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Technical Paper

3D Simulation Models Simplified to 2D Planar/Axisymmetric Problems in Automotive Structures

2016-04-05
2016-01-0397
In automotive FEA analysis, there are many components or assemblies which can be simplified to two-dimensional (2D) plane or axisymmetric analytical problems instead of three-dimensional (3D) simulation models for quick modeling and efficient analysis to meet the timing in the design development process, especially in the advanced design phase and iteration studies. Even though some situations are not perfectly planar or axisymmetric problems, they may still be approximated in 2D planar or axisymmetric models, achieving results accurate enough to meet engineering requirements. In this paper, the authors have presented and summarized several complex 3D analytical situations which can be replaced by simplified plane axisymmetric models or 2D plane strain analytical models.
Journal Article

A Case Study on Clean Side Duct Radiated Shell Noise Prediction

2017-03-28
2017-01-0444
Engine air induction shell noise is a structure borne noise that radiates from the surface of the air induction system. The noise is driven by pulsating engine induction air and is perceived as annoying by vehicle passengers. The problem is aggravated by the vehicle design demands for low weight components packaged in an increasingly tight under hood environment. Shell noise problems are often not discovered until production intent parts are available and tested on the vehicle. Part changes are often necessary which threatens program timing. Shell noise should be analyzed in the air induction system design phase and a good shell noise analytical process and targets must be defined. Several air induction clean side ducts are selected for this study. The ducts shell noise is assessed in terms of material strength and structural stiffness. A measurement process is developed to evaluate shell noise of the air induction components. Noise levels are measured inside of the clean side ducts.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Approach for Estimation of Automotive Component Life due to Thermal Effects

2018-05-30
2018-37-0019
Due to stringent environmental requirements, the vehicle under-hood and underbody temperatures have been steadily increasing. The increased temperatures affect components life and therefore, more thermal protection measures may be necessary. In this paper, we present an algorithm for estimation of automotive component life due to thermal effects through the vehicle life. Traditional approaches consider only the maximum temperature that a component will experience during severe driving maneuvers. However, that approach does not consider the time duration or frequency of exposure to temperature. We have envisioned a more realistic and science based approach to estimate component life based on vehicle duty cycles, component temperature profile, frequency and characteristics of material thermal degradation. In the proposed algorithm, a transient thermal analysis model provides the exhaust gas and exhaust surface temperatures for all exhaust system segments, and for any driving scenario.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study of Hole Punching Force for AHSS

2018-04-03
2018-01-0802
The elevated strength of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) leads to enormous challenges for the sheet metal processing, one of which is hole punching operation. The total tonnage must be estimated at each trimming stage to ensure successful cutting and protect the press machine. This paper presents the effects of hole punch configurations on the punching force with the consideration of punch shape, cutting clearance and material grade. The hole punching experiments were performed with DP590, DP980, DP1180 and one mild steel as a reference. The punching force coefficient is defined and presents a negative correlation with the material strength based on the experimental data. Surface quality was examined to analyze the damage accumulation during the punching process. The cutting mechanisms with various punch shapes were revealed through an extensive finite element simulation study.
Technical Paper

A DFSS Approach to Optimize the Second Row Floor Duct Using Parametric Modelling

2017-03-28
2017-01-0176
The main function of mobile air conditioning system in a vehicle is to provide the thermal comfort to the occupants sitting inside the vehicle at all environmental conditions. The function of ducts is to get the sufficient airflow from the HVAC system and distribute the airflow evenly throughout the cabin. In this paper, the focus is to optimize the rear passenger floor duct system to meet the target requirements through design for six sigma (DFSS) methodology. Computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD) has been used extensively to optimize system performance and shorten the product development time. In this methodology, a parametric modeling of floor duct design using the factors such as crossectional area, duct length, insulation type, insulation thickness and thickness of duct were created using CATIA. L12 orthogonal design array matrix has been created and the 3D CFD analysis has been carried out individually to check the velocity and temperature.
Journal Article

A Fatigue Life Prediction Method of Laser Assisted Self-Piercing Rivet Joint for Magnesium Alloys

