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Technical Paper

3D Simulation Models Simplified to 2D Planar/Axisymmetric Problems in Automotive Structures

2016-04-05
2016-01-0397
In automotive FEA analysis, there are many components or assemblies which can be simplified to two-dimensional (2D) plane or axisymmetric analytical problems instead of three-dimensional (3D) simulation models for quick modeling and efficient analysis to meet the timing in the design development process, especially in the advanced design phase and iteration studies. Even though some situations are not perfectly planar or axisymmetric problems, they may still be approximated in 2D planar or axisymmetric models, achieving results accurate enough to meet engineering requirements. In this paper, the authors have presented and summarized several complex 3D analytical situations which can be replaced by simplified plane axisymmetric models or 2D plane strain analytical models.
Journal Article

A Case Study on Clean Side Duct Radiated Shell Noise Prediction

2017-03-28
2017-01-0444
Engine air induction shell noise is a structure borne noise that radiates from the surface of the air induction system. The noise is driven by pulsating engine induction air and is perceived as annoying by vehicle passengers. The problem is aggravated by the vehicle design demands for low weight components packaged in an increasingly tight under hood environment. Shell noise problems are often not discovered until production intent parts are available and tested on the vehicle. Part changes are often necessary which threatens program timing. Shell noise should be analyzed in the air induction system design phase and a good shell noise analytical process and targets must be defined. Several air induction clean side ducts are selected for this study. The ducts shell noise is assessed in terms of material strength and structural stiffness. A measurement process is developed to evaluate shell noise of the air induction components. Noise levels are measured inside of the clean side ducts.
Technical Paper

A Co-Simulation Environment for Virtual Prototyping of Ground Vehicles

2007-10-30
2007-01-4250
The use of virtual prototyping early in the design stage of a product has gained popularity due to reduced cost and time to market. The state of the art in vehicle simulation has reached a level where full vehicles are analyzed through simulation but major difficulties continue to be present in interfacing the vehicle model with accurate powertrain models and in developing adequate formulations for the contact between tire and terrain (specifically, scenarios such as tire sliding on ice and rolling on sand or other very deformable surfaces). The proposed work focuses on developing a ground vehicle simulation capability by combining several third party packages for vehicle simulation, tire simulation, and powertrain simulation. The long-term goal of this project consists in promoting the Digital Car idea through the development of a reliable and robust simulation capability that will enhance the understanding and control of off-road vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Hydraulic Hybrid Systems for Class 6 Trucks

2013-04-08
2013-01-1472
In order to reduce fuel consumption, companies have been looking at hybridizing vehicles. So far, two main hybridization options have been considered: electric and hydraulic hybrids. Because of light duty vehicle operating conditions and the high energy density of batteries, electric hybrids are being widely used for cars. However, companies are still evaluating both hybridization options for medium and heavy duty vehicles. Trucks generally demand very large regenerative power and frequent stop-and-go. In that situation, hydraulic systems could offer an advantage over electric drive systems because the hydraulic motor and accumulator can handle high power with small volume capacity. This study compares the fuel displacement of class 6 trucks using a hydraulic system compared to conventional and hybrid electric vehicles. The paper will describe the component technology and sizes of each powertrain as well as their overall vehicle level control strategies.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Experimental and Modeled Velocity in Gasoline Direct-Injection Sprays with Plume Interaction and Collapse

2017-03-28
2017-01-0837
Modeling plume interaction and collapse for direct-injection gasoline sprays is important because of its impact on fuel-air mixing and engine performance. Nevertheless, the aerodynamic interaction between plumes and the complicated two-phase coupling of the evaporating spray has shown to be notoriously difficult to predict. With the availability of high-speed (100 kHz) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experimental data, we compare velocity field predictions between plumes to observe the full temporal evolution leading up to plume merging and complete spray collapse. The target “Spray G” operating conditions of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is the focus of the work, including parametric variations in ambient gas temperature. We apply both LES and RANS spray models in different CFD platforms, outlining features of the spray that are most critical to model in order to predict the correct aerodynamics and fuel-air mixing.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Approach for Estimation of Automotive Component Life due to Thermal Effects

