloys

2015-04-14
2015-01-0537
Due to magnesium alloy's poor weldability, other joining techniques such as laser assisted self-piercing rivet (LSPR) are used for joining magnesium alloys. This research investigates the fatigue performance of LSPR for magnesium alloys including AZ31 and AM60. Tensile-shear and coach peel specimens for AZ31 and AM60 were fabricated and tested for understanding joint fatigue performance. A structural stress - life (S-N) method was used to develop the fatigue parameters from load-life test results. In order to validate this approach, test results from multijoint specimens were compared with the predicted fatigue results of these specimens using the structural stress method. The fatigue results predicted using the structural stress method correlate well with the test results.
Technical Paper

A Method Using FEA for the Evaluation of Tooling and Process Requirements to Meet Dimensional Objectives

2020-04-14
2020-01-0497
Dimensional Engineering concentrates effort in the early design phases to meet the dimensional build objectives in automotive production. Design optimization tools include tolerance stack up, datum optimization, datum coordination, dimensional control plans, and measurement plans. These tools are typically based on the assumption that parts are rigid and tooling dimensions are perfect. These assumptions are not necessarily true in automotive assemblies of compliant sheet metal parts on high volume assembly lines. To address this issue, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been increasingly used to predict the behavior of imperfect and deformable parts in non-nominal tooling. This paper demonstrates an application of this approach. The complete analysis is divided into three phases. The first phase is a nominal design gravity analysis to validate the nominal design and tooling.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Understanding Planetary Gear Train Efficiency and Powerflow

2020-04-14
2020-01-0432
Understanding planetary gear efficiency is more involved than understanding efficiency of external gears because of the recirculating power that is inherent in planetary gear operation. There have been several publications going back several decades on this topic. However, many of these publications are mathematical in their approach and tend to be overlooked by practicing engineers. This paper brings a new, more visual and more intuitive approach to the problem. It uses lever diagrams, which have been a standard tool in the transmission engineer’s arsenal for almost four decades, to visualize the power flow and develop analytical expressions for the efficiency of simple and compound planetary gears. It then extends the approach to more complex gear trains.
Technical Paper

A New Measurement of Aluminum Alloy Edge Stretching Limit Based on Digital Image Correlation Method

2016-04-05
2016-01-0417
In Aluminum Alloy, AA, sheet metal forming, the through thickness cracking at the edge of cut out is one of the major fracture modes. In order to prevent the edge cracking in production forming process, practical edge stretch limit criteria are needed for virtual forming prediction and early stamping trial evaluations. This paper proposes new methods for determining the edge stretching limit of the sheet coupons, with and without pre-stretching, based on the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. A numbers of sets of notch-shaped smaller coupons with three different pre-stretching conditions (near 5%, 10% and fractured) are cut from the prestretched large specimens. Then the notch-shaped smaller coupons are stretched by uniaxial tension up to through edge cracking observed. A dual-camera 3D-DIC system is utilized to measure both coupon face strain and thickness strain in the notch area at the same time.
Technical Paper

A New Weight Reduction Lightening Holes Development Approach Based on Frame Durability Fatigue Performance

2017-03-28
2017-01-1348
For a light duty truck, the frame is a structural system and it must go through a series of proving ground events to meet fatigue performance requirement. Nowadays, in order to meet stringent CAFE standards, auto manufacturers are seeking to keep the vehicle weight as light as possible. The weight reduction on the frame is a challenging task as it still needs to maintain the strength, safety, and durability fatigue performance. CAE fatigue simulation is widely used in frame design before the physical proving ground tests are performed. A typical frame durability fatigue analysis includes both the base metal fatigue analysis and seam weld fatigue analysis. Usually the gauges of the frame components are dictated by the seam weld fatigue performance so opportunities for weight reduction may exist in areas away from the welds. One method to reduce frame weight is to cut lightening holes in the areas that have little impact on the frame fatigue performance.
Journal Article

A Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Strategy with a Disturbance Observer for Spark Ignition Engines with External EGR

2017-03-28
2017-01-0608
This research proposes a control system for Spark Ignition (SI) engines with external Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) based on model predictive control and a disturbance observer. The proposed Economic Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (E-NMPC) tries to minimize fuel consumption for a number of engine cycles into the future given an Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) tracking reference and abnormal combustion constraints like knock and combustion variability. A nonlinear optimization problem is formulated and solved in real time using Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) to obtain the desired control actuator set-points. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based observer is applied to estimate engine states, combining both air path and cylinder dynamics. The EKF engine state(s) observer is augmented with disturbance estimation to account for modeling errors and/or sensor/actuator offset.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach to Predict HVAC Noise Using 1D Simulation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0249
In recent years reducing the automobile HVAC (Heating Ventilation and automobile conditioning) noise inside the vehicle cabin is one of the main criterions for all OEMs to provide comfort level to the passengers. The primary function of the HVAC is to deliver more air to the cabin with less noise generation for various blower speeds. Designing the optimum HVAC with less noise is one of the major challenges for all automotive manufacturers and HVAC suppliers. During the design stage, physical parts are not available and hence the simulation technique helps to evaluate the noise level of HVAC. In this study, a computational 1D (one dimensional) analysis is carried out to compute the airflow noise originated from the HVAC unit and propagated to the passenger cabin. Modeling has been done using unigraphics and the analysis is carried out using the commercial 1D software GT suite.
Technical Paper

A Novel DoE based Front-End Airflow Target Setting Approach for Optimum HVAC Cool Down Performance

2018-04-03
2018-01-0786
The front-end air flow conditions have a substantial impact on the cool down performance of a vehicle Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system. The performance of a mobile HVAC system is analyzed by conducting tests on the vehicle in a drive cell, subjecting it to different drive cycles. This now can be done virtually using system level simulation or one-dimensional (1D) tools. Target values for condenser air inlet velocity and temperature for these HVAC performance focused drive cycles needs to be established during the development phase to meet the cool down functional objectives of the vehicle. Thus, in the early stages of development, 1D tools play a major role. Condenser air flow should be sufficient and the temperature should be as low as possible at different vehicle operating conditions to have good air-conditioning (AC) performance.
Technical Paper

A Novel Kalman Filter Based Road Grade Estimation Method

2020-04-14
2020-01-0563
This paper presents a novel Kalman filter based road grade estimation method using measurements from an accelerometer, a gyroscope and a velocity sensor. The accelerometer measures the longitudinal proper acceleration of the vehicle, and the accelerometer measurement is almost drift free but it is heavily corrupted by the accelerometer noise. The gyroscope measures the pitch rate of the vehicle, and the gyroscope measurement is quite clean but it is substantially disturbed by the gyroscope bias. The velocity sensor measures the longitudinal velocity of the vehicle, and the velocity sensor measurement is also considerably corrupted by the measurement noise. The developed Kalman filter based estimation method uses the models of the sensors and their outputs, and fuses the sensor measurements to optimally estimate the road grade. The simulation results show that the developed method is very effective in producing an accurate road grade estimate.
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