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Journal Article

A Stress-Based Non-Proportionality Parameter for Considering the Resistance of Slip Systems of Shear Failure Mode Materials

2016-04-11
2016-01-9081
Multiaxial loading on mechanical products is very common in the automotive industry, and how to design and analyze these products for durability becomes an important, urgent task for the engineering community. Due to the complex nature of the fatigue damage mechanism for a product under multiaxial state of stresses/strains which are dependent upon the modes of loading, materials, and life, modeling this behavior has always been a challenging task for fatigue scientists and engineers around the world. As a result, many multiaxial fatigue theories have been developed. Among all the theories, an existing equivalent stress theory is considered for use for the automotive components that are typically designed to prevent Case B cracks in the high cycle fatigue regime.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Drag of a Vehicle and Trailer Combination in Yaw

2017-03-28
2017-01-1540
Typical production vehicle development includes road testing of a vehicle towing a trailer to evaluate powertrain thermal performance. In order to correlate tests with simulations, the aerodynamic effects of pulling a trailer behind a vehicle must be estimated. During real world operation a vehicle often encounters cross winds. Therefore, the effects of cross winds on the drag of a vehicle–trailer combination should be taken into account. Improving the accuracy of aerodynamic load prediction for a vehicle-trailer combination should in turn lead to improved simulations and better thermal performance. In order to best simulate conditions for real world trailer towing, a study was performed using reduced scale models of a Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) and a Pickup Truck (PT) towing a medium size cargo trailer. The scale model vehicle and trailer combinations were tested in a full scale wind tunnel.
Technical Paper

CAE Simulation of Automotive Door Upper Frame Deflection Using Aerodynamic Loads

2018-04-03
2018-01-0716
Upper frame deflection of automobile doors is a key design attribute that influences structural integrity and door seal performance as related to NVH. This is a critical customer quality perception attribute and is a key enabler to ensure wind noise performance is acceptable. This paper provides an overview of two simulation methodologies to predict door upper frame deflection. A simplified simulation approach using point loads is presented along with its limitations and is compared to a new method that uses CFD tools to estimate aerodynamic loads on body panels at various vehicle speeds and wind directions. The approach consisted of performing external aerodynamic CFD simulation and using the aerodynamic loads as inputs to a CAE simulation. The details of the methodology are presented along with results and correlation to experimental data from the wind tunnel.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Prog-Die Wear Properties on Bare DP1180 Steel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0310
The die wear up to 80,800 hits on a prog-die setup for bare DP1180 steel was investigated in real production condition. In total, 31 die inserts with the combination of 11 die materials and 9 coatings were evaluated. The analytical results of die service life for each insert were provided by examining the evolution of surface wear on inserts and formed parts. The moments of appearance of die defects, propagation of die defects, and catastrophic failure were determined. Moreover, the surface roughness of the formed parts for each die insert was characterized using Wyko NT110 machine. The objectives of the current study are to evaluate the die durability of various tooling materials and coatings for flange operations on bare DP 1180 steel and update OEM tooling standards based on the experimental results. The current study provides the guidance for the die material and coating selections in large volume production for next generation AHSSs.
Journal Article

Guidelines for SUV Bodywork Design Focused on Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Using the Generic AeroSUV Model

2020-04-14
2020-01-0478
SUV Aerodynamics has received increased attention as the stake this segments holds in the automotive market keeps growing year after year, as well as its direct impact on fuel economy. Understanding the key physics in order to accomplish both fuel efficient and aesthetic products is paramount, which indeed gave origin to a major initiative to foster collaborative aerodynamic research across academia and industry, the so-called DrivAer model. In addition to this sedan-based model, a new dedicated SUV generic model, called AeroSUV [1], has been introduced in 2019, also intended to provide a common framework for aerodynamic research for both experimental work and numerical simulation validation. The present paper provides an area of common ground for SUV bodywork design focused on aerodynamic drag reduction by investigating both Estate and Fast back configurations of the generic AeroSUV model.
Technical Paper

Impact of Active-Grille Shutter Position on Vehicle Air-Conditioning System Performance and Energy Consumption in Real World Conditions

2020-04-14
2020-01-0947
Active grille shutter (AGS) in a vehicle provides aerodynamic benefit at high vehicle speed by closing the front-end grille opening. At the same time this causes lesser air flow through the cooling module which includes the condenser. This results in higher refrigerant pressure at the compressor outlet. Higher head pressure causes the compressor to work more, thereby possibly negating the aerodynamic benefits towards vehicle power consumption. This paper uses a numerical method to quantify the compressor power consumed in different scenarios and assesses the impact of AGS closure on total vehicle energy consumption. The goal is to analyze the trade-off between the aerodynamic performance and the compressor power consumption at high vehicle speeds and mid-ambient conditions. These so called real world conditions represent highway driving at mid-ambient temperatures where the air-conditioning (AC) load is not heavy.
Journal Article

