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Technical Paper

A New Approach to Boost Pressure and EGR Rate Control Development for HD Truck Engines with VGT

Future HD Diesel engine technology is facing a combination of both extremely low exhaust emission standards (US 2002/2004, EURO IV and later US 2007, EURO V) and new engine test procedures such as the European Transient Cycle (ETC) in Europe and the Not-to-Exceed Area (NTE) in the US). Customers furthermore require increased engine performance, improved efficiency, and long-term durability. In order to achieve all targets simultaneously, future HD Diesel engines must have improved fuel injection and combustion systems and utilize suitable technologies such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), variable geometry turbine turbocharger systems (VGT) and exhaust gas after-treatment systems. Future systems require precision controlled EGR in combination with a VGT-turbocharger during transient operation. This will require new strategies and calibration for the Electronic Engine Control Unit (ECU).
Technical Paper

Active Noise Cancellation at Powertrain Oil Pan

Under city driving conditions, the powertrain represents one of the major vehicle exterior noise sources. Especially at idle and during full load acceleration, the oil pan contributes significantly to the overall powertrain sound emission. The engine oilpan can be a significant contributor to the powertrain radiated sound levels. Passive optimization measures, such as structural optimization and acoustic shielding, can be limited by e.g. light-weight design, package and thermal constraints. Therefore, the potential of the Active Structure Acoustic Control (ASAC) method for noise reduction was investigated within the EU-sponsored project InMAR. The method has proven to have significant noise reduction potential with respect to oil pan vibration induced noise. The paper reports on activities within the InMAR project with regard to a passenger car oil pan application of an ASAC system based on piezo-ceramic foil technology.
Technical Paper

Advanced Combustion for Low Emissions and High Efficiency Part 1: Impact of Engine Hardware on HCCI Combustion

Two single-cylinder diesel engines were optimised for advanced combustion performance by means of practical and cumulative hardware enhancements that are likely to be used to meet Euro 5 and 6 emissions limits and beyond. These enhancements included high fuel injection pressures, high EGR levels and charge cooling, increased swirl, and a fixed combustion phasing, providing low engine-out emissions of NOx and PM with engine efficiencies equivalent to today's diesel engines. These combustion conditions approach those of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), especially at the lower part-load operating points. Four fuels exhibiting a range of ignition quality, volatility, and aromatics contents were used to evaluate the performance of these hardware enhancements on engine-out emissions, performance, and noise levels.
Technical Paper

Advanced Combustion for Low Emissions and High Efficiency Part 2: Impact of Fuel Properties on HCCI Combustion

A broad range of diesel, kerosene, and gasoline-like fuels has been tested in a single-cylinder diesel engine optimized for advanced combustion performance. These fuels were selected in order to better understand the effects of ignition quality, volatility, and molecular composition on engine-out emissions, performance, and noise levels. Low-level biofuel blends, both biodiesel (FAME) and ethanol, were included in the fuel set in order to test for short-term advantages or disadvantages. The diesel engine optimized in Part 1 of this study included cumulative engine hardware enhancements that are likely to be used to meet Euro 6 emissions limits and beyond, in part by operating under conditions of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), at least over some portions of the speed and load map.
Journal Article

Analysis of the Effect of Bio-Fuels on the Combustion in a Downsized DI SI Engine

In this study the fuel influence of several bio-fuel candidates on homogeneous engine combustion systems with direct injection is investigated. The results reveal Ethanol and 2-Butanol as the two most knock-resistant fuels. Hence these two fuels enable the highest efficiency improvements versus RON95 fuel ranging from 3.6% - 12.7% for Ethanol as a result of a compression ratio increase of 5 units. Tetrahydro-2-methylfuran has a worse knock resistance and a decreased thermal efficiency due to the required reduction in compression ratio by 1.5 units. The enleanment capability is similar among all fuels thus they pose no improvements for homogeneous lean burn combustion systems despite a significant reduction in NOX emissions for the alcohol fuels as a consequence of lower combustion temperatures.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Particle Size Distribution in the Cylinder of a Common Rail DI Diesel Engine During Combustion and Expansion

In the recent years diesel engine developers and manufacturers achieved a great progress in reducing the most important diesel engine pollutants, NOX and particulates. But nevertheless big efforts in diesel engine development are necessary to meet with the more stringent future emission regulations. To improve the knowledge about particle formation and emission an insight in the cylinder is necessary. By using the fast gas sampling technique samples from the cylinder were taken as a function of crank angle and analyzed regarding the soot particle size distribution and the particle mass. The particle size distribution was measured by a conventional SMPS. Under steady state conditions the influence of aromatic and oxygen content in the fuel on in-cylinder particle size distribution and particle mass inside a modern 4V-CR-DI-diesel-engine were determined. After injection and ignition, mainly small soot particles were formed which grow and in the later combustion phase coagulate.
Technical Paper

