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Journal Article

A Case Study on Clean Side Duct Radiated Shell Noise Prediction

2017-03-28
2017-01-0444
Engine air induction shell noise is a structure borne noise that radiates from the surface of the air induction system. The noise is driven by pulsating engine induction air and is perceived as annoying by vehicle passengers. The problem is aggravated by the vehicle design demands for low weight components packaged in an increasingly tight under hood environment. Shell noise problems are often not discovered until production intent parts are available and tested on the vehicle. Part changes are often necessary which threatens program timing. Shell noise should be analyzed in the air induction system design phase and a good shell noise analytical process and targets must be defined. Several air induction clean side ducts are selected for this study. The ducts shell noise is assessed in terms of material strength and structural stiffness. A measurement process is developed to evaluate shell noise of the air induction components. Noise levels are measured inside of the clean side ducts.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on Reducing the Fuel Pulse Noise from Gasoline Engine Injectors

2020-04-14
2020-01-1276
There are many noise sources from the vehicle fuel system to generate noise inside a vehicle. Among them, the pressure pulsation due to the rapid opening and closing of gasoline engine injectors can cause undesirable fuel pulse noise. As the pressure pulsation propagates in the fuel supply line toward to rear end of the vehicle, the pressure energy is transferred from fuel lines to the vehicle underbody through clips and into the passenger compartment. It is crucial to attenuate the pressure pulsation inside the fuel line to reduce the fuel pulse noise. In this paper, a case study on developing an effective countermeasure to reduce the objectionable fuel pulse noise of a V8 gasoline injection system at engine idle condition is presented. First, the interior noise of a prototype vehicle was tested and the objectionable fuel pulse noise is exhibited. The problem frequency ranges of the pulse noise were identified.
Journal Article

A New Approach to Understanding Planetary Gear Train Efficiency and Powerflow

2020-04-14
2020-01-0432
Understanding planetary gear efficiency is more involved than understanding efficiency of external gears because of the recirculating power that is inherent in planetary gear operation. There have been several publications going back several decades on this topic. However, many of these publications are mathematical in their approach and tend to be overlooked by practicing engineers. This paper brings a new, more visual and more intuitive approach to the problem. It uses lever diagrams, which have been a standard tool in the transmission engineer’s arsenal for almost four decades, to visualize the power flow and develop analytical expressions for the efficiency of simple and compound planetary gears. It then extends the approach to more complex gear trains.
Technical Paper

A Novel DoE based Front-End Airflow Target Setting Approach for Optimum HVAC Cool Down Performance

2018-04-03
2018-01-0786
The front-end air flow conditions have a substantial impact on the cool down performance of a vehicle Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system. The performance of a mobile HVAC system is analyzed by conducting tests on the vehicle in a drive cell, subjecting it to different drive cycles. This now can be done virtually using system level simulation or one-dimensional (1D) tools. Target values for condenser air inlet velocity and temperature for these HVAC performance focused drive cycles needs to be established during the development phase to meet the cool down functional objectives of the vehicle. Thus, in the early stages of development, 1D tools play a major role. Condenser air flow should be sufficient and the temperature should be as low as possible at different vehicle operating conditions to have good air-conditioning (AC) performance.
Technical Paper

A Novel Kalman Filter Based Road Grade Estimation Method

2020-04-14
2020-01-0563
This paper presents a novel Kalman filter based road grade estimation method using measurements from an accelerometer, a gyroscope and a velocity sensor. The accelerometer measures the longitudinal proper acceleration of the vehicle, and the accelerometer measurement is almost drift free but it is heavily corrupted by the accelerometer noise. The gyroscope measures the pitch rate of the vehicle, and the gyroscope measurement is quite clean but it is substantially disturbed by the gyroscope bias. The velocity sensor measures the longitudinal velocity of the vehicle, and the velocity sensor measurement is also considerably corrupted by the measurement noise. The developed Kalman filter based estimation method uses the models of the sensors and their outputs, and fuses the sensor measurements to optimally estimate the road grade. The simulation results show that the developed method is very effective in producing an accurate road grade estimate.
Technical Paper

