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Technical Paper

A DFSS Approach to Optimize the Second Row Floor Duct Using Parametric Modelling

2017-03-28
2017-01-0176
The main function of mobile air conditioning system in a vehicle is to provide the thermal comfort to the occupants sitting inside the vehicle at all environmental conditions. The function of ducts is to get the sufficient airflow from the HVAC system and distribute the airflow evenly throughout the cabin. In this paper, the focus is to optimize the rear passenger floor duct system to meet the target requirements through design for six sigma (DFSS) methodology. Computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD) has been used extensively to optimize system performance and shorten the product development time. In this methodology, a parametric modeling of floor duct design using the factors such as crossectional area, duct length, insulation type, insulation thickness and thickness of duct were created using CATIA. L12 orthogonal design array matrix has been created and the 3D CFD analysis has been carried out individually to check the velocity and temperature.
Technical Paper

A Robust Cargo Box Structure Development Using DFSS Methodology

2020-04-14
2020-01-0601
A cargo box is a key structure in a pickup truck which is used to hold various items. Therefore, a cargo box must be durable and robust under different ballast conditions when subjected to road load inputs. This paper discusses a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) approach to improve the durability of cargo box panel in its early development phase. Traditional methods and best practices resulted in multiple iterations without an obvious solution. Hence, DFSS tools were proposed to find a robust and optimum solution. Key control factors/design parameters were identified, and L18 Orthogonal Array was chosen to optimize design using CAE tools. The optimum design selected was the one with the minimum stress level and the least stress variation. This design was confirmed to have significant improvement and robustness compared to the initial design. DFSS identified load paths which helped teams finally come up with integrated shear plate to resolve the durability concern.
Technical Paper

A Simulation-Based Approach to Incorporate Uncertainty in Reliability Growth Planning (RGP)

2020-04-14
2020-01-0742
The development of complex engineering systems often encounters various challenges in terms of meeting New Product Development (NPD) assigned budget, launch time, and system performance goals. Most of the NPD processes have been experiencing challenges to meet these goals within an increasingly competitive global market environment. These challenges become more complicated to manage when the development process is long with different sources of uncertainty. Despite decades of industrial experience and academic research efforts in managing NPD processes, it is observed that designing and developing increasingly complex systems, e.g., automotive, is still subjected to significant cost overrun, schedule delays, and functional issues during early design stages. To provide a Reliability Growth Planning (RGP) model, several inputs are required, e.g., the initial reliability estimation, the reliability goal, test recourses, and the duration of the design or test period.
Technical Paper

A Study on Robust Air Induction Snorkel Volume Velocity Prediction Using DFSS Approach

2016-04-05
2016-01-0480
The noise radiated from the snorkel of an air induction system (AIS) can be a major noise source to the vehicle interior noise. This noise source is typically quantified as the snorkel volume velocity which is directly related to vehicle interior noise through the vehicle noise transfer function. It is important to predict the snorkel volume velocity robustly at the early design stage for the AIS development. Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) is an engineering approach that supports the new product development process. The IDDOV (Identify-Define-Develop-Optimize-Verify) method is a DFSS approach which can be used for creating innovative, low cost and trouble free products on significant short schedules. In this paper, an IDD project which is one type of DFSS project using IDDOV method is presented on developing a robust simulation process to predict the AIS snorkel volume velocity. First, the IDDOV method is overviewed and the innovative tools in each phase of IDDOV are introduced.
Technical Paper

Adapting Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Methodology for Diesel Lean NOx Trap (LNT) Catalyst Screening

2016-04-05
2016-01-0953
In order to meet LEV III, EURO 6C and Beijing 6 emission levels, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) can potentially implement unique aftertreatment systems solutions which meet the varying legislated requirements. The availability of various washcoat substrates and PGM loading and ratio options, make selection of an optimum catalyst system challenging, time consuming and costly. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodologies have been used in industry since the 1990s. One of the earliest applications was at Motorola where the methodology was applied to the design and production of a paging device which Consumer Reports called “virtually defect-proof”.[1] Since then, the methodology has evolved to not only encapsulate complicated “Variation Optimization” but also “Design Optimization” where multiple factors are in play. In this study, attempts are made to adapt the DFSS concept and methodology to identify and optimize a catalyst for diesel applications.
Journal Article