2015-04-14
2015-01-0537
Due to magnesium alloy's poor weldability, other joining techniques such as laser assisted self-piercing rivet (LSPR) are used for joining magnesium alloys. This research investigates the fatigue performance of LSPR for magnesium alloys including AZ31 and AM60. Tensile-shear and coach peel specimens for AZ31 and AM60 were fabricated and tested for understanding joint fatigue performance. A structural stress - life (S-N) method was used to develop the fatigue parameters from load-life test results. In order to validate this approach, test results from multijoint specimens were compared with the predicted fatigue results of these specimens using the structural stress method. The fatigue results predicted using the structural stress method correlate well with the test results.
Technical Paper

A New Measurement of Aluminum Alloy Edge Stretching Limit Based on Digital Image Correlation Method

2016-04-05
2016-01-0417
In Aluminum Alloy, AA, sheet metal forming, the through thickness cracking at the edge of cut out is one of the major fracture modes. In order to prevent the edge cracking in production forming process, practical edge stretch limit criteria are needed for virtual forming prediction and early stamping trial evaluations. This paper proposes new methods for determining the edge stretching limit of the sheet coupons, with and without pre-stretching, based on the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. A numbers of sets of notch-shaped smaller coupons with three different pre-stretching conditions (near 5%, 10% and fractured) are cut from the prestretched large specimens. Then the notch-shaped smaller coupons are stretched by uniaxial tension up to through edge cracking observed. A dual-camera 3D-DIC system is utilized to measure both coupon face strain and thickness strain in the notch area at the same time.
Technical Paper

A New Weight Reduction Lightening Holes Development Approach Based on Frame Durability Fatigue Performance

2017-03-28
2017-01-1348
For a light duty truck, the frame is a structural system and it must go through a series of proving ground events to meet fatigue performance requirement. Nowadays, in order to meet stringent CAFE standards, auto manufacturers are seeking to keep the vehicle weight as light as possible. The weight reduction on the frame is a challenging task as it still needs to maintain the strength, safety, and durability fatigue performance. CAE fatigue simulation is widely used in frame design before the physical proving ground tests are performed. A typical frame durability fatigue analysis includes both the base metal fatigue analysis and seam weld fatigue analysis. Usually the gauges of the frame components are dictated by the seam weld fatigue performance so opportunities for weight reduction may exist in areas away from the welds. One method to reduce frame weight is to cut lightening holes in the areas that have little impact on the frame fatigue performance.
Journal Article

A Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Strategy with a Disturbance Observer for Spark Ignition Engines with External EGR

2017-03-28
2017-01-0608
This research proposes a control system for Spark Ignition (SI) engines with external Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) based on model predictive control and a disturbance observer. The proposed Economic Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (E-NMPC) tries to minimize fuel consumption for a number of engine cycles into the future given an Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) tracking reference and abnormal combustion constraints like knock and combustion variability. A nonlinear optimization problem is formulated and solved in real time using Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) to obtain the desired control actuator set-points. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based observer is applied to estimate engine states, combining both air path and cylinder dynamics. The EKF engine state(s) observer is augmented with disturbance estimation to account for modeling errors and/or sensor/actuator offset.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach to Predict HVAC Noise Using 1D Simulation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0249
In recent years reducing the automobile HVAC (Heating Ventilation and automobile conditioning) noise inside the vehicle cabin is one of the main criterions for all OEMs to provide comfort level to the passengers. The primary function of the HVAC is to deliver more air to the cabin with less noise generation for various blower speeds. Designing the optimum HVAC with less noise is one of the major challenges for all automotive manufacturers and HVAC suppliers. During the design stage, physical parts are not available and hence the simulation technique helps to evaluate the noise level of HVAC. In this study, a computational 1D (one dimensional) analysis is carried out to compute the airflow noise originated from the HVAC unit and propagated to the passenger cabin. Modeling has been done using unigraphics and the analysis is carried out using the commercial 1D software GT suite.
Technical Paper

