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Technical Paper

A Study on the Effect of Different Glasses and Its Properties on Vehicle Cabin during Soaking at Hot Ambient Conditions Using 1D Simulation

2020-04-14
2020-01-0956
Increase in the atmospheric temperature across the globe during summer, increases the heat load in the vehicle cabin, creating a huge thermal discomfort for the passengers. There are two scenarios where these adverse conditions can be a problem during the summer. Firstly, while driving the vehicle in traffic conditions and secondly, when the vehicle is parked under the sun. When the vehicle is exposed to the radiation from the sun for a period, the cabin temperature can reach alarming levels, which may have serious discomfort and health effects on the people entering the vehicle. Although there are options of remote switching on of air conditioners, they are restricted to vehicles having an automatic transmission and availability of the mobile network. So, it is important to explore the possible options which can be used for restricting the external heat load to the cabin.
Technical Paper

CAE Simulation of Automotive Door Upper Frame Deflection Using Aerodynamic Loads

2018-04-03
2018-01-0716
Upper frame deflection of automobile doors is a key design attribute that influences structural integrity and door seal performance as related to NVH. This is a critical customer quality perception attribute and is a key enabler to ensure wind noise performance is acceptable. This paper provides an overview of two simulation methodologies to predict door upper frame deflection. A simplified simulation approach using point loads is presented along with its limitations and is compared to a new method that uses CFD tools to estimate aerodynamic loads on body panels at various vehicle speeds and wind directions. The approach consisted of performing external aerodynamic CFD simulation and using the aerodynamic loads as inputs to a CAE simulation. The details of the methodology are presented along with results and correlation to experimental data from the wind tunnel.
Journal Article

Design of a Composite Structural Panel for High Volume Production

2015-04-14
2015-01-1311
As CAFE requirements increase, automotive OEMs are pursuing innovative methods to lightweight their Body In Whites (BIWs). Within FCA US, this lightweighting research and development activity often occurs through Decoupled Innovation projects. A Decoupled Innovation team comprised of engineers from the BIW Structures Group, in collaboration with Tier 1 supplier Magna Exteriors, sought to re-design a loadbearing component on the BIW that would offer significant weight savings when the current steel component was replaced with a carbon fiber composite. This paper describes the design, development, physical validation and partnership that resulted in a composite Rear Package Shelf Assembly solution for a high-volume production vehicle. As the CAFE requirements loom closer and closer, these innovation-driven engineering activities are imperative to the successful lightweighting of FCA US vehicles.
Journal Article

Effect of Surface Roughness and Lubrication on Scuffing for Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI)

2015-04-14
2015-01-0683
This paper describes the scuffing tests performed to understand the effect of surface roughness and lubrication on scuffing behavior for austempered ductile iron (ADI) material. As the scuffing tendency is increased, metal-to-metal interaction between contacting surfaces is increased. Lubrication between sliding surfaces becomes the boundary or mixed lubrication condition. Oil film breakdown leads to scuffing failure with the critical load. Hence, the role of surface roughness and lubrication becomes prominent in scuffing study. There are some studies in which the influence of the surface roughness and lubrication on scuffing was evaluated. However, no comprehensive scuffing study has been found in the literature regarding the effect of surface roughness and lubrication on scuffing behavior of ADI material. The current research took into account the inferences of surface roughness and lubrication on scuffing for ADI.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Corpuscular Particle Method (CPM) in LS-DYNA for Airbag Modeling

