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Journal Article

A Case Study on Clean Side Duct Radiated Shell Noise Prediction

2017-03-28
2017-01-0444
Engine air induction shell noise is a structure borne noise that radiates from the surface of the air induction system. The noise is driven by pulsating engine induction air and is perceived as annoying by vehicle passengers. The problem is aggravated by the vehicle design demands for low weight components packaged in an increasingly tight under hood environment. Shell noise problems are often not discovered until production intent parts are available and tested on the vehicle. Part changes are often necessary which threatens program timing. Shell noise should be analyzed in the air induction system design phase and a good shell noise analytical process and targets must be defined. Several air induction clean side ducts are selected for this study. The ducts shell noise is assessed in terms of material strength and structural stiffness. A measurement process is developed to evaluate shell noise of the air induction components. Noise levels are measured inside of the clean side ducts.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on Reducing the Fuel Pulse Noise from Gasoline Engine Injectors

2020-04-14
2020-01-1276
There are many noise sources from the vehicle fuel system to generate noise inside a vehicle. Among them, the pressure pulsation due to the rapid opening and closing of gasoline engine injectors can cause undesirable fuel pulse noise. As the pressure pulsation propagates in the fuel supply line toward to rear end of the vehicle, the pressure energy is transferred from fuel lines to the vehicle underbody through clips and into the passenger compartment. It is crucial to attenuate the pressure pulsation inside the fuel line to reduce the fuel pulse noise. In this paper, a case study on developing an effective countermeasure to reduce the objectionable fuel pulse noise of a V8 gasoline injection system at engine idle condition is presented. First, the interior noise of a prototype vehicle was tested and the objectionable fuel pulse noise is exhibited. The problem frequency ranges of the pulse noise were identified.
Technical Paper

A Novel Kalman Filter Based Road Grade Estimation Method

2020-04-14
2020-01-0563
This paper presents a novel Kalman filter based road grade estimation method using measurements from an accelerometer, a gyroscope and a velocity sensor. The accelerometer measures the longitudinal proper acceleration of the vehicle, and the accelerometer measurement is almost drift free but it is heavily corrupted by the accelerometer noise. The gyroscope measures the pitch rate of the vehicle, and the gyroscope measurement is quite clean but it is substantially disturbed by the gyroscope bias. The velocity sensor measures the longitudinal velocity of the vehicle, and the velocity sensor measurement is also considerably corrupted by the measurement noise. The developed Kalman filter based estimation method uses the models of the sensors and their outputs, and fuses the sensor measurements to optimally estimate the road grade. The simulation results show that the developed method is very effective in producing an accurate road grade estimate.
Technical Paper

A Study on Robust Air Induction Snorkel Volume Velocity Prediction Using DFSS Approach

2016-04-05
2016-01-0480
The noise radiated from the snorkel of an air induction system (AIS) can be a major noise source to the vehicle interior noise. This noise source is typically quantified as the snorkel volume velocity which is directly related to vehicle interior noise through the vehicle noise transfer function. It is important to predict the snorkel volume velocity robustly at the early design stage for the AIS development. Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) is an engineering approach that supports the new product development process. The IDDOV (Identify-Define-Develop-Optimize-Verify) method is a DFSS approach which can be used for creating innovative, low cost and trouble free products on significant short schedules. In this paper, an IDD project which is one type of DFSS project using IDDOV method is presented on developing a robust simulation process to predict the AIS snorkel volume velocity. First, the IDDOV method is overviewed and the innovative tools in each phase of IDDOV are introduced.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Performance Analysis of Automotive HVAC Duct Designs Using a Lattice-Boltzmann Based Method and Correlation with Hemi-Anechoic Chamber

2020-04-14
2020-01-1263
Acoustic comfort of automotive cabins has progressively become one of the key attributes of passenger comfort within vehicle design. Wind noise and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system noise are two of the key contributors to noise levels heard inside the car. The increasing prevalence of hybrid technologies and electrification has an associated reduction in powertrain noise levels. As such, the industry has seen an increasing focus on understanding and minimizing HVAC noise, as it is a main source of noise in the cabin particularly when the vehicle is stationary. The complex turbulent flow path through the ducts, combined with acoustic resonances can potentially lead to significant noise generation, both broadband and tonal.
Technical Paper