A Novel DoE based Front-End Airflow Target Setting Approach for Optimum HVAC Cool Down Performance

2018-04-03
2018-01-0786
The front-end air flow conditions have a substantial impact on the cool down performance of a vehicle Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system. The performance of a mobile HVAC system is analyzed by conducting tests on the vehicle in a drive cell, subjecting it to different drive cycles. This now can be done virtually using system level simulation or one-dimensional (1D) tools. Target values for condenser air inlet velocity and temperature for these HVAC performance focused drive cycles needs to be established during the development phase to meet the cool down functional objectives of the vehicle. Thus, in the early stages of development, 1D tools play a major role. Condenser air flow should be sufficient and the temperature should be as low as possible at different vehicle operating conditions to have good air-conditioning (AC) performance.
Technical Paper

A Physics Based Thermal Management Model for PHEV Battery Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0080
The demand for vehicles with electrified powertrain systems is increasing due to government regulations on fuel economy. The battery systems in a PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid-electric Vehicle) have achieved tremendous efficiency over past few years. The system has become more delicate and complex in architecture which requires sophisticated thermal management. Primary reason behind this is to ensure effective cooling of the cells. Hence the current work has emphasized on developing a “Physics based” thermal management modeling framework for a typical battery system. In this work the thermal energy conservation has been analyzed thoroughly in order to develop necessary governing equations for the system. Since cooling is merely a complex process in HEV battery systems, the underlying mechanics has been investigated using the current model. The framework was kept generic so that it can be applied with various architectures. In this paper the process has been standardized in this context.
Journal Article

A Practical Simulation Procedure using CFD to Predict Flow Induced Sound of a Turbocharger Compressor

2015-04-14
2015-01-0662
A turbocharger is currently widely used to boost performance of an internal combustion engine. Generally, a turbocharger consists of a compressor which typically is driven by an exhaust turbine. The compressor will influence how the low frequency engine pulsation propagates in the intake system. The compressor will also produce broad-band flow induced sound due to the turbulence flow and high frequency narrowband tonal sound which is associated with rotating blade pressures. In this paper, a practical simulation procedure based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is developed to predict the flow induced sound of a turbocharger compressor. In the CFD model of turbocharger compressor, the unsteady, moving wheel, detached eddy simulation (DES) approach are utilized. In this manner, both the broad-band and narrow-band flow induced sound are directly resolved in the CFD computation.
Journal Article

A Real-Time Model for Spark Ignition Engine Combustion Phasing Prediction

2016-04-05
2016-01-0819
As engines are equipped with an increased number of control actuators to meet fuel economy targets they become more difficult to control and calibrate. The large number of control actuators encourages the investigation of physics-based control strategies to reduce calibration time and complexity. Of particular interest is spark timing control and calibration since it has a significant influence on engine efficiency, emissions, vibration and durability. Spark timing determination to achieve a desired combustion phasing is currently an empirical process that occurs during the calibration phase of engine development. This process utilizes a large number of stored surfaces and corrections to account for the wide range of operating environments and conditions that a given engine will experience. An obstacle to realizing feedforward physics-based combustion phasing control is the requirement for an accurate and fast combustion model.
Technical Paper

A Robust Structure Analysis on Automotive Door Armrest

2019-01-09
2019-26-0006
An automobile door is one vital commodity which has its role in vehicle’s function, strength, safety, dynamics and aesthetic parameters. The door system comprises of individual components and sub-assemblies such as door upper, bolster, armrest, door main panel, map-pocket, handle, speaker and tweeter grille. Among them, armrest is an integral part which provides function and also takes care of some safety parameter for the customers. The basic function of an armrest is to provide ergonomic relief to occupant for resting his hand. Along with this, it also facilitates occupant safety during a side impact collision by absorbing the energy and not imparting the reactive force on occupant. Thus an armrest has evolved as a feature of passive safety. The armrest design should be stiff enough to withstand required elbow load condition with-in the acceptable deflection criteria. On the other hand, armrest has to absorb the dynamic force by deflecting proportionally to the side impact load.
Technical Paper