2020-04-14
2020-01-0978
This paper presents a systematic study to assess maturity of Corpuscular Particle Method (CPM) to accurately predict airbag deployment kinematics and its overall responses. The study was performed in three phases: (1) a correlation assessment of CPM predicted inflator characteristics to closed tank tests; (2) a correlation assessment of CPM predicted airbag deployment kinematics, airbag pressure, reaction force from a static deployment of a Driver Airbag (DAB) and (3) a correlation prediction of the impactor force by CPM versus impactor force from physical drop tower tests. These studies were repeated using the Uniform Pressure Method (UPM), to compare the numerical methods for their accuracy in predicting the physical test, computational cost, and applicability. Results from the study suggest that CPM satisfies the fundamental energy laws, and accurately captures the realistic airbag deployment kinematics, especially during the early deployment stage, unlike UPM.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Prog-Die Wear Properties on Bare DP1180 Steel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0310
The die wear up to 80,800 hits on a prog-die setup for bare DP1180 steel was investigated in real production condition. In total, 31 die inserts with the combination of 11 die materials and 9 coatings were evaluated. The analytical results of die service life for each insert were provided by examining the evolution of surface wear on inserts and formed parts. The moments of appearance of die defects, propagation of die defects, and catastrophic failure were determined. Moreover, the surface roughness of the formed parts for each die insert was characterized using Wyko NT110 machine. The objectives of the current study are to evaluate the die durability of various tooling materials and coatings for flange operations on bare DP 1180 steel and update OEM tooling standards based on the experimental results. The current study provides the guidance for the die material and coating selections in large volume production for next generation AHSSs.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Static and Fatigue Behavior of a Short Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene

2020-04-14
2020-01-0190
One approach of lighting vehicle weight is using composite materials. Fiber reinforced polypropylene is one of the most popular composite materials. To improve accuracy in the prediction of durability performance of structures made of this kind of composite material, static and fatigue properties of a short glass fiber reinforced polypropylene have been physically studied. This paper describes details of test coupon design, fabrication, test setup of both quasi-static and fatigue tests, test results and discussions. In this study, various loading orientations (0o, 20o, 90o and knit line), temperatures (22oC/23oC and 80oC/85oC), loading ratio (R = -1.0, -0.5, -0.2, 0.1 and 0.4) are considered.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Static and Fatigue Performance of Self-Piercing Riveted Joints and Adhesively Bonded Self-Piercing Riveted Joints Connecting Steel and Aluminum Components

2020-04-14
2020-01-0177
This paper describes an experimental study on the performance of self-piercing riveted (SPR) joints and adhesively bonded SPR joints connecting steel and aluminum components under both quasi-static and cyclic loading. The joint configurations cover a wide range of material gauges, types and grades. Two and three thickness joints, with and without adhesive are also part of this study. Load versus deflection behavior, load carrying capacity, fatigue life and the failure modes for each type of joint are discussed. This study focuses on the influence of dissimilar material and adhesives to the joint performance.
Journal Article

Guidelines for SUV Bodywork Design Focused on Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Using the Generic AeroSUV Model

2020-04-14
2020-01-0478
SUV Aerodynamics has received increased attention as the stake this segments holds in the automotive market keeps growing year after year, as well as its direct impact on fuel economy. Understanding the key physics in order to accomplish both fuel efficient and aesthetic products is paramount, which indeed gave origin to a major initiative to foster collaborative aerodynamic research across academia and industry, the so-called DrivAer model. In addition to this sedan-based model, a new dedicated SUV generic model, called AeroSUV [1], has been introduced in 2019, also intended to provide a common framework for aerodynamic research for both experimental work and numerical simulation validation. The present paper provides an area of common ground for SUV bodywork design focused on aerodynamic drag reduction by investigating both Estate and Fast back configurations of the generic AeroSUV model.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Tow Hook and Bolted Joint Strength Behavior Using Virtual Test Simulation Technique

2020-04-14
2020-01-1399
There is an increasing demand for reducing vehicle development process and minimizing cost due to tough competition in Automotive market. One of the major focus areas is minimizing the vehicle proto build that are required for physical testing during vehicle development. Tow hooks are key structural components for the vehicle, which are designed to withstand structural strength performance under various vehicles towing condition. Typical extreme load scenario for the vehicle can be towing fully loaded vehicle breaks down on uphill road or stuck in wet muddy condition. To exercise the tow hook structural development in early design phase, it is important to have reliable simulation process. This paper focuses on development of virtual test simulation process that replicates the tow hook system test behavior for the operating load. The study includes the detail modeling of clevis load applicator, tow hook, bolt joint and attached test bed plate for capturing the load path.
Technical Paper