2018-05-30
2018-37-0019
Due to stringent environmental requirements, the vehicle under-hood and underbody temperatures have been steadily increasing. The increased temperatures affect components life and therefore, more thermal protection measures may be necessary. In this paper, we present an algorithm for estimation of automotive component life due to thermal effects through the vehicle life. Traditional approaches consider only the maximum temperature that a component will experience during severe driving maneuvers. However, that approach does not consider the time duration or frequency of exposure to temperature. We have envisioned a more realistic and science based approach to estimate component life based on vehicle duty cycles, component temperature profile, frequency and characteristics of material thermal degradation. In the proposed algorithm, a transient thermal analysis model provides the exhaust gas and exhaust surface temperatures for all exhaust system segments, and for any driving scenario.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study of Hole Punching Force for AHSS

2018-04-03
2018-01-0802
The elevated strength of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) leads to enormous challenges for the sheet metal processing, one of which is hole punching operation. The total tonnage must be estimated at each trimming stage to ensure successful cutting and protect the press machine. This paper presents the effects of hole punch configurations on the punching force with the consideration of punch shape, cutting clearance and material grade. The hole punching experiments were performed with DP590, DP980, DP1180 and one mild steel as a reference. The punching force coefficient is defined and presents a negative correlation with the material strength based on the experimental data. Surface quality was examined to analyze the damage accumulation during the punching process. The cutting mechanisms with various punch shapes were revealed through an extensive finite element simulation study.
Technical Paper

A DFSS Approach to Optimize the Second Row Floor Duct Using Parametric Modelling

2017-03-28
2017-01-0176
The main function of mobile air conditioning system in a vehicle is to provide the thermal comfort to the occupants sitting inside the vehicle at all environmental conditions. The function of ducts is to get the sufficient airflow from the HVAC system and distribute the airflow evenly throughout the cabin. In this paper, the focus is to optimize the rear passenger floor duct system to meet the target requirements through design for six sigma (DFSS) methodology. Computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD) has been used extensively to optimize system performance and shorten the product development time. In this methodology, a parametric modeling of floor duct design using the factors such as crossectional area, duct length, insulation type, insulation thickness and thickness of duct were created using CATIA. L12 orthogonal design array matrix has been created and the 3D CFD analysis has been carried out individually to check the velocity and temperature.
Journal Article

A Fatigue Life Prediction Method of Laser Assisted Self-Piercing Rivet Joint for Magnesium Alloys

2015-04-14
2015-01-0537
Due to magnesium alloy's poor weldability, other joining techniques such as laser assisted self-piercing rivet (LSPR) are used for joining magnesium alloys. This research investigates the fatigue performance of LSPR for magnesium alloys including AZ31 and AM60. Tensile-shear and coach peel specimens for AZ31 and AM60 were fabricated and tested for understanding joint fatigue performance. A structural stress - life (S-N) method was used to develop the fatigue parameters from load-life test results. In order to validate this approach, test results from multijoint specimens were compared with the predicted fatigue results of these specimens using the structural stress method. The fatigue results predicted using the structural stress method correlate well with the test results.
Journal Article

A Hydrogen Direct Injection Engine Concept that Exceeds U.S. DOE Light-Duty Efficiency Targets

2012-04-16
2012-01-0653
Striving for sustainable transportation solutions, hydrogen is often identified as a promising energy carrier and internal combustion engines are seen as a cost effective consumer of hydrogen to facilitate the development of a large-scale hydrogen infrastructure. Driven by efficiency and emissions targets defined by the U.S. Department of Energy, a research team at Argonne National Laboratory has worked on optimizing a spark-ignited direct injection engine for hydrogen. Using direct injection improves volumetric efficiency and provides the opportunity to properly stratify the fuel-air mixture in-cylinder. Collaborative 3D-CFD and experimental efforts have focused on optimizing the mixture stratification and have demonstrated the potential for high engine efficiency with low NOx emissions. Performance of the hydrogen engine is evaluated in this paper over a speed range from 1000 to 3000 RPM and a load range from 1.7 to 14.3 bar BMEP.
Technical Paper