Automobile Powertrain Sound Quality Development Using a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Approach

2015-06-15
2015-01-2336
Automotive companies are studying to add extra value in their vehicles by enhancing powertrain sound quality. The objective is to create a brand sound that is unique and preferred by their customers since quietness is not always the most desired characteristic, especially for high-performance products. This paper describes the process of developing a brand powertrain sound for a high-performance vehicle using the DFSS methodology. Initially the customer's preferred sound was identified and analyzed. This was achieved by subjective evaluations through voice-of-customer clinics using vehicles of similar specifications. Objective data were acquired during several driving conditions. In order for the design process to be effective, it is very important to understand the relationship between subjective results and physical quantities of sound. Several sound quality metrics were calculated during the data analysis process.
Technical Paper

Automotive Dimensional Quality Control with Geometry Tree Process

2020-04-14
2020-01-0480
Geometry Tree is a term describing the product assembly structure and the manufacturing process for the product. The concept refers to the assembly structure of the final vehicle (the Part Tree) and the assembly process and tools for the final product (the Process Tree). In the past few years, the Geometry Tree-based quality process was piloted in the FCA US LLC assembly plants and has since evolved into a standardized quality control process. In the Part Tree process, the coordinated measurements and naming convention are enforced throughout the different levels of detailed products to sub-assemblies and measurement processes. The Process Tree, on the other hand, includes both prominently identified assembly tools and the mapping of key product characteristics to key assembly tools. The benefits of directly tying critical customer characteristics to actual machine components that have a high propensity to influence them is both preventive and reactive.
Technical Paper

Automotive HVAC Dual Unit System Cool-Down Optimization Using a DFSS Approach

2019-04-02
2019-01-0892
Automotive AC systems are typically either single unit or dual unit systems, while the dual unit systems have an additional rear evaporator. The refrigerant evaporates inside these heat exchangers by taking heat and condensing the moisture from the recirculated or fresh air that is being pushed into the car cabin by air blowers. This incoming cold air in turn brings the cabin temperature and humidity to a level that is comfortable for the passengers. These HVAC units have their own thermal expansion valve to set the refrigerant flow, but both are connected to the main AC refrigerant loop. The airflows, however, are controlled independently for front and rear unit that can affect the temperature and amount of air coming into the cabin from each location and consequently the overall cabin cool-down performance.
Technical Paper

CAE Based Development of an Ejection Mitigation (FMVSS 226) SABIC using Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Approach

2015-04-14
2015-01-1473
NHTSA issued the FMVSS 226 ruling in 2011. It established test procedures to evaluate countermeasures that can minimize the likelihood of a complete or partial ejection of vehicle occupants through the side windows during rollover or side impact events. One of the countermeasures that may be used for compliance of this safety ruling is the Side Airbag Inflatable Curtain (SABIC). This paper discusses how three key phases of the optimization strategy in the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), namely, Identify; Optimize and Verify (I_OV), were implemented in CAE to develop an optimized concept SABIC with respect to the FMVSS 226 test requirements. The simulated SABIC is intended for a generic SUV and potentially also for a generic Truck type vehicle. The improved performance included: minimization of the test results variability and the optimization of the ejection mitigation performance of the SABIC.
Technical Paper

CAE Simulation of Automotive Door Upper Frame Deflection Using Aerodynamic Loads

2018-04-03
2018-01-0716
Upper frame deflection of automobile doors is a key design attribute that influences structural integrity and door seal performance as related to NVH. This is a critical customer quality perception attribute and is a key enabler to ensure wind noise performance is acceptable. This paper provides an overview of two simulation methodologies to predict door upper frame deflection. A simplified simulation approach using point loads is presented along with its limitations and is compared to a new method that uses CFD tools to estimate aerodynamic loads on body panels at various vehicle speeds and wind directions. The approach consisted of performing external aerodynamic CFD simulation and using the aerodynamic loads as inputs to a CAE simulation. The details of the methodology are presented along with results and correlation to experimental data from the wind tunnel.
Journal Article