Predictive Break-In and Rapid Efficiency Characterization of Beam Axles

2020-04-14
2020-01-1413
Given continued industry focus on reducing parasitic losses, the ability to accurately measure the magnitude of losses on all driveline components is required. A standardized test procedure enables manufacturers and suppliers to measure component losses consistently, in addition to offering a reliable process to assess enablers for efficiency improvements. This paper reviews the development of SAE draft standard J3218, which is a comprehensive test procedure to break-in and characterize the efficiency of beam axles. Focus areas of the study included ensuring the axle’s efficiency does not change as it is being characterized, building a detailed map of efficiency at a wide range of operating points, and minimizing test time. The resulting break-in procedure uses an asymptotic regression approach to predict fully broken in efficiency of the axle and determine how much the efficiency of the axle changes during the characterization phase.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Clamp Loss and Subsequent Loosening of Automotive Hub-Knuckle Joints under Time-Varying Proving Ground Loading

2020-04-14
2020-01-0181
Threaded fasteners or bolted joints are used extensively in automotive assemblies. There are standard procedures to evaluate joint performance under block cycles or road loads. The deciding load case for such joint design is slippage analysis of the joint. There are studies done to evaluate the theoretical and experimental behavior of these joints. There are different ways of understanding the interaction between the bolt and the nut under different loading scenarios. However, none have provided a satisfactory method of quantifying bolt loosening or loss of clamp load under cyclic loading, where no slippage is observed. Under varying loads, initial relaxation of the joint is followed by a loss of clamping load. Below a critical value, complete loss of clamping load progresses very rapidly and this results in a loose joint.
Technical Paper

Reconciling Simultaneous Evolution of Ground Vehicle Capabilities and Operator Preferences

2020-04-14
2020-01-0172
An objective evaluation of ground vehicle performance is a challenging task. This is further exacerbated by the increasing level of autonomy, dynamically changing the roles and capabilities of these vehicles. In the context of decision making involving these vehicles, as the capabilities of the vehicles improve, there is a concurrent change in the preferences of the decision makers operating the vehicles that must be accounted for. Decision based methods are a natural choice when multiple conflicting attributes are present, however, most of the literature focuses on static preferences. In this paper, we provide a sequential Bayesian framework to accommodate time varying preferences. The utility function is considered a stochastic function with the shape parameters themselves being random variables. In the proposed approach, initially the shape parameters model either uncertain preferences or variation in the preferences because of the presence of multiple decision makers.
Journal Article

Review and Assessment of Frequency-Based Fatigue Damage Models

2016-04-05
2016-01-0369
Several popular frequency-based fatigue damage models (Wirsching and Light, Ortiz and Chen, Larsen and Lutes, Benascuitti and Tovo, Benascuitti and Tovo with α.75, Dirlik, Zhao and Baker, and Lalanne) are reviewed and assessed. Seventy power spectrum densities with varied amplitude, shape, and irregularity factors from Dirlik’s dissertation are used to study the accuracies of these methods. Recommendations on how to set up the inverse fast Fourier transform to synthesize load data and obtain accurate rainflow cycle counts are given. Since Dirlik’s method is the most commonly used one in industry, a comprehensive investigation of parameter setups for Dirlik’s method is presented. The mean error and standard deviation of the error between the frequency-based model and the rainflow cycle counting method was computed for fatigue slope exponent m ranging from 3 to 12.
Technical Paper

Review and Assessment of Multiaxial Fatigue Limit Models

2020-04-14
2020-01-0192
The purpose of this paper is to provide a comparison of multiaxial fatigue limit models and their correlation to experimental data. This paper investigates equivalent stress, critical plane and invariant-based multiaxial fatigue models. Several methods are investigated and compared based on ability to predict multiaxial fatigue limits from data published in literature. The equivalent stress based model developed by Lee, Tjhung and Jordan (LTJ), provides very accurate predictions of the fatigue limit under multiaxial loading due to its ability to account for non-proportional loading. This accuracy comes from the model constant which is calculated based on multiaxial fatigue data. This is the only model investigated that requires multiaxial fatigue testing to generate the model parameters. All other models rely on uniaxial test results.
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