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Technical Paper

3rd Generation AHSS Virtual and Physical Stamping Evaluation

2020-04-14
2020-01-0757
Developing lightweight, stiff and crash-resistant vehicle body structures requires a balance between part geometry and material properties. High strength materials suitable for crash resistance impose geometry limitations on depth of draw, radii and wall angles that reduce geometric efficiency. The introduction of 3rd generation Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) can potentially change the relationship between strength and geometry and enable simultaneous improvements in both. This paper will demonstrate applicability of 3rd generation AHSS with higher strength and ductility to replace the 780 MPa Dual Phase steel in a sill reinforcement on the current Jeep Cherokee. The focus will be on formability, beginning with virtual simulation and continuing through a demonstration run on the current production stamping tools and press.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Approach for Estimation of Automotive Component Life due to Thermal Effects

2018-05-30
2018-37-0019
Due to stringent environmental requirements, the vehicle under-hood and underbody temperatures have been steadily increasing. The increased temperatures affect components life and therefore, more thermal protection measures may be necessary. In this paper, we present an algorithm for estimation of automotive component life due to thermal effects through the vehicle life. Traditional approaches consider only the maximum temperature that a component will experience during severe driving maneuvers. However, that approach does not consider the time duration or frequency of exposure to temperature. We have envisioned a more realistic and science based approach to estimate component life based on vehicle duty cycles, component temperature profile, frequency and characteristics of material thermal degradation. In the proposed algorithm, a transient thermal analysis model provides the exhaust gas and exhaust surface temperatures for all exhaust system segments, and for any driving scenario.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study of Hole Punching Force for AHSS

2018-04-03
2018-01-0802
The elevated strength of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) leads to enormous challenges for the sheet metal processing, one of which is hole punching operation. The total tonnage must be estimated at each trimming stage to ensure successful cutting and protect the press machine. This paper presents the effects of hole punch configurations on the punching force with the consideration of punch shape, cutting clearance and material grade. The hole punching experiments were performed with DP590, DP980, DP1180 and one mild steel as a reference. The punching force coefficient is defined and presents a negative correlation with the material strength based on the experimental data. Surface quality was examined to analyze the damage accumulation during the punching process. The cutting mechanisms with various punch shapes were revealed through an extensive finite element simulation study.
Journal Article

A Fatigue Life Prediction Method of Laser Assisted Self-Piercing Rivet Joint for Magnesium Alloys

2015-04-14
2015-01-0537
Due to magnesium alloy's poor weldability, other joining techniques such as laser assisted self-piercing rivet (LSPR) are used for joining magnesium alloys. This research investigates the fatigue performance of LSPR for magnesium alloys including AZ31 and AM60. Tensile-shear and coach peel specimens for AZ31 and AM60 were fabricated and tested for understanding joint fatigue performance. A structural stress - life (S-N) method was used to develop the fatigue parameters from load-life test results. In order to validate this approach, test results from multijoint specimens were compared with the predicted fatigue results of these specimens using the structural stress method. The fatigue results predicted using the structural stress method correlate well with the test results.
Technical Paper

A New Measurement of Aluminum Alloy Edge Stretching Limit Based on Digital Image Correlation Method

2016-04-05
2016-01-0417
In Aluminum Alloy, AA, sheet metal forming, the through thickness cracking at the edge of cut out is one of the major fracture modes. In order to prevent the edge cracking in production forming process, practical edge stretch limit criteria are needed for virtual forming prediction and early stamping trial evaluations. This paper proposes new methods for determining the edge stretching limit of the sheet coupons, with and without pre-stretching, based on the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. A numbers of sets of notch-shaped smaller coupons with three different pre-stretching conditions (near 5%, 10% and fractured) are cut from the prestretched large specimens. Then the notch-shaped smaller coupons are stretched by uniaxial tension up to through edge cracking observed. A dual-camera 3D-DIC system is utilized to measure both coupon face strain and thickness strain in the notch area at the same time.
Technical Paper

A New Weight Reduction Lightening Holes Development Approach Based on Frame Durability Fatigue Performance