A Study on Robust Air Induction Snorkel Volume Velocity Prediction Using DFSS Approach

2016-04-05
2016-01-0480
The noise radiated from the snorkel of an air induction system (AIS) can be a major noise source to the vehicle interior noise. This noise source is typically quantified as the snorkel volume velocity which is directly related to vehicle interior noise through the vehicle noise transfer function. It is important to predict the snorkel volume velocity robustly at the early design stage for the AIS development. Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) is an engineering approach that supports the new product development process. The IDDOV (Identify-Define-Develop-Optimize-Verify) method is a DFSS approach which can be used for creating innovative, low cost and trouble free products on significant short schedules. In this paper, an IDD project which is one type of DFSS project using IDDOV method is presented on developing a robust simulation process to predict the AIS snorkel volume velocity. First, the IDDOV method is overviewed and the innovative tools in each phase of IDDOV are introduced.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Performance Analysis of Automotive HVAC Duct Designs Using a Lattice-Boltzmann Based Method and Correlation with Hemi-Anechoic Chamber

2020-04-14
2020-01-1263
Acoustic comfort of automotive cabins has progressively become one of the key attributes of passenger comfort within vehicle design. Wind noise and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system noise are two of the key contributors to noise levels heard inside the car. The increasing prevalence of hybrid technologies and electrification has an associated reduction in powertrain noise levels. As such, the industry has seen an increasing focus on understanding and minimizing HVAC noise, as it is a main source of noise in the cabin particularly when the vehicle is stationary. The complex turbulent flow path through the ducts, combined with acoustic resonances can potentially lead to significant noise generation, both broadband and tonal.
Technical Paper

Air Induction Impact on Turbocharger Noise and Thermodynamic Performance

2020-04-14
2020-01-0426
The trend to simultaneously improve fuel economy and engine performance has led to industry growth of turbocharged engines and as a result, the need to address their undesirable airborne noise attributes. This presents some unique engineering challenges as higher customer expectations for Noise Vibration Harshness (NVH), and other vehicle-level attributes increase over time. Turbocharged engines possess higher frequency noise content compared to naturally aspirated engines. Therefore, as an outcome, whoosh noise in the Air Induction System (AIS) during tip in conditions is an undesirable attribute that requires high frequency attenuation enablers. The traditional method for attenuation of this type of noise has been to use resonators which adds cost, weight and requires packaging space that is often at a premium in the under-hood environment.
Journal Article

Automobile Powertrain Sound Quality Development Using a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Approach

2015-06-15
2015-01-2336
Automotive companies are studying to add extra value in their vehicles by enhancing powertrain sound quality. The objective is to create a brand sound that is unique and preferred by their customers since quietness is not always the most desired characteristic, especially for high-performance products. This paper describes the process of developing a brand powertrain sound for a high-performance vehicle using the DFSS methodology. Initially the customer's preferred sound was identified and analyzed. This was achieved by subjective evaluations through voice-of-customer clinics using vehicles of similar specifications. Objective data were acquired during several driving conditions. In order for the design process to be effective, it is very important to understand the relationship between subjective results and physical quantities of sound. Several sound quality metrics were calculated during the data analysis process.
Technical Paper

Automotive Dimensional Quality Control with Geometry Tree Process

2020-04-14
2020-01-0480
Geometry Tree is a term describing the product assembly structure and the manufacturing process for the product. The concept refers to the assembly structure of the final vehicle (the Part Tree) and the assembly process and tools for the final product (the Process Tree). In the past few years, the Geometry Tree-based quality process was piloted in the FCA US LLC assembly plants and has since evolved into a standardized quality control process. In the Part Tree process, the coordinated measurements and naming convention are enforced throughout the different levels of detailed products to sub-assemblies and measurement processes. The Process Tree, on the other hand, includes both prominently identified assembly tools and the mapping of key product characteristics to key assembly tools. The benefits of directly tying critical customer characteristics to actual machine components that have a high propensity to influence them is both preventive and reactive.
Technical Paper