Air Induction Impact on Turbocharger Noise and Thermodynamic Performance

2020-04-14
2020-01-0426
The trend to simultaneously improve fuel economy and engine performance has led to industry growth of turbocharged engines and as a result, the need to address their undesirable airborne noise attributes. This presents some unique engineering challenges as higher customer expectations for Noise Vibration Harshness (NVH), and other vehicle-level attributes increase over time. Turbocharged engines possess higher frequency noise content compared to naturally aspirated engines. Therefore, as an outcome, whoosh noise in the Air Induction System (AIS) during tip in conditions is an undesirable attribute that requires high frequency attenuation enablers. The traditional method for attenuation of this type of noise has been to use resonators which adds cost, weight and requires packaging space that is often at a premium in the under-hood environment.
Journal Article

Assessing Fit and Finish Design Sensitivity by Mapping Measurements to Utility

2020-04-14
2020-01-0600
This paper proposes a method to evaluate the sensitivity of the perceived quality of a panel interface design to variation in the measurements of fit and finish. The novelty of this approach is in the application of the concept of utility to fit and finish. The significance is in the ability to evaluate alternative designs with regard to perceived quality long before time and money are spent on their realization. In the automotive industry “fit and finish” is the term applied to the precision of the alignment of one part to another. Fit and finish gives the buyer a sense of the overall quality of the vehicle purely from an aesthetic perspective. Fit and finish is usually evaluated by the manufacturer through dimensional measurements of the gap and flushness conditions between panels.
Technical Paper

Automotive HVAC Dual Unit System Cool-Down Optimization Using a DFSS Approach

2019-04-02
2019-01-0892
Automotive AC systems are typically either single unit or dual unit systems, while the dual unit systems have an additional rear evaporator. The refrigerant evaporates inside these heat exchangers by taking heat and condensing the moisture from the recirculated or fresh air that is being pushed into the car cabin by air blowers. This incoming cold air in turn brings the cabin temperature and humidity to a level that is comfortable for the passengers. These HVAC units have their own thermal expansion valve to set the refrigerant flow, but both are connected to the main AC refrigerant loop. The airflows, however, are controlled independently for front and rear unit that can affect the temperature and amount of air coming into the cabin from each location and consequently the overall cabin cool-down performance.
Technical Paper

CAE Cooling Module Noise and Vibration Prediction Methodology and Challenges

2020-04-14
2020-01-1262
In the NVH domain, the cooling module is an important subsystem in ground vehicles. Recently, with the development of small high output turbocharged internal combustion (IC) engines, cooling module noise and vibration has become more challenging. Furthermore, with plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), in some cases the cooling fan could be operational while the IC engine is not running. This poses a significant challenge for cabin noise enhancement. Small turbocharged IC engines typically require higher cooling capacity resulting in larger fan size designs with higher speed. Accurate prediction of the unbalance loads generated by cooling fan and loads transferred to the body are critical for the Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) performance of the vehicle. If the NVH risk of cooling module operation is not well quantified and addressed early in the program, attempts to find solutions in post launch stage could be very expensive and not as effective.
Technical Paper

CAE Simulation of Automotive Door Upper Frame Deflection Using Aerodynamic Loads

2018-04-03
2018-01-0716
Upper frame deflection of automobile doors is a key design attribute that influences structural integrity and door seal performance as related to NVH. This is a critical customer quality perception attribute and is a key enabler to ensure wind noise performance is acceptable. This paper provides an overview of two simulation methodologies to predict door upper frame deflection. A simplified simulation approach using point loads is presented along with its limitations and is compared to a new method that uses CFD tools to estimate aerodynamic loads on body panels at various vehicle speeds and wind directions. The approach consisted of performing external aerodynamic CFD simulation and using the aerodynamic loads as inputs to a CAE simulation. The details of the methodology are presented along with results and correlation to experimental data from the wind tunnel.
Journal Article