Analytical and Empirical Methods for Optimization of Cylinder Liner Bore Distortion

Beside the traditional prediction of stresses and verification by mechanical testing the optimization of cylinder liner bore distortion is one of today's most important topics in crankcase structure development. Low bore distortion opens up potentials for optimizing the piston group. As the piston rings achieve better sealing characteristics in a low deformation cylinder liner, oil consumption and blow-by are reduced. For unchanged oil consumption and blow-by demands, engine friction and subsequently, fuel consumption could be reduced by decreasing the pre-tension of the piston rings. From the acoustical point of view an optimization of piston-slap noise is often based on an optimized bore distortion behavior. Apart from basics to the behavior of liner bore distortion the paper presents advanced analytical and empirical methods for detailed prediction, verification and optimization of bore distortion taking into account the effective engine operation conditions.
Technical Paper

Application of Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation (VINS) for NVH Analysis of a Passenger Car

The overall perception of a vehicle's quality is significantly influenced by its interior noise characteristics. Therefore, it is important to strike a balance between “pleasant” and “dynamic” sound that fits the customer requirements with respect to vehicle brand and class [1]. Typically, a significant share of the interior vehicle noise is transferred through structure-borne paths. Hence, the powertrain mounting system plays an important role in designing the interior noise. This paper describes an application of the method of vehicle interior noise simulation (VINS) to achieve a characteristic interior sound. This approach is based on separate measurements (or calculations) of excitations and transfer functions and subsequent calculation of the interior noise in the time domain.
Technical Paper

Catalyst Aging Method for Future Emissions Standard Requirements

This paper describes an alternative catalyst aging process using a hot gas test stand for thermal aging. The solution presented is characterized by a burner technology that is combined with a combustion enhancement, which allows stoichiometric and rich operating conditions to simulate engine exhaust gases. The resulting efficiency was increased and the operation limits were broadened, compared to combustion engines that are typically used for catalyst aging. The primary modification that enabled this achievement was the recirculation of exhaust gas downstream from catalyst back to the burner. The burner allows the running simplified dynamic durability cycles, which are the standard bench cycle that is defined by the legislation as alternative aging procedure and the fuel shut-off simulation cycle ZDAKW. The hot gas test stand approach has been compared to the conventional engine test bench method.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Combustion Control - Enabler of Future Refined Engine Performance Regarding Power, Efficiency, Emissions & NVH under Stringent Governmental Regulations

Both, the continuous strengthening of the exhaust emission legislation and the striving for a substantial reduction of the carbon dioxide output in the traffic sector depict substantial requirements for the global automotive industry and especially for the engine manufacturers. From the multiplicity of possible approaches and strategies for clear compliance with these demands, engine internal measures offer a large and, eventually more important, very economical potential. For example, the achievements in fuel injection technology are a measure which in the last years has contributed significantly to a notable reduction of the emissions of the modern DI Diesel engines at favorable fuel efficiency. Besides the application of modern fuel injection technology, the linked combustion control (Closed Loop Combustion Control) opens possibilities for a further optimization of the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Combined Particulate Matter and NOx Aftertreatment Systems for Stringent Emission Standards

The HSDI Diesel engine contributes substantially to the decrease of fleet fuel consumption thus to the reduction of CO2 emissions. This results in the rising market acceptance which is supported by desirable driving performance as well as greatly improved NVH behavior. In addition to the above mentioned requirements on driving performance, fuel economy and NVH behavior, continuously increasing demands on emissions performance have to be met. From today's view the Diesel particulate trap presents a safe technology to achieve the required reduction of the particle emission of more than 95%. However, according to today's knowledge a further, substantial NOx engine-out emission reduction for the Diesel engine is counteracts with the other goal of reduced fuel consumption. To comply with current and future emission standards, Diesel engines will require DeNOx technologies.
Technical Paper

Complex Air Path Management Systems and Necessary Controller Structures for Future High Dynamic Requirements

The future worldwide emission regulations will request a drastic decrease of Diesel engine tailpipe emissions. Depending on the planned application and the real official regulations, a further strong decrease of engine out emissions is necessary, even though the utilized exhaust after-treatment systems are very powerful. To reduce NOx emissions internally, the external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is known as the most effective way. Due to the continuously increasing requirements regarding specific power, dynamic behavior and low emissions, future air path systems have to fulfill higher requirements and, consequently, become more and more complex, e.g. arrangements with a 2-stage turbo charging or 2-stage EGR system with different stages of cooling performance.
Technical Paper