2017-03-28
2017-01-1348
For a light duty truck, the frame is a structural system and it must go through a series of proving ground events to meet fatigue performance requirement. Nowadays, in order to meet stringent CAFE standards, auto manufacturers are seeking to keep the vehicle weight as light as possible. The weight reduction on the frame is a challenging task as it still needs to maintain the strength, safety, and durability fatigue performance. CAE fatigue simulation is widely used in frame design before the physical proving ground tests are performed. A typical frame durability fatigue analysis includes both the base metal fatigue analysis and seam weld fatigue analysis. Usually the gauges of the frame components are dictated by the seam weld fatigue performance so opportunities for weight reduction may exist in areas away from the welds. One method to reduce frame weight is to cut lightening holes in the areas that have little impact on the frame fatigue performance.
Journal Article

A Stress-Based Non-Proportionality Parameter for Considering the Resistance of Slip Systems of Shear Failure Mode Materials

2016-04-11
2016-01-9081
Multiaxial loading on mechanical products is very common in the automotive industry, and how to design and analyze these products for durability becomes an important, urgent task for the engineering community. Due to the complex nature of the fatigue damage mechanism for a product under multiaxial state of stresses/strains which are dependent upon the modes of loading, materials, and life, modeling this behavior has always been a challenging task for fatigue scientists and engineers around the world. As a result, many multiaxial fatigue theories have been developed. Among all the theories, an existing equivalent stress theory is considered for use for the automotive components that are typically designed to prevent Case B cracks in the high cycle fatigue regime.
Technical Paper

A Technique for Cargo Box Tailgate CAE Fatigue Life Predictions Loaded with Inertial Forces and Moments

2015-04-14
2015-01-0532
This paper describes a CAE fatigue life prediction technique for a tailgate on pickup truck cargo box with inertial forces and moments applied at mass center of the tailgate as input loads. The inertial forces and moments are calculated from the accelerations measured at the corners of the tailgate as the truck is being driven over a durability schedule at the test proving grounds. All the dynamic responses of the tailgate on cargo box, including any dynamic interactions at the pivot joints between the tailgate and box sides, are captured in the acquired data and also in the inertial forces and moments computed at the mass center. Correspondingly, all the dynamic responses are included in the CAE fatigue life predictions. The dynamic interactions at the pivot joints are simulated by using two identical CAE models, one with lateral translational constraint applied at the left pivot only and the other at the right pivot only.
Journal Article

A Thermomechanical Fatigue Analysis on a Ductile Cast Iron Exhaust Manifold

2018-04-03
2018-01-1215
An engine exhaust manifold undergoes repeated thermal expansion and contraction due to temperature variation. Thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) arises due to the boundary constraints on thermal expansion so that mechanical strain is introduced. Therefore, TMF evaluation is very important in engine design. In this work, the mechanical properties important for TMF assessment and modeling of a silicon (Si)- and molybdenum (Mo)-containing ductile cast iron used for exhaust manifold have been evaluated. Tensile, creep, isothermal low cycle fatigue (LCF), and TMF tests have been conducted. Parameters for material modeling, such as the viscoplastic constitutive model and the Neu-Sehitoglu TMF damage model, have been calibrated, validated, and used to evaluate the TMF life of the exhaust manifold.
Technical Paper

Acid Resistant POM for Fuel System Components

2020-04-14
2020-01-0231
Investigation into fuel system warranty has led to the need to develop cost effective, robust materials that are resistant to both fuel and aggressive cleaners. Acetal, chemically known as polyoxymethylene (POM), is the current material that is used universally by OEM’s throughout the fuel system for its excellent performance in fuel and relatively low cost, but lacks resistance to strong acidic solutions. Acid containing wheel cleaning solutions are increasingly being used by customers to clean their aluminum and magnesium wheels. Due to the proximity of the fuel modules to the wheel openings, acidic wheel cleaners chemically attack the POM resulting in cracks. The team worked closely with suppliers in recent years to develop cost effective, acid resistant POM materials that can withstand the stress-cracking at severe acid concentrations and meet the functional requirements.
Technical Paper