Degradation Analysis of Flexible Film Cables in an Automotive Environment

2017-03-28
2017-01-0317
Automobiles have a high degree of mechanical and electrical complexity. However, product complexity has the accompanying effect of requiring high levels of design and process oversight. The net result is a product creation process which is prone to creating failures. These failures typically have their origin in an overall lack of complete understanding of the system in terms of materials, geometries and energy flows. Despite all of the engineering intentions, failures are inevitable, common, and must be dealt with accordingly. In the worst case, if a failure manifests itself into an observable failure the customer may have a negative experience. Therefore, it is imperative that design engineers, suppliers along with reliability professionals be able to assess the design risk. One approach to assess risk is the use of degradation analysis. Degradation analysis often provides more information than failure time data for assessing reliability and predicting the remnant life of a system.
Journal Article

Design of a Composite Structural Panel for High Volume Production

2015-04-14
2015-01-1311
As CAFE requirements increase, automotive OEMs are pursuing innovative methods to lightweight their Body In Whites (BIWs). Within FCA US, this lightweighting research and development activity often occurs through Decoupled Innovation projects. A Decoupled Innovation team comprised of engineers from the BIW Structures Group, in collaboration with Tier 1 supplier Magna Exteriors, sought to re-design a loadbearing component on the BIW that would offer significant weight savings when the current steel component was replaced with a carbon fiber composite. This paper describes the design, development, physical validation and partnership that resulted in a composite Rear Package Shelf Assembly solution for a high-volume production vehicle. As the CAFE requirements loom closer and closer, these innovation-driven engineering activities are imperative to the successful lightweighting of FCA US vehicles.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of an Objective Metric for Transient Engine Clatter Noise

2019-06-05
2019-01-1519
Several powertrain noise phenomena have been studied over the years. Sound quality metrics, like loudness, sharpness, modulation, and tonality, among others, have been developed to characterize powertrain noises. While these readily available metrics work well on steady state and some transient noises, they do not correlate directly with subjective impressions. Moreover, it is difficult to assign a meaningful single rating for time varying noises that may also be associated with simultaneous variations in frequency content. This paper summarizes the process of creating a vehicle level objective metric and its application to blind noise samples to verify correlation with subjective impressions, particularly in association with clatter noise at moderate engine speeds (2000-3500 rpm) with light to moderate throttle tip-ins.
Technical Paper

Development of a Robust AIS Parametric Model for V8 Engines Using Design for Six Sigma Approach

2018-04-03
2018-01-0140
The automotive Air Induction System (AIS) is an important part of the engine systems which delivers the air to the engine. A well-designed AIS should have low flow restriction and radiates a good quality sound at the snorkel. The GT-Power simulation tool has been widely utilized to evaluate the snorkel noise in industry. In Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, the simulation method enhanced with Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) approach has been developed and implemented in AIS development to meet the functional requirements. The development work included different types of DFSS projects such as identifying new concept, robust optimization and robust assessment etc. In this paper, the work of a robust optimization project is presented on developing an AIS parametric model to achieve optimized snorkel noise performance for a V8 engine. First, the theory of AIS acoustic modeling using GT-power and DFSS robust optimization using Taguchi’s parameter design method are described.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Windshield CAE NVH Model for Interior Cabin Noise

2020-04-14
2020-01-1100
This paper describes a reliable CAE methodology to model the linear vibratory behavior of windshields. The windshield is an important component in vehicle NVH performance. It plays an integral role in interior cabin noise. The windshield acts as a large panel typically oriented near vertical at the front of vehicle’s acoustic cavity, hence modeling it accurately is essential to have a reliable prediction of cabin interior noise. The challenge to model the windshield accurately rises from the structural composition of different types of windshields. For automotive applications, windshields come in several structural compositions today. In this paper, we will discuss two types of windshield glass used primarily by automotive manufacturers. First type is the typical laminated glass with polyvinyl butyral (PVB) layer and second type is the acoustic glass with PVB and vinyl layers. Acoustic glass improves acoustic characteristics of the glass in a frequency range of ~ 1200 Hz to ~4000 Hz.
Technical Paper