A Least-Cost Method for Prioritizing Battery Research

1983-02-01
830221
A methodology has been developed for identifying the combination of battery characteristics which lead to least-cost electric vehicles. Battery interrelationships include specific power vs, specific energy, peak power vs. specific energy and DOD, cycle life vs. DOD, cost vs. specific energy and peak power, and volumetric and battery size effects. The method is illustrated for the “second car” mission assuming lead/acid batteries. Reductions in life-cycle costs associated with future battery research breakthroughs are estimated using a sensitivity technique. A research prioritization system is described.
Journal Article

A Machine Learning-Genetic Algorithm (ML-GA) Approach for Rapid Optimization Using High-Performance Computing

2018-04-03
2018-01-0190
A Machine Learning-Genetic Algorithm (ML-GA) approach was developed to virtually discover optimum designs using training data generated from multi-dimensional simulations. Machine learning (ML) presents a pathway to transform complex physical processes that occur in a combustion engine into compact informational processes. In the present work, a total of over 2000 sector-mesh computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of a heavy-duty engine were performed. These were run concurrently on a supercomputer to reduce overall turnaround time. The engine being optimized was run on a low-octane (RON70) gasoline fuel under partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) mode. A total of nine input parameters were varied, and the CFD simulation cases were generated by randomly sampling points from this nine-dimensional input space. These input parameters included fuel injection strategy, injector design, and various in-cylinder flow and thermodynamic conditions at intake valve closure (IVC).
Technical Paper

A Modeling Framework for Connectivity and Automation Co-simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0607
This paper presents a unified modeling environment to simulate vehicle driving and powertrain operations within the context of the surrounding environment, including interactions between vehicles and between vehicles and the road. The goal of this framework is to facilitate the analysis of the energy impacts of vehicle connectivity and automation, as well as the development of eco-driving algorithms. Connectivity and automation indeed provide the potential to use information about the environment and future driving to minimize energy consumption. To achieve this goal, the designers of eco-driving control strategies need to simulate a wide range of driving situations, including the interactions with other vehicles and the infrastructure in a closed-loop fashion.
Technical Paper

A Modular Automotive Hybrid Testbed Designed to Evaluate Various Components in the Vehicle System

2009-04-20
2009-01-1315
The Modular Automotive Technology Testbed (MATT) is a flexible platform built to test different technology components in a vehicle environment. This testbed is composed of physical component modules, such as the engine and the transmission, and emulated components, such as the energy storage system and the traction motor. The instrumentation on the tool enables the energy balance for individual components on drive cycles. Using MATT, a single set of hardware can operate as a conventional vehicle, a hybrid vehicle and a plug-in hybrid vehicle, enabling direct comparison of petroleum displacement for the different modes. The engine provides measured fuel economy and emissions. The losses of components which vary with temperature are also measured.
Technical Paper

A New Measurement of Aluminum Alloy Edge Stretching Limit Based on Digital Image Correlation Method

2016-04-05
2016-01-0417
In Aluminum Alloy, AA, sheet metal forming, the through thickness cracking at the edge of cut out is one of the major fracture modes. In order to prevent the edge cracking in production forming process, practical edge stretch limit criteria are needed for virtual forming prediction and early stamping trial evaluations. This paper proposes new methods for determining the edge stretching limit of the sheet coupons, with and without pre-stretching, based on the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. A numbers of sets of notch-shaped smaller coupons with three different pre-stretching conditions (near 5%, 10% and fractured) are cut from the prestretched large specimens. Then the notch-shaped smaller coupons are stretched by uniaxial tension up to through edge cracking observed. A dual-camera 3D-DIC system is utilized to measure both coupon face strain and thickness strain in the notch area at the same time.
Technical Paper

