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Technical Paper

A Decision Based Mobility Model for Semi and Fully Autonomous Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-0747
With the emergence of intelligent ground vehicles, an objective evaluation of vehicle mobility has become an even more challenging task. Vehicle mobility refers to the ability of a ground vehicle to traverse from one point to another, preferably in an optimal way. Numerous techniques exist for evaluating the mobility of vehicles on paved roads, both quantitatively and qualitatively, however, capabilities to evaluate their off-road performance remains limited. Whereas a vehicle’s off-road mobility may be significantly enhanced with intelligence, it also introduces many new variables into the decision making process that must be considered. In this paper, we present a decision analytic framework to accomplish this task. In our approach, a vehicle’s mobility is modeled using an operator’s preferences over multiple mobility attributes of concern. We also provide a method to analyze various operating scenarios including the ability to mitigate uncertainty in the vehicles inputs.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Programming Algorithm for HEV Powertrains Using Battery Power as State Variable

2020-04-14
2020-01-0271
One of the first steps in powertrain design is to assess its best performance and consumption in a virtual phase. Regarding hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), it is important to define the best mode profile through a cycle in order to maximize fuel economy. To assist in that task, several off-line optimization algorithms were developed, with Dynamic Programming (DP) being the most common one. The DP algorithm generates the control actions that will result in the most optimal fuel economy of the powertrain for a known driving cycle. Although this method results in the global optimum behavior, the DP tool comes with a high computational cost. The charge-sustaining requirement and the necessity of capturing extremely small variations in the battery state of charge (SOC) makes this state vector an enormous variable. As things move fast in the industry, a rapid tool with the same performance is required.
Technical Paper

A New Weight Reduction Lightening Holes Development Approach Based on Frame Durability Fatigue Performance

2017-03-28
2017-01-1348
For a light duty truck, the frame is a structural system and it must go through a series of proving ground events to meet fatigue performance requirement. Nowadays, in order to meet stringent CAFE standards, auto manufacturers are seeking to keep the vehicle weight as light as possible. The weight reduction on the frame is a challenging task as it still needs to maintain the strength, safety, and durability fatigue performance. CAE fatigue simulation is widely used in frame design before the physical proving ground tests are performed. A typical frame durability fatigue analysis includes both the base metal fatigue analysis and seam weld fatigue analysis. Usually the gauges of the frame components are dictated by the seam weld fatigue performance so opportunities for weight reduction may exist in areas away from the welds. One method to reduce frame weight is to cut lightening holes in the areas that have little impact on the frame fatigue performance.
Technical Paper

A Physics Based Thermal Management Model for PHEV Battery Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0080
The demand for vehicles with electrified powertrain systems is increasing due to government regulations on fuel economy. The battery systems in a PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid-electric Vehicle) have achieved tremendous efficiency over past few years. The system has become more delicate and complex in architecture which requires sophisticated thermal management. Primary reason behind this is to ensure effective cooling of the cells. Hence the current work has emphasized on developing a “Physics based” thermal management modeling framework for a typical battery system. In this work the thermal energy conservation has been analyzed thoroughly in order to develop necessary governing equations for the system. Since cooling is merely a complex process in HEV battery systems, the underlying mechanics has been investigated using the current model. The framework was kept generic so that it can be applied with various architectures. In this paper the process has been standardized in this context.
Technical Paper

A Robust Cargo Box Structure Development Using DFSS Methodology

2020-04-14
2020-01-0601
A cargo box is a key structure in a pickup truck which is used to hold various items. Therefore, a cargo box must be durable and robust under different ballast conditions when subjected to road load inputs. This paper discusses a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) approach to improve the durability of cargo box panel in its early development phase. Traditional methods and best practices resulted in multiple iterations without an obvious solution. Hence, DFSS tools were proposed to find a robust and optimum solution. Key control factors/design parameters were identified, and L18 Orthogonal Array was chosen to optimize design using CAE tools. The optimum design selected was the one with the minimum stress level and the least stress variation. This design was confirmed to have significant improvement and robustness compared to the initial design. DFSS identified load paths which helped teams finally come up with integrated shear plate to resolve the durability concern.
Technical Paper

