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Technical Paper

A New Approach for Optimization of Mixture Formation on Gasoline DI Engines

Advanced technologies such as direct injection DI, turbocharging and variable valve timing, have lead to a significant evolution of the gasoline engine with positive effects on driving pleasure, fuel consumption and emissions. Today's developments are primarily focused on the implementation of improved full load characteristics for driving performance and fuel consumption reduction with stoichiometric operation, following the downsizing approach in combination with turbocharging and high specific power. The requirements of a relatively small cylinder displacement with high specific power and a wide flexibility of DI injection specifications lead to competing development targets and additionally to a high number of degrees of freedom during optimization. In order to successfully approach an optimum solution, FEV has evolved an advanced development methodology, which is based on the combination of simulation, optical diagnostics and engine thermodynamics testing.
Technical Paper

Future of Combustion Engines

Increasing shortages of energy resources as well as emission legislation is increasing the pressure to develop more efficient, environmentally friendly propulsion systems for vehicles. Due to its more than 125 years of history with permanent improvements, the internal combustion engine (ICE) has reached a very high development status in terms of efficiency and emissions, but also drivability, handling and comfort. Therefore, the IC engine will be the dominant propulsion system for future generations. This paper gives a survey on the present technical status and future prospects of internal combustion engines, both CI and SI engines, also including alternative fuels. In addition a brief overview of the potential of currently intensely discussed hybrid concepts is given.
Technical Paper

Glow-plug Ignition of Ethanol Fuels under Diesel Engine Relevant Thermodynamic Conditions

The requirement of reducing worldwide CO₂ emissions and engine pollutants are demanding an increased use of bio-fuels. Ethanol with its established production technology can contribute to this goal. However, due to its resistive auto-ignition behavior the use of ethanol-based fuels is limited to the spark-ignited gasoline combustion process. For application to the compression-ignited diesel combustion process advanced ignition systems are required. In general, ethanol offers a significant potential to improve the soot emission behavior of the diesel engine due to its oxygen content and its enhanced evaporation behavior. In this contribution the ignition behavior of ethanol and mixtures with high ethanol content is investigated in combination with advanced ignition systems with ceramic glow-plugs under diesel engine relevant thermodynamic conditions in a high pressure and temperature vessel.
Technical Paper

HiL-based ECU-Calibration of SI Engine with Advanced Camshaft Variability

A main focus of development in modern SI engine technology is variable valve timing, which implies a high potential of improvement regarding fuel consumption and emissions. Variable opening, period and lift of inlet and outlet valves enable numerous possibilities to alter gas exchange and combustion. However, this additional variability generates special demands on the calibration process of specific engine control devices, particularly under cold start and warm-up conditions. This paper presents procedures, based on Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) simulation, to support the classical calibration task efficiently. An existing approach is extended, such that a virtual combustion engine is available including additional valve timing variability. Engine models based purely on physical first principles are often not capable of real time execution. However, the definition of initial parameters for the ECU requires a model with both real time capability and sufficient accuracy.
Journal Article

Influence of the Mixture Formation on the Lubrication Oil Emission of Combustion Engines

Partly competing objectives, as low fuel consumption, low friction, long oil maintenance rate, and at the same time lowest exhaust emissions have to be fulfilled. Diminishing resources, continuously reduced development periods, and shortened product cycles yield detailed knowledge about oil consumption mechanisms in combustion engines to be essential. There are different ways for the lubricating oil to enter the combustion chamber: for example as blow-by gas, leakage past valve stem seals, piston rings (reverse blow-by) and evaporation from the cylinder liner wall and the combustion chamber. For a further reduction of oil consumption the investigation of these mechanisms has become more and more important. In this paper the influence of the mixture formation and the resulting fuel content in the cylinder liner wall film on the lubricant oil emission was examined.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Predictive Models for Application in Engine Cold-Start Behavior

The modern engine development process is characterized by shorter development cycles and a reduced number of prototypes. However, simultaneously exhaust after-treatment and emission testing is becoming increasingly more sophisticated. It is expected that predictive simulation tools that encompass the entire powertrain can potentially improve the efficiency of the calibration process. The testing of an ECU using a HiL system requires a real-time model. Additionally, if the initial parameters of the ECU are to be defined and tested, the model has to be more accurate than is typical for ECU functional testing. It is possible to enhance the generalization capability of the simulation, with neuronal network sub-models embedded into the architecture of a physical model, while still maintaining real-time execution. This paper emphasizes the experimental investigation and physical modeling of the port fuel injected SI engine.
Technical Paper

Tailor-Made Fuels: The Potential of Oxygen Content in Fuels for Advanced Diesel Combustion Systems

Fuels derived from biomass will most likely contain oxygen due to the high amount of hydrogen needed to remove oxygen in the production process. Today, alcohol fuels (e. g. ethanol) are well understood for spark ignition engines. The Institute for Combustion Engines at RWTH Aachen University carried out a fuel investigation program to explore the potential of alcohol fuels as candidates for future compression ignition engines to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and an acceptable noise level. The soot formation and oxidation process when using alcohol fuels in diesel engines is not yet sufficiently understood. Depending on the chain length, alcohol fuels vary in cetane number and boiling temperature. Decanol possesses a diesel-like cetane number and a boiling point in the range of the diesel boiling curve. Thus, decanol was selected as an alcohol representative to investigate the influence of the oxygen content of an alcohol on the combustion performance.