Equivalent Damping Added by Sound Package

2020-04-14
2020-01-1397
In Automotive and Aerospace industries, sound package has an important role to control vehicle noise in order to improve passenger comfort and reduce environmental noise pollution. The most known approaches used to model the sound package are the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) combined with Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA). The Transfer Matrix Method based approach is extensively used and well-validated for predicting the transmission loss and other vibro-acoustic indicators of multi-layer structures. However, to the best of our knowledge, the equivalent damping due to the multilayer has not been addressed yet in the literature, and it's a novel approach. In this paper, simplified formulations using TMM to compute the equivalent damping will be recalled, and an experimental study will be conducted to assess the add-on damping by sound package for different configurations.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Prog-Die Wear Properties on Bare DP1180 Steel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0310
The die wear up to 80,800 hits on a prog-die setup for bare DP1180 steel was investigated in real production condition. In total, 31 die inserts with the combination of 11 die materials and 9 coatings were evaluated. The analytical results of die service life for each insert were provided by examining the evolution of surface wear on inserts and formed parts. The moments of appearance of die defects, propagation of die defects, and catastrophic failure were determined. Moreover, the surface roughness of the formed parts for each die insert was characterized using Wyko NT110 machine. The objectives of the current study are to evaluate the die durability of various tooling materials and coatings for flange operations on bare DP 1180 steel and update OEM tooling standards based on the experimental results. The current study provides the guidance for the die material and coating selections in large volume production for next generation AHSSs.
Technical Paper

HVAC System Bench Test Analysis for TXV Tuning

2018-04-03
2018-01-0070
In today’s automotive industry, the A/C (Air-conditioning) system is emerging into a high level of technological growth to provide quick cooling, warm up and maintaining the air quality of the cabin during all-weather conditions. In HVAC system, TXV plays vital role by separating high side to low side of vapor compression refrigeration system. It also regulates the amount of refrigerant flow to the evaporator based on A/C system load. The HVAC system bench laboratory conducts the test at different system load conditions to evaluate the outputs from tests during initial development stage to select the right TXV in terms of capacity and Superheat set point for a given system. This process is critical in HVAC developmental activity, since mule cars will be equipped with selected TXV for initial assessment of the system performance.
Technical Paper

Integration of Sensitivity Analysis and Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Methodology into Transient Thermal Analysis

2020-04-14
2020-01-1389
In this paper we present an integrated approach which combines analysis of the effect of simultaneous variations in model input parameters on component or system temperatures. The sensitivity analysis can be conducted by varying model input parameters using specific values that may be of interest to the user. The alternative approach is to use a structured set of parameters generated in the form of a DFSS DOE matrix. The matrix represents a combination of simulation conditions which combine the control factors (CF) and noise factors. CF’s are the design parameters that the engineer can modify to achieve a robust design. Noise factors include parameters that are outside the control of the design engineer. In automotive thermal management, noise factors include changes in ambient temperature, exhaust gas temperatures or aging of exhaust system or heat shields for example.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Aluminum Edge Stretching Limit Using 3D Digital Image Correlation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0594
This paper introduces an industrial application of digital image correlation technique on the measurement of aluminum edge stretching limit. In this study, notch-shape aluminum coupons with three different pre-strain conditions are tested. The edge stretching is proceeded by standard MTS machine. A dual-camera 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used for the full field measurement of strain distribution in the thickness direction. Selected air brush is utilized to form a random distributed speckle pattern on the edge of sheet metal. A pair of special optical lens systems are used to observe the small measurement edge area. From the test results, it demonstrate that refer to the notched coupon thickness, pre-tension does not affect the fracture limit; refer to the virgin sheet thickness, the average edge stretch thinning limits show a consistent increasing trend as the pre-stretch strain increased.
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