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Journal Article

A Case Study on Clean Side Duct Radiated Shell Noise Prediction

2017-03-28
2017-01-0444
Engine air induction shell noise is a structure borne noise that radiates from the surface of the air induction system. The noise is driven by pulsating engine induction air and is perceived as annoying by vehicle passengers. The problem is aggravated by the vehicle design demands for low weight components packaged in an increasingly tight under hood environment. Shell noise problems are often not discovered until production intent parts are available and tested on the vehicle. Part changes are often necessary which threatens program timing. Shell noise should be analyzed in the air induction system design phase and a good shell noise analytical process and targets must be defined. Several air induction clean side ducts are selected for this study. The ducts shell noise is assessed in terms of material strength and structural stiffness. A measurement process is developed to evaluate shell noise of the air induction components. Noise levels are measured inside of the clean side ducts.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on Reducing the Fuel Pulse Noise from Gasoline Engine Injectors

2020-04-14
2020-01-1276
There are many noise sources from the vehicle fuel system to generate noise inside a vehicle. Among them, the pressure pulsation due to the rapid opening and closing of gasoline engine injectors can cause undesirable fuel pulse noise. As the pressure pulsation propagates in the fuel supply line toward to rear end of the vehicle, the pressure energy is transferred from fuel lines to the vehicle underbody through clips and into the passenger compartment. It is crucial to attenuate the pressure pulsation inside the fuel line to reduce the fuel pulse noise. In this paper, a case study on developing an effective countermeasure to reduce the objectionable fuel pulse noise of a V8 gasoline injection system at engine idle condition is presented. First, the interior noise of a prototype vehicle was tested and the objectionable fuel pulse noise is exhibited. The problem frequency ranges of the pulse noise were identified.
Technical Paper

A Novel Kalman Filter Based Road Grade Estimation Method

2020-04-14
2020-01-0563
This paper presents a novel Kalman filter based road grade estimation method using measurements from an accelerometer, a gyroscope and a velocity sensor. The accelerometer measures the longitudinal proper acceleration of the vehicle, and the accelerometer measurement is almost drift free but it is heavily corrupted by the accelerometer noise. The gyroscope measures the pitch rate of the vehicle, and the gyroscope measurement is quite clean but it is substantially disturbed by the gyroscope bias. The velocity sensor measures the longitudinal velocity of the vehicle, and the velocity sensor measurement is also considerably corrupted by the measurement noise. The developed Kalman filter based estimation method uses the models of the sensors and their outputs, and fuses the sensor measurements to optimally estimate the road grade. The simulation results show that the developed method is very effective in producing an accurate road grade estimate.
Technical Paper

A Study on Robust Air Induction Snorkel Volume Velocity Prediction Using DFSS Approach

2016-04-05
2016-01-0480
The noise radiated from the snorkel of an air induction system (AIS) can be a major noise source to the vehicle interior noise. This noise source is typically quantified as the snorkel volume velocity which is directly related to vehicle interior noise through the vehicle noise transfer function. It is important to predict the snorkel volume velocity robustly at the early design stage for the AIS development. Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) is an engineering approach that supports the new product development process. The IDDOV (Identify-Define-Develop-Optimize-Verify) method is a DFSS approach which can be used for creating innovative, low cost and trouble free products on significant short schedules. In this paper, an IDD project which is one type of DFSS project using IDDOV method is presented on developing a robust simulation process to predict the AIS snorkel volume velocity. First, the IDDOV method is overviewed and the innovative tools in each phase of IDDOV are introduced.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Performance Analysis of Automotive HVAC Duct Designs Using a Lattice-Boltzmann Based Method and Correlation with Hemi-Anechoic Chamber