A Sensitivity Study on Inertance Frequency Response Function through Non-Parametric Variability Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-0445
In recent years, there is increasing demand for every CAE engineer on their confidence level of the virtual simulation results due to the upfront robust design requirement during early stage of an automotive product development. Apart from vehicle feel factor NVH characteristics, there are certain vibration target requirements at system or component level which need to be addressed during design stage itself in order to achieve the desired functioning during vehicle operating conditions. Vehicle passive safety system is one which primarily consists of acceleration sensors, control module and air-bag deployment system. Control module’s decision is based on accelerometer sensor signals so that its mounting locations should meet the sufficient inertance or dynamic stiffness performance in order to avoid distortion in signals due to its structural resonances.
Journal Article

A Stress-Based Non-Proportionality Parameter for Considering the Resistance of Slip Systems of Shear Failure Mode Materials

2016-04-11
2016-01-9081
Multiaxial loading on mechanical products is very common in the automotive industry, and how to design and analyze these products for durability becomes an important, urgent task for the engineering community. Due to the complex nature of the fatigue damage mechanism for a product under multiaxial state of stresses/strains which are dependent upon the modes of loading, materials, and life, modeling this behavior has always been a challenging task for fatigue scientists and engineers around the world. As a result, many multiaxial fatigue theories have been developed. Among all the theories, an existing equivalent stress theory is considered for use for the automotive components that are typically designed to prevent Case B cracks in the high cycle fatigue regime.
Technical Paper

A Study on Robust Air Induction Snorkel Volume Velocity Prediction Using DFSS Approach

2016-04-05
2016-01-0480
The noise radiated from the snorkel of an air induction system (AIS) can be a major noise source to the vehicle interior noise. This noise source is typically quantified as the snorkel volume velocity which is directly related to vehicle interior noise through the vehicle noise transfer function. It is important to predict the snorkel volume velocity robustly at the early design stage for the AIS development. Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) is an engineering approach that supports the new product development process. The IDDOV (Identify-Define-Develop-Optimize-Verify) method is a DFSS approach which can be used for creating innovative, low cost and trouble free products on significant short schedules. In this paper, an IDD project which is one type of DFSS project using IDDOV method is presented on developing a robust simulation process to predict the AIS snorkel volume velocity. First, the IDDOV method is overviewed and the innovative tools in each phase of IDDOV are introduced.
Technical Paper

A Technique for Cargo Box Tailgate CAE Fatigue Life Predictions Loaded with Inertial Forces and Moments

2015-04-14
2015-01-0532
This paper describes a CAE fatigue life prediction technique for a tailgate on pickup truck cargo box with inertial forces and moments applied at mass center of the tailgate as input loads. The inertial forces and moments are calculated from the accelerations measured at the corners of the tailgate as the truck is being driven over a durability schedule at the test proving grounds. All the dynamic responses of the tailgate on cargo box, including any dynamic interactions at the pivot joints between the tailgate and box sides, are captured in the acquired data and also in the inertial forces and moments computed at the mass center. Correspondingly, all the dynamic responses are included in the CAE fatigue life predictions. The dynamic interactions at the pivot joints are simulated by using two identical CAE models, one with lateral translational constraint applied at the left pivot only and the other at the right pivot only.
Journal Article

A Thermomechanical Fatigue Analysis on a Ductile Cast Iron Exhaust Manifold

2018-04-03
2018-01-1215
An engine exhaust manifold undergoes repeated thermal expansion and contraction due to temperature variation. Thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) arises due to the boundary constraints on thermal expansion so that mechanical strain is introduced. Therefore, TMF evaluation is very important in engine design. In this work, the mechanical properties important for TMF assessment and modeling of a silicon (Si)- and molybdenum (Mo)-containing ductile cast iron used for exhaust manifold have been evaluated. Tensile, creep, isothermal low cycle fatigue (LCF), and TMF tests have been conducted. Parameters for material modeling, such as the viscoplastic constitutive model and the Neu-Sehitoglu TMF damage model, have been calibrated, validated, and used to evaluate the TMF life of the exhaust manifold.
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