A Technique for Cargo Box Tailgate CAE Fatigue Life Predictions Loaded with Inertial Forces and Moments

2015-04-14
2015-01-0532
This paper describes a CAE fatigue life prediction technique for a tailgate on pickup truck cargo box with inertial forces and moments applied at mass center of the tailgate as input loads. The inertial forces and moments are calculated from the accelerations measured at the corners of the tailgate as the truck is being driven over a durability schedule at the test proving grounds. All the dynamic responses of the tailgate on cargo box, including any dynamic interactions at the pivot joints between the tailgate and box sides, are captured in the acquired data and also in the inertial forces and moments computed at the mass center. Correspondingly, all the dynamic responses are included in the CAE fatigue life predictions. The dynamic interactions at the pivot joints are simulated by using two identical CAE models, one with lateral translational constraint applied at the left pivot only and the other at the right pivot only.
Technical Paper

Accelerated Sizing of a Power Split Electrified Powertrain

2020-04-14
2020-01-0843
Component sizing generally represents a demanding and time-consuming task in the development process of electrified powertrains. A couple of processes are available in literature for sizing the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) components. These processes employ either time-consuming global optimization techniques like dynamic programming (DP) or near-optimal techniques that require iterative and uncertain tuning of evaluation parameters like the Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP). Recently, a novel near-optimal technique has been devised for rapidly predicting the optimal fuel economy benchmark of design options for electrified powertrains. This method, named slope-weighted energy-based rapid control analysis (SERCA), has been demonstrated producing results comparable to DP, while limiting the associated computational time by near two orders of magnitude.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Drag of a Vehicle and Trailer Combination in Yaw

2017-03-28
2017-01-1540
Typical production vehicle development includes road testing of a vehicle towing a trailer to evaluate powertrain thermal performance. In order to correlate tests with simulations, the aerodynamic effects of pulling a trailer behind a vehicle must be estimated. During real world operation a vehicle often encounters cross winds. Therefore, the effects of cross winds on the drag of a vehicle–trailer combination should be taken into account. Improving the accuracy of aerodynamic load prediction for a vehicle-trailer combination should in turn lead to improved simulations and better thermal performance. In order to best simulate conditions for real world trailer towing, a study was performed using reduced scale models of a Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) and a Pickup Truck (PT) towing a medium size cargo trailer. The scale model vehicle and trailer combinations were tested in a full scale wind tunnel.
Technical Paper

An Empirical Aging Model for Lithium-Ion Battery and Validation Using Real-Life Driving Scenarios

2020-04-14
2020-01-0449
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely used as the energy storage system in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) due to their high power and energy density and long cycle life compared to other chemistries. However, LIBs are sensitive to operating conditions, including temperature, current demand and surface pressure of the cell. One very well understood phenomenon of lithium-ion battery is the reduction in charge capacity over time due to cycling and storage commonly known as capacity fade. Considering the need for predicting the behavior of an aged cell and the need for estimating battery useful life for warranty purpose, it is crucial to predict the capacity fade with reasonable accuracy. To accommodate this need, a novel cell level empirical aging model is built based on storage tests and cycle tests. The storage test captures the calendar aging of the lithium-ion cell while the cycle test estimates the cycle aging of the cell.
Technical Paper

An Iterative Histogram-Based Optimization of Calibration Tables in a Powertrain Controller

2020-04-14
2020-01-0266
To comply with the stringent fuel consumption requirements, many automobile manufacturers have launched vehicle electrification programs which are representing a paradigm shift in vehicle design. Looking specifically at powertrain calibration, optimization approaches were developed to help the decision-making process in the powertrain control. Due to computational power limitations the most common approach is still the use of powertrain calibration tables in a rule-based controller. This is true despite the fact that the most common manual tuning can be quite long and exhausting, and with the optimal consumption behavior rarely being achieved. The present work proposes a simulation tool that has the objective to automate the process of tuning a calibration table in a powertrain model. To achieve that, it is first necessary to define the optimal reference performance.
Technical Paper