CAE Cooling Module Noise and Vibration Prediction Methodology and Challenges

2020-04-14
2020-01-1262
In the NVH domain, the cooling module is an important subsystem in ground vehicles. Recently, with the development of small high output turbocharged internal combustion (IC) engines, cooling module noise and vibration has become more challenging. Furthermore, with plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), in some cases the cooling fan could be operational while the IC engine is not running. This poses a significant challenge for cabin noise enhancement. Small turbocharged IC engines typically require higher cooling capacity resulting in larger fan size designs with higher speed. Accurate prediction of the unbalance loads generated by cooling fan and loads transferred to the body are critical for the Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) performance of the vehicle. If the NVH risk of cooling module operation is not well quantified and addressed early in the program, attempts to find solutions in post launch stage could be very expensive and not as effective.
Technical Paper

CAE Simulation of Automotive Door Upper Frame Deflection Using Aerodynamic Loads

2018-04-03
2018-01-0716
Upper frame deflection of automobile doors is a key design attribute that influences structural integrity and door seal performance as related to NVH. This is a critical customer quality perception attribute and is a key enabler to ensure wind noise performance is acceptable. This paper provides an overview of two simulation methodologies to predict door upper frame deflection. A simplified simulation approach using point loads is presented along with its limitations and is compared to a new method that uses CFD tools to estimate aerodynamic loads on body panels at various vehicle speeds and wind directions. The approach consisted of performing external aerodynamic CFD simulation and using the aerodynamic loads as inputs to a CAE simulation. The details of the methodology are presented along with results and correlation to experimental data from the wind tunnel.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of an Objective Metric for Transient Engine Clatter Noise

2019-06-05
2019-01-1519
Several powertrain noise phenomena have been studied over the years. Sound quality metrics, like loudness, sharpness, modulation, and tonality, among others, have been developed to characterize powertrain noises. While these readily available metrics work well on steady state and some transient noises, they do not correlate directly with subjective impressions. Moreover, it is difficult to assign a meaningful single rating for time varying noises that may also be associated with simultaneous variations in frequency content. This paper summarizes the process of creating a vehicle level objective metric and its application to blind noise samples to verify correlation with subjective impressions, particularly in association with clatter noise at moderate engine speeds (2000-3500 rpm) with light to moderate throttle tip-ins.
Technical Paper

Development of a Robust AIS Parametric Model for V8 Engines Using Design for Six Sigma Approach

2018-04-03
2018-01-0140
The automotive Air Induction System (AIS) is an important part of the engine systems which delivers the air to the engine. A well-designed AIS should have low flow restriction and radiates a good quality sound at the snorkel. The GT-Power simulation tool has been widely utilized to evaluate the snorkel noise in industry. In Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, the simulation method enhanced with Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) approach has been developed and implemented in AIS development to meet the functional requirements. The development work included different types of DFSS projects such as identifying new concept, robust optimization and robust assessment etc. In this paper, the work of a robust optimization project is presented on developing an AIS parametric model to achieve optimized snorkel noise performance for a V8 engine. First, the theory of AIS acoustic modeling using GT-power and DFSS robust optimization using Taguchi’s parameter design method are described.
Technical Paper

Dimension Study of Punched Hole Using Conical Tipped Punches

2016-04-05
2016-01-0364
Dimensional problems for punched holes on a sheet metal stamping part include being undersized and oversized. Some important relationships among tools and products, such as the effect of conical punch tip angle, are not fully understood. To study this effect, sheets of AA6016 aluminum and BH210 steel were punched by punches with different conical tip angles. The test method and test results are presented. The piercing force and withdrawing force when using conical punches were also studied. The results indicate that the oversize issue for a punched hole in a stamped panel is largely due to the combination of the conical tip effect and the stretching-release effect.
Technical Paper

