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Technical Paper

Evaluation of Biogas Use in Transit Bus Fleets

2015-09-22
2015-36-0227
Current massive urbanization process concentrates high amount of population and impose an increased demand on transport systems. In this context, transit bus system plays an important role, as the most dynamic and less capital intensive transit option available. At the same time, it is strongly dependant on fossil fuels, predominantly diesel fuel, with its intrinsic polluting and greenhouse (climate change) effects. This has boosted research and investments for alternative and renewable fuels. One solution currently receiving widespread recognition is biogas use in transit bus fleets, as it allows the use of a renewable fuel, made from substrates derived basically from waste and sewage that otherwise would produce methane released to the atmosphere.
Technical Paper

Pure Electric Bus Traction Technology Overview - A Path Towards Enhanced Environmental Performance and Efficiency for Transit Bus Fleets

2014-09-30
2014-36-0205
The growing concentration of population in world metropolis caused by increasing urbanization rates has pushed the demand for high capacity and efficient public transport systems. At the same time, environmental concerns have led to increasingly stricter emission standards. In this context, transit authorities have become strongly focused on making their bus fleets more efficient and cleaner, by incorporating new alternative fuels and clean propulsion technologies. This has led to increased interest in electric driven technologies, with their intrinsic efficient, quiet and environment friendly features. Trolleybuses, a well proven mature electric technology already adopted in some cities, although efficient and clean, are burdened by high infrastructure costs and operational inflexibility.
Technical Paper

Sustainable Transit Bus Systems. A Focus on Traction Technologies

2011-10-04
2011-36-0011
The increasing demand for urban mobility, combined with the constriction of investment capacity of transit authorities and private companies make bus based systems a great option for public transport systems, since they allow the provision of high quality services at a fraction of the costs of rail based systems. In this scenario, Bus Transit System - BTS and Bus Rapid Transit - BRT allow the implementation of transport networks at considerably lower costs than their rail system counterparts. This is specially true to developing-nation cities, that have infrastructure costs as a pre-eminent decision-making factor in technology selection. From an environmental perspective, traction technology and fuel option are decisive to define systems' performance.
Technical Paper

Ultracapacitor Transit Bus - Urban Electric Mobility into an Opportunity Charging Concept

2016-10-25
2016-36-0176
Environmental concerns and limited fossil fuels reserves have fostered an increased interest in alternative propulsion systems. In this scenario, electric traction, with its inherent zero local emissions, high efficiency and improved operational performance (acceleration and hill climbing potential), emerges as a desired option for public transport systems. Transit buses, the prevailing transport system in cities, and, hence, strong contributors to traffic environmental impact on urban areas, can reduce considerably their environment burden with the use of electric traction. This means less local pollutants, specially particulate matter - PM and nitrogen oxides - NOx, currently the “Achilles heel” of diesel engines, as well as CO2 greenhouse emissions - GHG.
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