Aluminum Sheet Springback (Side-Wall-Curl) Study

2017-03-28
2017-01-0396
Vehicle weight reduction is a significant challenge for the modern automotive industry. In recent years, the amount of vehicular components constructed from aluminum alloy has increased due to its light weighting capabilities. Automotive manufacturing processes, predominantly those utilizing various stamping applications, require a thorough understanding of aluminum fracture predictions methods, in order to accurately simulate the process using Finite Element Method (FEM) software or use it in automotive engineering manufacture. This paper presents the strain distribution of A5182 aluminum samples after punch impact under various conditions by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system, its software also measured the complete strain history, in addition to sample curvature after it was impacted; therefore obtaining the data required to determine the amount of side-wall-curl (Aluminum sheet springback) present after formation.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on Static and Fatigue Strengths of Resistance Spot Welds with Stack-up of Advanced High Strength Steels and Adhesive

2016-04-05
2016-01-0389
This paper describes static and fatigue behavior of resistance spot welds with the stack-up of conventional mild and advanced high strength steels, with and without adhesive, based on a set of lap shear and coach peel coupon tests. The coupons were fabricated following specified spot welding and adhesive schedules. The effects of similar and dissimilar steel grade sheet combinations in the joint configuration have been taken into account. Tensile strength of the steels used for the coupons, both as-received and after baked, and cross-section microstructure photographs are included. The spot weld SN relations between this study and the study by Auto/Steel Partnership are compared and discussed.
Technical Paper

Application of Laminated Steels for Stamped Bumpers

2020-04-14
2020-01-1055
Light-weight solutions for stamped steel components that exhibit the same or similar appearance properties for purposes of authentic feel and perception to customers will play a critical role as the progress towards reaching maximum fuel efficiency for large vehicles continues. This paper outlines the potential uses for laminated steel in large stamped steel bumper applications that would normally be stamped with thick sheet metal in order to meet vehicle level functional objectives. The paper presents the investigation of the one-for-one drop-in capabilities of the laminate steel material to existing stamping dies, special processing considerations while manufacturing, vehicle level performance comparisons, and class “A” coating options and process needs. Most of all, it will highlight the significant vehicle weight saving benefits and opportunities as compared to current production stamped steel bumpers.
Technical Paper

Application of Multivariate Control Chart Techniques to Identifying Nonconforming Pallets in Automotive Assembly Plants

2020-04-14
2020-01-0477
The Hotelling multivariate control chart and the sample generalized variance |S| are used to monitor the mean and dispersion of vehicle build vision data including the pallet information to identify the non-conforming pallets that are used in body shops of FCA US LLC assembly plants. An iterative procedure and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) are used to rank the non-conforming or bad pallets in the order of severity. The Hotelling multivariate T2 test statistic along with Mason-Tracy-Young (MYT) signal decomposition method is used to identify the features that are affected by the bad pallets. These algorithms were implemented in the Advanced Pallet Analysis module of the FCA US software Body Shop Analysis Toolbox (BSAT). The identified bad pallets are visualized in a scatter plot with a different color for each of the top bad pallets. The run chart of an affected feature confirms the bad pallet by highlighting data points from the bad pallet.
Journal Article

Assessing Fit and Finish Design Sensitivity by Mapping Measurements to Utility

2020-04-14
2020-01-0600
This paper proposes a method to evaluate the sensitivity of the perceived quality of a panel interface design to variation in the measurements of fit and finish. The novelty of this approach is in the application of the concept of utility to fit and finish. The significance is in the ability to evaluate alternative designs with regard to perceived quality long before time and money are spent on their realization. In the automotive industry “fit and finish” is the term applied to the precision of the alignment of one part to another. Fit and finish gives the buyer a sense of the overall quality of the vehicle purely from an aesthetic perspective. Fit and finish is usually evaluated by the manufacturer through dimensional measurements of the gap and flushness conditions between panels.
Technical Paper