Automatic Calibrations Generation for Powertrain Controllers Using MapleSim

2018-04-03
2018-01-1458
Modern powertrains are highly complex systems whose development requires careful tuning of hundreds of parameters, called calibrations. These calibrations determine essential vehicle attributes such as performance, dynamics, fuel consumption, emissions, noise, vibrations, harshness, etc. This paper presents a methodology for automatic generation of calibrations for a powertrain-abstraction software module within the powertrain software of hybrid electric vehicles. This module hides the underlying powertrain architecture from the remaining powertrain software. The module encodes the powertrain’s torque-speed equations as calibrations. The methodology commences with modeling the powertrain in MapleSim, a multi-domain modeling and simulation tool. Then, the underlying mathematical representation of the modeled powertrain is generated from the MapleSim model using Maple, MapleSim’s symbolic engine.
Technical Paper

Co-Simulation Methodology for PHEV Thermal System Development

2020-04-14
2020-01-1392
Thermal development of automotive applications is a lot more complex than it used to be in the past. Specifically, for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs), all the sub-systems are so intertwined that it’s hard to analyze them as sub-systems only. A system level solution is needed for proper sizing of components. For early thermal development, a co-simulation method can ensure that we take into account the inter-dependency of all the thermal features in the car. As for example, a large PHEV battery may need to be passively cooled by refrigerant, which is also associated with the interior Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) cooling system. For proper sizing of the condenser, chiller etc., one has to account for the battery cooling and cabin cooling as one system. There are also many thermal actuators on a PHEV, e.g. control valves, pulse-width-module (PWM) pumps, electric compressor, electric coolant heaters etc.
Journal Article

Comparison of Computational Simulation of Automotive Spinning Wheel Flow Field with Full Width Moving Belt Wind Tunnel Results

2015-04-14
2015-01-1556
One of the remaining challenges in the simulation of the aerodynamics of ground vehicles is the modeling of the airflows around the spinning tires and wheels of the vehicle. As in most advances in the development of simulation capabilities, it is the lack of appropriately detailed and accurate experimental data with which to correlate that holds back the advance of the technology. The flow around the wheels and tires and their interfaces with the vehicle body and the ground is a critical area for the development of automobiles and trucks, not just for aerodynamic forces and moments, and their result on fuel economy and vehicle handling and performance, but also for the airflows and pressures that affect brake cooling, engine cooling airflows, water spray management etc.
Technical Paper

Detailed Aerodynamic Characterization and Optimization of a Pickup Truck Using Adaptive Sampling based DOE

2018-04-03
2018-01-0743
A detailed Design of Experiments (DOE) study is presented to understand the aerodynamic effects of exterior design features and shape parameters of a pick-up truck using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The goal of the study is to characterize several key design parameters and the interactions between them as related to overall drag of the vehicle. Using this data, the exterior shape is optimized to minimize drag within specified design constraints. An adaptive sampling methodology is also presented that progressively reduces errors in the design response surfaces generated. This combined with a Latin Hypercube based initial design space characterization yields computational efficiency. A trend-predictive meta-model is presented that can be used for early design development. Results from the meta-model are also correlated with experimental data from the wind tunnel.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Modeling of an Interior Permanent Magnet Machine with Space-Vector-Modulation-Based Voltage Source Inverter

2020-04-14
2020-01-0469
This paper presents a dynamic model for an interior permanent magnet (IPM) machine with a space-vector-modulation-based voltage source inverter. The dynamic model considers spatial harmonics, cross-coupling and magnetic saturation. In order to include the nonlinear electromagnetic characteristics of the IPM machine, the dynamic model is built based on the current-flux look-up tables obtained from finite element analysis (FEA). The model is co-simulated with the drive system, which considers the effects of the modulation technique and the switching frequency. The dynamic performance of a 60/8 IPM machine is analyzed using the dynamic model at different operating conditions and then validated with the torque waveforms obtained from FEA. The results show that dynamic performance can be analyzed accurately and more quickly using the dynamic model presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

EXV to Optimize PHEV/BEV Automotive Air Conditioning System Performance and Simulation Methodology