Considerations of Vibration Fatigue for Automotive Components

2017-03-28
2017-01-0380
As an automobile is driven, its components and structures consistently experience the random excitations from road inputs and periodic vibration from engine firing. This could cause durability issues if the component structure isn’t fully validated. Vibration fatigue is a field of study regarding the assessment and improvement of a component’s or system’s robustness to vibration inputs. This paper introduces aspects of vibration fatigue to help designers, release engineers, and test engineers better understand the requirements, testing methodologies available, and strategies for improving vibration fatigue performance for the design and validation testing of their products. Vibration characteristics such as typical vibration levels and frequency content for varied areas in the automotive environment are introduced. Methodologies available for conducting actual vibration testing are introduced with listed advantages and disadvantages.
Journal Article

Degradation Analysis of Flexible Film Cables in an Automotive Environment

2017-03-28
2017-01-0317
Automobiles have a high degree of mechanical and electrical complexity. However, product complexity has the accompanying effect of requiring high levels of design and process oversight. The net result is a product creation process which is prone to creating failures. These failures typically have their origin in an overall lack of complete understanding of the system in terms of materials, geometries and energy flows. Despite all of the engineering intentions, failures are inevitable, common, and must be dealt with accordingly. In the worst case, if a failure manifests itself into an observable failure the customer may have a negative experience. Therefore, it is imperative that design engineers, suppliers along with reliability professionals be able to assess the design risk. One approach to assess risk is the use of degradation analysis. Degradation analysis often provides more information than failure time data for assessing reliability and predicting the remnant life of a system.
Technical Paper

Development of a Computational Algorithm for Estimation of Lead Acid Battery Life

2020-04-14
2020-01-1391
The performance and durability of the lead acid battery is highly dependent on the internal battery temperature. The changes in internal battery temperatures are caused by several factors including internal heat generation and external heat transfer from the vehicle under-hood environment. Internal heat generation depends on the battery charging strategy and electric loading. External heat transfer effects are caused by customer duty cycle, vehicle under-hood components and under-hood ambient air. During soak conditions, the ambient temperature can have significant effect on battery temperature after a long drive for example. Therefore, the temperature rise in a lead-acid battery must be controlled to improve its performance and durability. In this paper a thermal model for lead-acid battery is developed which integrates both internal and external factors along with customer duty cycle to predict battery temperature at various driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of a Robust AIS Parametric Model for V8 Engines Using Design for Six Sigma Approach

2018-04-03
2018-01-0140
The automotive Air Induction System (AIS) is an important part of the engine systems which delivers the air to the engine. A well-designed AIS should have low flow restriction and radiates a good quality sound at the snorkel. The GT-Power simulation tool has been widely utilized to evaluate the snorkel noise in industry. In Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, the simulation method enhanced with Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) approach has been developed and implemented in AIS development to meet the functional requirements. The development work included different types of DFSS projects such as identifying new concept, robust optimization and robust assessment etc. In this paper, the work of a robust optimization project is presented on developing an AIS parametric model to achieve optimized snorkel noise performance for a V8 engine. First, the theory of AIS acoustic modeling using GT-power and DFSS robust optimization using Taguchi’s parameter design method are described.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Prog-Die Wear Properties on Bare DP1180 Steel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0310
The die wear up to 80,800 hits on a prog-die setup for bare DP1180 steel was investigated in real production condition. In total, 31 die inserts with the combination of 11 die materials and 9 coatings were evaluated. The analytical results of die service life for each insert were provided by examining the evolution of surface wear on inserts and formed parts. The moments of appearance of die defects, propagation of die defects, and catastrophic failure were determined. Moreover, the surface roughness of the formed parts for each die insert was characterized using Wyko NT110 machine. The objectives of the current study are to evaluate the die durability of various tooling materials and coatings for flange operations on bare DP 1180 steel and update OEM tooling standards based on the experimental results. The current study provides the guidance for the die material and coating selections in large volume production for next generation AHSSs.
Technical Paper