LES of Diesel and Gasoline Sprays with Validation against X-Ray Radiography Data

2015-04-14
2015-01-0931
This paper focuses on detailed numerical simulations of direct injection diesel and gasoline sprays from production grade, multi-hole injectors. In a dual-fuel engine the direct injection of both the fuels can facilitate appropriate mixture preparation prior to ignition and combustion. Diesel and gasoline sprays were simulated using high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with the dynamic structure sub-grid scale model. Numerical predictions of liquid penetration, fuel density distribution as well as transverse integrated mass (TIM) at different axial locations versus time were compared against x-ray radiography data obtained from Argonne National Laboratory. A necessary, but often overlooked, criterion of grid-convergence is ensured by using Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) for both diesel and gasoline. Nine different realizations were performed and the effects of random seeds on spray behavior were investigated.
Journal Article

Practical Implementation of the Two-Measurement Correction Method in Automotive Wind Tunnels

2015-04-14
2015-01-1530
In recent years, there has been renewed attention focused on open jet correction methods, in particular on the two-measurement method of E. Mercker, K. Cooper, and co-workers. This method accounts for blockage and static pressure gradient effects in automotive wind tunnels and has been shown by both computations and experiments to appropriately adjust drag coefficients towards an on-road condition, thus allowing results from different wind tunnels to be compared on a more equitable basis. However, most wind tunnels have yet to adopt the method as standard practice due to difficulties in practical application. In particular, it is necessary to measure the aerodynamic forces on every vehicle configuration in two different static pressure gradients to capture that portion of the correction. Building on earlier proof-of-concept work, this paper demonstrates a practical method for implementing the two-measurement procedure and demonstrates how it can be used for production testing.
Technical Paper

Reconciling Simultaneous Evolution of Ground Vehicle Capabilities and Operator Preferences

2020-04-14
2020-01-0172
An objective evaluation of ground vehicle performance is a challenging task. This is further exacerbated by the increasing level of autonomy, dynamically changing the roles and capabilities of these vehicles. In the context of decision making involving these vehicles, as the capabilities of the vehicles improve, there is a concurrent change in the preferences of the decision makers operating the vehicles that must be accounted for. Decision based methods are a natural choice when multiple conflicting attributes are present, however, most of the literature focuses on static preferences. In this paper, we provide a sequential Bayesian framework to accommodate time varying preferences. The utility function is considered a stochastic function with the shape parameters themselves being random variables. In the proposed approach, initially the shape parameters model either uncertain preferences or variation in the preferences because of the presence of multiple decision makers.
Journal Article

Review and Assessment of Frequency-Based Fatigue Damage Models

2016-04-05
2016-01-0369
Several popular frequency-based fatigue damage models (Wirsching and Light, Ortiz and Chen, Larsen and Lutes, Benascuitti and Tovo, Benascuitti and Tovo with α.75, Dirlik, Zhao and Baker, and Lalanne) are reviewed and assessed. Seventy power spectrum densities with varied amplitude, shape, and irregularity factors from Dirlik’s dissertation are used to study the accuracies of these methods. Recommendations on how to set up the inverse fast Fourier transform to synthesize load data and obtain accurate rainflow cycle counts are given. Since Dirlik’s method is the most commonly used one in industry, a comprehensive investigation of parameter setups for Dirlik’s method is presented. The mean error and standard deviation of the error between the frequency-based model and the rainflow cycle counting method was computed for fatigue slope exponent m ranging from 3 to 12.
Technical Paper

Review and Assessment of Multiaxial Fatigue Limit Models

2020-04-14
2020-01-0192
The purpose of this paper is to provide a comparison of multiaxial fatigue limit models and their correlation to experimental data. This paper investigates equivalent stress, critical plane and invariant-based multiaxial fatigue models. Several methods are investigated and compared based on ability to predict multiaxial fatigue limits from data published in literature. The equivalent stress based model developed by Lee, Tjhung and Jordan (LTJ), provides very accurate predictions of the fatigue limit under multiaxial loading due to its ability to account for non-proportional loading. This accuracy comes from the model constant which is calculated based on multiaxial fatigue data. This is the only model investigated that requires multiaxial fatigue testing to generate the model parameters. All other models rely on uniaxial test results.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Aerodynamic Drag Coefficient to EPA Coastdown Ambient Condition Variation