Assessing Thermomechanical Fatigue of a Cast Aluminum Alloy Cylinder Head of an Internal Combustion Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-1077
Cast aluminum alloys are used for cylinder heads in internal combustion engines to meet low weight and high strength (lightweight) design requirements. In the combustion chamber, the alloy experiences harsh operating conditions; i.e., temperature variation, constrained thermal expansion, chemical reaction, corrosion, oxidation, and chemical deposition. Under these conditions, thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) damage arises in the form of mechanical damage, environmental (oxidation) damage, and creep damage. In the present work, several important properties that influence the TMF life of the cylinder head have been identified through TMF and finite element analysis (FEA). The results show that improving the strength at high temperatures helps improve TMF life on the exhaust side of the head. On the other hand, improving strength and ductility extend TMF life at low temperature on the intake side.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Critical Plane Models Using Non-Proportional Low Cycle Fatigue Test Data of 304 Stainless Steel

2016-04-05
2016-01-0380
Two popular critical plane models developed by Fatemi-Socie and Smith-Watson-Topper were derived from the experimental observations of the nucleation and growth of cracks during loading. The Fatemi-Socie critical plane model is applicable for the life prediction of materials for which the dominant failure mechanism is shear crack nucleation and growth, while the Smith-Watson-Topper model, for materials that fail predominantly by crack growth on planes perpendicular to the planes of maximum tensile strain or stress. The two critical plane models have been validated primarily by in-phase and 90° out-of-phase loading, and few, on the complex, non-proportional loading paths. A successful critical plane model should be able to predict both the fatigue life and the dominant failure planes. However, some experimental studies indicate the 304 stainless steel has the two possible failure modes, shear and tensile failure dominant, depending on the loading mode and stress and strain states.
Technical Paper

Automotive HVAC Dual Unit System Cool-Down Optimization Using a DFSS Approach

2019-04-02
2019-01-0892
Automotive AC systems are typically either single unit or dual unit systems, while the dual unit systems have an additional rear evaporator. The refrigerant evaporates inside these heat exchangers by taking heat and condensing the moisture from the recirculated or fresh air that is being pushed into the car cabin by air blowers. This incoming cold air in turn brings the cabin temperature and humidity to a level that is comfortable for the passengers. These HVAC units have their own thermal expansion valve to set the refrigerant flow, but both are connected to the main AC refrigerant loop. The airflows, however, are controlled independently for front and rear unit that can affect the temperature and amount of air coming into the cabin from each location and consequently the overall cabin cool-down performance.
Journal Article

Battery Entropic Heating Coefficient Testing and Use in Cell-Level Loss Modeling for Extreme Fast Charging

2020-04-14
2020-01-0862
To achieve an accurate estimate of losses in a battery it is necessary to consider the reversible entropic losses, which may constitute over 20% of the peak total loss. In this work, a procedure for experimentally determining the entropic heating coefficient of a lithium-ion battery cell is developed. The entropic heating coefficient is the rate of change of the cell’s open-circuit voltage (OCV) with respect to temperature; it is a function of state-of-charge (SOC) and temperature and is often expressed in mV/K. The reversible losses inside the cell are a function of the current, the temperature, and the entropic heating coefficient, which itself is dependent on the cell chemistry. The total cell losses are the sum of the reversible and irreversible losses, where the irreversible losses consist of ohmic losses in the electrodes, ion transport losses, and other irreversible chemical reactions.
Technical Paper

CAE Modeling Static and Fatigue Performance of Short Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Coupons and Components

2020-04-14
2020-01-1309
One approach of reducing weight of vehicles is using composite materials, and short glass fiber reinforced polypropylene is one of most popular composite materials. To more accurately predict durability performance of structures made of this kind of composite material, static and fatigue performance of coupons and components made of a short glass fiber reinforced polypropylene has been physically studied. CAE simulations have been conducted accordingly. This paper described details of CAE model setup, procedures, analysis results and correlations to test results for static, fiber orientation flow and fatigue of coupons and a battery tray component. The material configurations include fiber orientations (0, 20 and 90 degrees), and mean stress effect (R = -1.0, -0.5, -0.2, 0.1 and 0.4). The battery tray component samples experience block cycle loading with loading ratio of R = -0.3 and 0.3. The CAE predictions have reasonable correlations to the test results.
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