Frame Structure Durability Development Methodology for Various Design Phases

2020-04-14
2020-01-0196
It is a challenging task to find an optimal design concept for a truck frame structure given the complexity of loading conditions, vehicle configurations, packaging and other requirements. In addition, there is a great emphasis on light weight frame design to meet stringent emission standards. This paper provides a framework for fast and efficient development of a frame structure through various design phases, keeping durability in perspective while utilizing various weight reduction techniques. In this approach frame weight and stiffness are optimized to meet strength and durability performance requirements. Fast evaluation of different frame configurations during the concept phase (I) was made possible by using DFSS (Design for Six Sigma) based system synthesis techniques. This resulted in a very efficient frame ladder concept selection process.
Journal Article

Guidelines for SUV Bodywork Design Focused on Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Using the Generic AeroSUV Model

2020-04-14
2020-01-0478
SUV Aerodynamics has received increased attention as the stake this segments holds in the automotive market keeps growing year after year, as well as its direct impact on fuel economy. Understanding the key physics in order to accomplish both fuel efficient and aesthetic products is paramount, which indeed gave origin to a major initiative to foster collaborative aerodynamic research across academia and industry, the so-called DrivAer model. In addition to this sedan-based model, a new dedicated SUV generic model, called AeroSUV [1], has been introduced in 2019, also intended to provide a common framework for aerodynamic research for both experimental work and numerical simulation validation. The present paper provides an area of common ground for SUV bodywork design focused on aerodynamic drag reduction by investigating both Estate and Fast back configurations of the generic AeroSUV model.
Technical Paper

Impact of Active-Grille Shutter Position on Vehicle Air-Conditioning System Performance and Energy Consumption in Real World Conditions

2020-04-14
2020-01-0947
Active grille shutter (AGS) in a vehicle provides aerodynamic benefit at high vehicle speed by closing the front-end grille opening. At the same time this causes lesser air flow through the cooling module which includes the condenser. This results in higher refrigerant pressure at the compressor outlet. Higher head pressure causes the compressor to work more, thereby possibly negating the aerodynamic benefits towards vehicle power consumption. This paper uses a numerical method to quantify the compressor power consumed in different scenarios and assesses the impact of AGS closure on total vehicle energy consumption. The goal is to analyze the trade-off between the aerodynamic performance and the compressor power consumption at high vehicle speeds and mid-ambient conditions. These so called real world conditions represent highway driving at mid-ambient temperatures where the air-conditioning (AC) load is not heavy.
Technical Paper

Integrating a Proactive Quality Control Concept into Machining Operation of a Crankshaft Manufacturing Process

2019-04-02
2019-01-0507
Competition in the manufacturing industry is ever increasingly intense. Manufacturing organizations that want to grow and prosper must embrace a discipline of constant improvement. Their engineering departments are tasked with improving existing manufacturing processes in terms of quality and throughput, which is vital to competing on a global scale. Manufacturers strive to utilize technologies to extract efficiencies from their existing processes. Reducing scrap and rework is the paramount goal in increasing a processes’ efficiency. The foundation of this study is to analyze a production line to determine the quality status throughout the manufacturing process. The intention is to react to process instability before the production becomes non-compliant (scrap/rework) which will significantly improve productivity.
Technical Paper

Integration of Sensitivity Analysis and Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Methodology into Transient Thermal Analysis

2020-04-14
2020-01-1389
In this paper we present an integrated approach which combines analysis of the effect of simultaneous variations in model input parameters on component or system temperatures. The sensitivity analysis can be conducted by varying model input parameters using specific values that may be of interest to the user. The alternative approach is to use a structured set of parameters generated in the form of a DFSS DOE matrix. The matrix represents a combination of simulation conditions which combine the control factors (CF) and noise factors. CF’s are the design parameters that the engineer can modify to achieve a robust design. Noise factors include parameters that are outside the control of the design engineer. In automotive thermal management, noise factors include changes in ambient temperature, exhaust gas temperatures or aging of exhaust system or heat shields for example.
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