Effects of Punch Shapes and Cutting Configurations on the Dimensional Accuracy of Punched Holes on an AHSS Sheet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0800
Dimensional accuracy of punched hole is an essential consideration for high-quality sheet metal forming. An out-of-shape hole can give rise to manufacturing issues in the subsequent production processes thus inducing quality defects on a vehicle body. To understand the effects of punch shapes and cutting configurations on punched hole diameter deviations, a systematical experimental study was conducted for multiple types of AHSS (DP1180, DP980, DP590) and one mild steel. Flat, conical and rooftop punches were tested respectively with three cutting clearances on each material. The measurement results indicated different diameter enlargement modes based on the punch profiles, and dimensional discrepancies were found to be more significant with the stronger materials and higher cutting clearance. To uncover the mechanism of punched hole enlargement, a series of finite element simulations were established for numerical investigation.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Windshield CAE NVH Model for Interior Cabin Noise

2020-04-14
2020-01-1100
This paper describes a reliable CAE methodology to model the linear vibratory behavior of windshields. The windshield is an important component in vehicle NVH performance. It plays an integral role in interior cabin noise. The windshield acts as a large panel typically oriented near vertical at the front of vehicle’s acoustic cavity, hence modeling it accurately is essential to have a reliable prediction of cabin interior noise. The challenge to model the windshield accurately rises from the structural composition of different types of windshields. For automotive applications, windshields come in several structural compositions today. In this paper, we will discuss two types of windshield glass used primarily by automotive manufacturers. First type is the typical laminated glass with polyvinyl butyral (PVB) layer and second type is the acoustic glass with PVB and vinyl layers. Acoustic glass improves acoustic characteristics of the glass in a frequency range of ~ 1200 Hz to ~4000 Hz.
Technical Paper

Equivalent Damping Added by Sound Package

2020-04-14
2020-01-1397
In Automotive and Aerospace industries, sound package has an important role to control vehicle noise in order to improve passenger comfort and reduce environmental noise pollution. The most known approaches used to model the sound package are the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) combined with Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA). The Transfer Matrix Method based approach is extensively used and well-validated for predicting the transmission loss and other vibro-acoustic indicators of multi-layer structures. However, to the best of our knowledge, the equivalent damping due to the multilayer has not been addressed yet in the literature, and it's a novel approach. In this paper, simplified formulations using TMM to compute the equivalent damping will be recalled, and an experimental study will be conducted to assess the add-on damping by sound package for different configurations.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Prog-Die Wear Properties on Bare DP1180 Steel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0310
The die wear up to 80,800 hits on a prog-die setup for bare DP1180 steel was investigated in real production condition. In total, 31 die inserts with the combination of 11 die materials and 9 coatings were evaluated. The analytical results of die service life for each insert were provided by examining the evolution of surface wear on inserts and formed parts. The moments of appearance of die defects, propagation of die defects, and catastrophic failure were determined. Moreover, the surface roughness of the formed parts for each die insert was characterized using Wyko NT110 machine. The objectives of the current study are to evaluate the die durability of various tooling materials and coatings for flange operations on bare DP 1180 steel and update OEM tooling standards based on the experimental results. The current study provides the guidance for the die material and coating selections in large volume production for next generation AHSSs.
Technical Paper

HVAC System Bench Test Analysis for TXV Tuning

2018-04-03
2018-01-0070
In today’s automotive industry, the A/C (Air-conditioning) system is emerging into a high level of technological growth to provide quick cooling, warm up and maintaining the air quality of the cabin during all-weather conditions. In HVAC system, TXV plays vital role by separating high side to low side of vapor compression refrigeration system. It also regulates the amount of refrigerant flow to the evaporator based on A/C system load. The HVAC system bench laboratory conducts the test at different system load conditions to evaluate the outputs from tests during initial development stage to select the right TXV in terms of capacity and Superheat set point for a given system. This process is critical in HVAC developmental activity, since mule cars will be equipped with selected TXV for initial assessment of the system performance.
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