2020-04-14
2020-01-0666
The test cycle average drag coefficient is examined for the variation of allowable EPA coastdown ambient conditions. Coastdown tests are ideally performed with zero wind and at SAE standard conditions. However, often there is some variability in actual ambient weather conditions during testing, and the range of acceptable conditions is further examined in detail as it pertains to the effect on aerodynamic drag derived from the coastdown data. In order to “box” the conditions acceptable during a coastdown test, a sensitivity analysis was performed for wind averaged drag ( CD¯) as well as test cycle averaged drag coefficients (CDWC) for the fuel economy test cycles. Test cycle average drag for average wind speeds up to 16 km/h and temperatures ranging from 5C to 35C, along with variation of barometric pressure and relative humidity are calculated. The significant effect of ambient cross winds on coastdown determined drag coefficient is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Coastdown Test Wind Averaged Drag Coefficient for Several Functions of Drag Coefficient vs. Speed

2020-04-14
2020-01-0663
This paper will explore the effect that non-constant function CD (as observed during wind tunnel testing) would have on the coastdown derived drag coefficient and other regulatory drive cycles. It is common in wind tunnel testing to observe road vehicle drag coefficients that vary with speed. These varying CD values as a function of velocity will be expressed as CD(V) in this paper. Wind tunnel testing for product development is generally conducted at 110 km/h (68.3 mph) which are similar speeds and typical of the United States (US), European, and Asian highway speeds. Reported values of CD are generally gathered at these speeds. However, coastdown testing by definition takes place over a large range of speeds mostly lower than the wind tunnel test speeds. This paper will explore the effect that six typical functions of CD(V) have on the coastdown derived CD. One of the six functions is a constant, to represent a wind tunnel reported CD.
Technical Paper

Study of Ausferrite Transformation Kinetics for Austempered Ductile Irons with and without Ni

2016-04-05
2016-01-0421
This research studies the transformation kinetics of austempered ductile iron (ADI) with and without nickel as the main alloying element. ADI has improved mechanical properties compared to ductile iron due to its ausferrite microstructure. Not only can austempered ductile iron be produced with high strength, high toughness and high wear resistance, the ductility of ADI can also be increased due to high carbon content austenite. Many factors influence the transformation of phases in ADI. In the present work, the addition of nickel was investigated based on transformation kinetics and metallography observation. The transformation fractions were determined by Rockwell hardness variations of ADI specimens. The calculation of transformation kinetics and activation energy using the “Avrami Equation” and “Arrhenius Equation” is done to describe effects of nickel alloy for phase reactions.
Journal Article

Turbulence Models and Model Closure Coefficients Sensitivity of NASCAR Racecar RANS CFD Aerodynamic Predictions

2017-03-28
2017-01-1547
Cost benefit and teraflop restrictions imposed by racing sanctioning bodies make steady-state RANS CFD simulation a widely accepted first approximation tool for aerodynamics evaluations in motorsports, in spite of its limitations. Research involving generic and simplified vehicle bodies has shown that the veracity of aerodynamic CFD predictions strongly depends on the turbulence model being used. Also, the ability of a turbulence model to accurately predict aerodynamic characteristics can be vehicle shape dependent as well. Modifications to the turbulence model coefficients in some of the models have the potential to improve the predictive capability for a particular vehicle shape. This paper presents a systematic study of turbulence modeling effects on the prediction of aerodynamic characteristics of a NASCAR Gen-6 Cup racecar. Steady-state RANS simulations are completed using a commercial CFD package, STAR-CCM+, from CD-Adapco.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Attitude Changes from Aerodynamic Forces

2018-04-03
2018-01-0711
A vehicle driving down the road naturally pitches, rolls and heaves due to road inputs (for example, bumps, potholes, driving dynamics, etc.) and also due to the influence of aerodynamic forces. The vehicle attitude changes directly as a result of aerodynamic forces that can be seen during wind tunnel testing of production level vehicles, with some measurements possible in order to evaluate the aerodynamics effects. This naturally occurring phenomenon is not always represented in aerodynamics simulations, either for reduced scale models or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations or even rigid body full scale testing. It can be shown through visual techniques how much deflection is typically occurring, including both vehicle attitude changes as well as vehicle body distortions. From the analysis, an adjustment to the CFD models can be made to compensate for the aerodynamics effects.
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