A New Weight Reduction Lightening Holes Development Approach Based on Frame Durability Fatigue Performance

2017-03-28
2017-01-1348
For a light duty truck, the frame is a structural system and it must go through a series of proving ground events to meet fatigue performance requirement. Nowadays, in order to meet stringent CAFE standards, auto manufacturers are seeking to keep the vehicle weight as light as possible. The weight reduction on the frame is a challenging task as it still needs to maintain the strength, safety, and durability fatigue performance. CAE fatigue simulation is widely used in frame design before the physical proving ground tests are performed. A typical frame durability fatigue analysis includes both the base metal fatigue analysis and seam weld fatigue analysis. Usually the gauges of the frame components are dictated by the seam weld fatigue performance so opportunities for weight reduction may exist in areas away from the welds. One method to reduce frame weight is to cut lightening holes in the areas that have little impact on the frame fatigue performance.
Journal Article

A Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Strategy with a Disturbance Observer for Spark Ignition Engines with External EGR

2017-03-28
2017-01-0608
This research proposes a control system for Spark Ignition (SI) engines with external Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) based on model predictive control and a disturbance observer. The proposed Economic Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (E-NMPC) tries to minimize fuel consumption for a number of engine cycles into the future given an Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) tracking reference and abnormal combustion constraints like knock and combustion variability. A nonlinear optimization problem is formulated and solved in real time using Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) to obtain the desired control actuator set-points. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based observer is applied to estimate engine states, combining both air path and cylinder dynamics. The EKF engine state(s) observer is augmented with disturbance estimation to account for modeling errors and/or sensor/actuator offset.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach to Predict HVAC Noise Using 1D Simulation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0249
In recent years reducing the automobile HVAC (Heating Ventilation and automobile conditioning) noise inside the vehicle cabin is one of the main criterions for all OEMs to provide comfort level to the passengers. The primary function of the HVAC is to deliver more air to the cabin with less noise generation for various blower speeds. Designing the optimum HVAC with less noise is one of the major challenges for all automotive manufacturers and HVAC suppliers. During the design stage, physical parts are not available and hence the simulation technique helps to evaluate the noise level of HVAC. In this study, a computational 1D (one dimensional) analysis is carried out to compute the airflow noise originated from the HVAC unit and propagated to the passenger cabin. Modeling has been done using unigraphics and the analysis is carried out using the commercial 1D software GT suite.
Technical Paper

A Novel DoE based Front-End Airflow Target Setting Approach for Optimum HVAC Cool Down Performance

2018-04-03
2018-01-0786
The front-end air flow conditions have a substantial impact on the cool down performance of a vehicle Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system. The performance of a mobile HVAC system is analyzed by conducting tests on the vehicle in a drive cell, subjecting it to different drive cycles. This now can be done virtually using system level simulation or one-dimensional (1D) tools. Target values for condenser air inlet velocity and temperature for these HVAC performance focused drive cycles needs to be established during the development phase to meet the cool down functional objectives of the vehicle. Thus, in the early stages of development, 1D tools play a major role. Condenser air flow should be sufficient and the temperature should be as low as possible at different vehicle operating conditions to have good air-conditioning (AC) performance.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Investigation on Scalability and Grid Convergence of Internal Combustion Engine Simulations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1095
Traditional Lagrangian spray modeling approaches for internal combustion engines are highly grid-dependent due to insufficient resolution in the near nozzle region. This is primarily because of inherent restrictions of volume fraction with the Lagrangian assumption together with high computational costs associated with small grid sizes. A state-of-the-art grid-convergent spray modeling approach was recently developed and implemented by Senecal et al., (ASME-ICEF2012-92043) in the CONVERGE software. The key features of the methodology include Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), advanced liquid-gas momentum coupling, and improved distribution of the liquid phase, which enables use of cell sizes smaller than the nozzle diameter. This modeling approach was rigorously validated against non-evaporating, evaporating, and reacting data from the literature.
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