2020-04-14
2020-01-1263
Acoustic comfort of automotive cabins has progressively become one of the key attributes of passenger comfort within vehicle design. Wind noise and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system noise are two of the key contributors to noise levels heard inside the car. The increasing prevalence of hybrid technologies and electrification has an associated reduction in powertrain noise levels. As such, the industry has seen an increasing focus on understanding and minimizing HVAC noise, as it is a main source of noise in the cabin particularly when the vehicle is stationary. The complex turbulent flow path through the ducts, combined with acoustic resonances can potentially lead to significant noise generation, both broadband and tonal.
Technical Paper

Air Induction Impact on Turbocharger Noise and Thermodynamic Performance

2020-04-14
2020-01-0426
The trend to simultaneously improve fuel economy and engine performance has led to industry growth of turbocharged engines and as a result, the need to address their undesirable airborne noise attributes. This presents some unique engineering challenges as higher customer expectations for Noise Vibration Harshness (NVH), and other vehicle-level attributes increase over time. Turbocharged engines possess higher frequency noise content compared to naturally aspirated engines. Therefore, as an outcome, whoosh noise in the Air Induction System (AIS) during tip in conditions is an undesirable attribute that requires high frequency attenuation enablers. The traditional method for attenuation of this type of noise has been to use resonators which adds cost, weight and requires packaging space that is often at a premium in the under-hood environment.
Technical Paper

CAE Cooling Module Noise and Vibration Prediction Methodology and Challenges

2020-04-14
2020-01-1262
In the NVH domain, the cooling module is an important subsystem in ground vehicles. Recently, with the development of small high output turbocharged internal combustion (IC) engines, cooling module noise and vibration has become more challenging. Furthermore, with plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), in some cases the cooling fan could be operational while the IC engine is not running. This poses a significant challenge for cabin noise enhancement. Small turbocharged IC engines typically require higher cooling capacity resulting in larger fan size designs with higher speed. Accurate prediction of the unbalance loads generated by cooling fan and loads transferred to the body are critical for the Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) performance of the vehicle. If the NVH risk of cooling module operation is not well quantified and addressed early in the program, attempts to find solutions in post launch stage could be very expensive and not as effective.
Technical Paper

CAE Simulation of Automotive Door Upper Frame Deflection Using Aerodynamic Loads

2018-04-03
2018-01-0716
Upper frame deflection of automobile doors is a key design attribute that influences structural integrity and door seal performance as related to NVH. This is a critical customer quality perception attribute and is a key enabler to ensure wind noise performance is acceptable. This paper provides an overview of two simulation methodologies to predict door upper frame deflection. A simplified simulation approach using point loads is presented along with its limitations and is compared to a new method that uses CFD tools to estimate aerodynamic loads on body panels at various vehicle speeds and wind directions. The approach consisted of performing external aerodynamic CFD simulation and using the aerodynamic loads as inputs to a CAE simulation. The details of the methodology are presented along with results and correlation to experimental data from the wind tunnel.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of an Objective Metric for Transient Engine Clatter Noise

2019-06-05
2019-01-1519
Several powertrain noise phenomena have been studied over the years. Sound quality metrics, like loudness, sharpness, modulation, and tonality, among others, have been developed to characterize powertrain noises. While these readily available metrics work well on steady state and some transient noises, they do not correlate directly with subjective impressions. Moreover, it is difficult to assign a meaningful single rating for time varying noises that may also be associated with simultaneous variations in frequency content. This paper summarizes the process of creating a vehicle level objective metric and its application to blind noise samples to verify correlation with subjective impressions, particularly in association with clatter noise at moderate engine speeds (2000-3500 rpm) with light to moderate throttle tip-ins.
Technical Paper

Development of a Robust AIS Parametric Model for V8 Engines Using Design for Six Sigma Approach