2020-04-14
2020-01-1393
Due to increasing standards in fuel consumption, battery electric vehicles (BEV) and plug in electric hybrid vehicles (PHEV), are becoming more commonplace in the automotive industry. Batteries used in such applications require methods of thermal management to promote longer life, higher efficiency and performance. A common method of keeping the battery cool, in high heat conditions, is to use a water to refrigerant chiller. The already existing automotive air conditioning system is leveraged to enable the use of such a chiller. The added thermal transient load of the battery adds complexity to the refrigeration system. Balancing the thermal comfort of the occupants with temperature requirements of battery drives challenges to the overall system capacity. The sudden change in battery cooling loads can noticeably degrade the evaporator heat rejection. In extreme cases the battery cooling load can cause complete loss of refrigerant flow to the evaporator.
Technical Paper

Equivalence Factor Calculation for Hybrid Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-1196
Within a hybrid electric vehicle, given a power request initiated by pedal actuation, a portion of overall power may be generated by fuel within an internal combustion engine, and a portion of power may be taken from or stored within a battery via an e-machine. Generally speaking, power taken from a vehicle battery must eventually be recharged at a later time. Recharge energy typically comes ultimately from engine generated power (and hence from fuel), or from recovered braking energy. A hybrid electric vehicle control system attempts to identify when to use each type of power, i.e., battery or engine power, in order to minimize overall fuel consumption. In order to most efficiently utilize battery and fuel generated power, many HEV control strategies utilize a concept wherein battery power is converted to a scaled fueling rate.
Technical Paper

Fleet Fatality Risk and its Sensitivity to Vehicle Mass Change in Frontal Vehicle-to-Vehicle Crashes, Using a Combined Empirical and Theoretical Model

2015-11-09
2015-22-0011
The objective of this study is to analytically model the fatality risk in frontal vehicle-to-vehicle crashes of the current vehicle fleet, and its sensitivity to vehicle mass change. A model is built upon an empirical risk ratio-mass ratio relationship from field data and a theoretical mass ratio-velocity change ratio relationship dictated by conservation of momentum. The fatality risk of each vehicle is averaged over the closing velocity distribution to arrive at the mean fatality risks. The risks of the two vehicles are summed and averaged over all possible crash partners to find the societal mean fatality risk associated with a subject vehicle of a given mass from a fleet specified by a mass distribution function. Based on risk exponent and mass distribution from a recent fleet, the subject vehicle mean fatality risk is shown to increase, while at the same time that for the partner vehicles decreases, as the mass of the subject vehicle decreases.
Journal Article

Further Analyses on Prediction of Automotive Spinning Wheel Flowfield with Full Width Moving Belt Wind Tunnel Results

2017-03-28
2017-01-1519
Pickup trucks are designed with a taller ride height and a larger tire envelope compared to other vehicle types given the duty cycle and environment they operate in. These differences play an important role in the flow field around spinning wheels and tires and their interactions with the vehicle body. From an aerodynamics perspective, understanding and managing this flow field are critical for drag reduction, wheel design, and brake cooling. Furthermore, the validation of numerical simulation methodology is essential for a systematic approach to aerodynamically efficient wheel design as a standard practice of vehicle design. This paper presents a correlation the near-wheel flow field for both front and rear spinning wheels with two different wheel designs for a Ram Quad Cab pick-up truck with moving ground. Twelve-hole probe experimental data obtained in a wind tunnel with a full width belt system are compared to the predictions of numerical simulations.
Technical Paper

Light Duty Truck Rear Axle Thermal Modeling

2020-04-14
2020-01-1388
More stringent Federal emission regulations and fuel economy requirements have driven the automotive industry towards more sophisticated vehicle thermal management systems to best utilize the waste heat and improve driveline efficiency. The final drive unit in light and heavy duty trucks usually consists of geared transmission and differential housed in a lubricated axle. The automotive rear axle is one of the major sources of power loss in the driveline due to gear friction, churning and bearing loss affecting vehicle fuel economy. These losses vary significantly with lubricant viscosity. Also the temperatures of the lubricant are critical to the overall axle performance in terms of power losses, fatigue life and wear. In this paper, a methodology for modeling thermal behavior of automotive rear axle with heat exchanger is presented. The proposed model can be used to predict the axle lubricant temperature rise.
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