2018-04-03
2018-01-0140
The automotive Air Induction System (AIS) is an important part of the engine systems which delivers the air to the engine. A well-designed AIS should have low flow restriction and radiates a good quality sound at the snorkel. The GT-Power simulation tool has been widely utilized to evaluate the snorkel noise in industry. In Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, the simulation method enhanced with Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) approach has been developed and implemented in AIS development to meet the functional requirements. The development work included different types of DFSS projects such as identifying new concept, robust optimization and robust assessment etc. In this paper, the work of a robust optimization project is presented on developing an AIS parametric model to achieve optimized snorkel noise performance for a V8 engine. First, the theory of AIS acoustic modeling using GT-power and DFSS robust optimization using Taguchi’s parameter design method are described.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Windshield CAE NVH Model for Interior Cabin Noise

2020-04-14
2020-01-1100
This paper describes a reliable CAE methodology to model the linear vibratory behavior of windshields. The windshield is an important component in vehicle NVH performance. It plays an integral role in interior cabin noise. The windshield acts as a large panel typically oriented near vertical at the front of vehicle’s acoustic cavity, hence modeling it accurately is essential to have a reliable prediction of cabin interior noise. The challenge to model the windshield accurately rises from the structural composition of different types of windshields. For automotive applications, windshields come in several structural compositions today. In this paper, we will discuss two types of windshield glass used primarily by automotive manufacturers. First type is the typical laminated glass with polyvinyl butyral (PVB) layer and second type is the acoustic glass with PVB and vinyl layers. Acoustic glass improves acoustic characteristics of the glass in a frequency range of ~ 1200 Hz to ~4000 Hz.
Technical Paper

Equivalent Damping Added by Sound Package

2020-04-14
2020-01-1397
In Automotive and Aerospace industries, sound package has an important role to control vehicle noise in order to improve passenger comfort and reduce environmental noise pollution. The most known approaches used to model the sound package are the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) combined with Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA). The Transfer Matrix Method based approach is extensively used and well-validated for predicting the transmission loss and other vibro-acoustic indicators of multi-layer structures. However, to the best of our knowledge, the equivalent damping due to the multilayer has not been addressed yet in the literature, and it's a novel approach. In this paper, simplified formulations using TMM to compute the equivalent damping will be recalled, and an experimental study will be conducted to assess the add-on damping by sound package for different configurations.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Prog-Die Wear Properties on Bare DP1180 Steel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0310
The die wear up to 80,800 hits on a prog-die setup for bare DP1180 steel was investigated in real production condition. In total, 31 die inserts with the combination of 11 die materials and 9 coatings were evaluated. The analytical results of die service life for each insert were provided by examining the evolution of surface wear on inserts and formed parts. The moments of appearance of die defects, propagation of die defects, and catastrophic failure were determined. Moreover, the surface roughness of the formed parts for each die insert was characterized using Wyko NT110 machine. The objectives of the current study are to evaluate the die durability of various tooling materials and coatings for flange operations on bare DP 1180 steel and update OEM tooling standards based on the experimental results. The current study provides the guidance for the die material and coating selections in large volume production for next generation AHSSs.
Technical Paper

Integration of Sensitivity Analysis and Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Methodology into Transient Thermal Analysis

2020-04-14
2020-01-1389
In this paper we present an integrated approach which combines analysis of the effect of simultaneous variations in model input parameters on component or system temperatures. The sensitivity analysis can be conducted by varying model input parameters using specific values that may be of interest to the user. The alternative approach is to use a structured set of parameters generated in the form of a DFSS DOE matrix. The matrix represents a combination of simulation conditions which combine the control factors (CF) and noise factors. CF’s are the design parameters that the engineer can modify to achieve a robust design. Noise factors include parameters that are outside the control of the design engineer. In automotive thermal management, noise factors include changes in ambient temperature, exhaust gas temperatures or aging of exhaust system or heat shields for example.
Technical Paper

Reconciling Simultaneous Evolution of Ground Vehicle Capabilities and Operator Preferences

2020-04-14
2020-01-0172
An objective evaluation of ground vehicle performance is a challenging task. This is further exacerbated by the increasing level of autonomy, dynamically changing the roles and capabilities of these vehicles. In the context of decision making involving these vehicles, as the capabilities of the vehicles improve, there is a concurrent change in the preferences of the decision makers operating the vehicles that must be accounted for. Decision based methods are a natural choice when multiple conflicting attributes are present, however, most of the literature focuses on static preferences. In this paper, we provide a sequential Bayesian framework to accommodate time varying preferences. The utility function is considered a stochastic function with the shape parameters themselves being random variables. In the proposed approach, initially the shape parameters model either uncertain preferences or variation in the preferences because of the presence of multiple decision makers.
Journal Article

Review and Assessment of Frequency-Based Fatigue Damage Models

2016-04-05
2016-01-0369
Several popular frequency-based fatigue damage models (Wirsching and Light, Ortiz and Chen, Larsen and Lutes, Benascuitti and Tovo, Benascuitti and Tovo with α.75, Dirlik, Zhao and Baker, and Lalanne) are reviewed and assessed. Seventy power spectrum densities with varied amplitude, shape, and irregularity factors from Dirlik’s dissertation are used to study the accuracies of these methods. Recommendations on how to set up the inverse fast Fourier transform to synthesize load data and obtain accurate rainflow cycle counts are given. Since Dirlik’s method is the most commonly used one in industry, a comprehensive investigation of parameter setups for Dirlik’s method is presented. The mean error and standard deviation of the error between the frequency-based model and the rainflow cycle counting method was computed for fatigue slope exponent m ranging from 3 to 12.
Technical Paper

Review and Assessment of Multiaxial Fatigue Limit Models

2020-04-14
2020-01-0192
The purpose of this paper is to provide a comparison of multiaxial fatigue limit models and their correlation to experimental data. This paper investigates equivalent stress, critical plane and invariant-based multiaxial fatigue models. Several methods are investigated and compared based on ability to predict multiaxial fatigue limits from data published in literature. The equivalent stress based model developed by Lee, Tjhung and Jordan (LTJ), provides very accurate predictions of the fatigue limit under multiaxial loading due to its ability to account for non-proportional loading. This accuracy comes from the model constant which is calculated based on multiaxial fatigue data. This is the only model investigated that requires multiaxial fatigue testing to generate the model parameters. All other models rely on uniaxial test results.
Technical Paper

Target Setting Process for Hybrid Electric Drives Using TPA, Jury Study, and Torque Management

2019-06-05
2019-01-1453
The idea of improved efficiency without compromising the “fun to drive” aspect has renewed the auto industry’s interest toward electrification and hybridization. Electric drives gain from having multiple gear ratios which can use advantageous operating set points thus increasing range. Furthermore, they benefit significantly from frequent decelerations and stopping as is experienced in city driving conditions. To recuperate as much energy as possible, deceleration is done at high torque. This presents an interesting but serious sound quality issue in the form of highly tonal whine harmonics of rapidly changing gears that do not track with vehicle speed thus being objectionable to the vehicle occupants. This paper presents an NVH target setting process for a hybrid electric transmission being integrated into two existing vehicles, one belonging to the premium segment and another aimed at enthusiasts with off-road applications.
Technical Paper

Use of Active Vibration Control to Improve Vehicle Refinement while Expanding the Usable Range of Cylinder Deactivation

2019-06-05
2019-01-1571
Cylinder deactivation has been in use for several years resulting in a sizable fuel economy advantage for V8-powered vehicles. The size of the fuel-economy benefit, compared to the full potential possible, is often limited due to the amount of usable torque available in four-cylinder-mode being capped by Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) sensitivities of various rear-wheel-drive vehicle architectures. This paper describes the application and optimization of active vibration absorbers as a system to attenuate vibration through several paths from the powertrain-driveline into the car body. The use of this strategy for attenuating vibration at strategic points is shown to diminish the need for reducing the powertrain source amplitude. This paper describes the process by which the strategic application of these devices is developed in order to achieve the increased usage of the most fuel efficient reduced-cylinder-count engine-operating-points.
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