Controlled Auto Ignition Combustion Process with an Electromechanical Valve Train

The current discussion about possible limitation of CO2 emissions makes improvement of fuel consumption a central topic for gasoline engine development. Various technological solutions are available to realize this improvement. Concepts featuring direct fuel injection, engine downsizing and unthrottled control of engine load with variable valvetrains are currently considered the most promising ways to achieve this goal. Further concepts that are under development include Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) and homogenous lean burn combustion as well as certain combinations of these technologies. Within the European market, direct injection is currently the most popular solution. The drawback is that a very expensive exhaust gas aftertreatment system is necessary to keep exhaust emissions within legal limits.
Technical Paper

Cooled EGR - A Must or an Option for 2002/04

The introduction of the new emission standards in 2002/04 for heavy-duty diesel engines requires a substantial reduction of the NOx emissions while the particulate emissions remain on a constant level. The application of cooled EGR appears to be the most common approach in order to achieve the required target, although other means such as advanced combustion systems and the application of emission control devices to reduce NOx emissions have to be taken into account as well. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of such alternative solutions in comparison with cooled EGR to meet the upcoming emission standards.
Journal Article

Dedicated GTL Vehicle: A Calibration Optimization Study

GTL (Gas-To-Liquid) fuel is well known to improve tailpipe emissions when fuelling a conventional diesel vehicle, that is, one optimized to conventional fuel. This investigation assesses the additional potential for GTL fuel in a GTL-dedicated vehicle. This potential for GTL fuel was quantified in an EU 4 6-cylinder serial production engine. In the first stage, a comparison of engine performance was made of GTL fuel against conventional diesel, using identical engine calibrations. Next, adaptations enabled the full potential of GTL fuel within a dedicated calibration to be assessed. For this stage, two optimization goals were investigated: - Minimization of NOx emissions and - Minimization of fuel consumption. For each optimization the boundary condition was that emissions should be within the EU5 level. An additional constraint on the latter strategy required noise levels to remain within the baseline reference.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Cell System Air Management Utilizing HIL Tools

In this paper, boosting strategies are investigated for part load operation of typical fuel-cell-systems. The optimal strategy can mainly be obtained by simulation. The boosting strategy is one of the most essential parameters for design and operation of a fuel-cell-system. High pressure ratios enable high power densities, low size and weight. Simultaneously, the demands in humidification and water recovery for today's systems are reduced. But power consumption and design effort of the system increases strongly with the pressure level. Therefore, the main focus must be on the system efficiencies at part load. In addition, certain boundary conditions like the inlet temperature of the fuel-cell stack must be maintained. With high pressure levels the humidification of the intake air before, within or after the compressor is not sufficient to dissipate enough heat. Vaporization during the compression process shows efficiency advantages while the needs in heat dissipation decreases.
Technical Paper

Development of a Charge Motion Controlled Combustion System for DI SI-Engines and its Vehicle Application for EU-4 Emission Regulations

The development of new passenger car powertrains with gasoline direct injection engines is facing new requirements which result from the need of different operational modes with stratified and homogeneous air fuel mixture. Moreover, the exhaust aftertreatment system causes a discontinuous operation with lean burn adsorption periods followed by short rich spikes for catalyst regeneration. Recent work on combustion system development has shown, that gasoline direct injection can create significant fuel economy benefits. Charge motion controlled combustion systems have proven to be of advantage in terms of low raw emissions compared to wall guided concepts. Based on an initial single-cylinder development phase a multi-cylinder engine was realized with excellent fuel economy, low raw emissions and operational robustness. Finally, the new engine's potential has been demonstrated in a mid-class vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development of a Desulfurization Strategy for a NOx Adsorber Catalyst System

The aggressive reduction of future diesel engine NOx emission limits forces the heavy- and light-duty diesel engine manufacturers to develop means to comply with stringent legislation. As a result, different exhaust emission control technologies applicable to NOx have been the subject of many investigations. One of these systems is the NOx adsorber catalyst, which has shown high NOx conversion rates during previous investigations with acceptable fuel consumption penalties. In addition, the NOx adsorber catalyst does not require a secondary on-board reductant. However, the NOx adsorber catalyst also represents the most sulfur sensitive emissions control device currently under investigation for advanced NOx control. To remove the sulfur introduced into the system through the diesel fuel and stored on the catalyst sites during operation, specific regeneration strategies and boundary conditions were investigated and developed.
Technical Paper

Development of a charge motion controlled combustion system for DI SI engines and its vehicle application to EU-4 emission regulations

The development of new passenger car powertrains with gasoline direct- injection engines is facing new requirements which result from the need of different operational modes with stratified and homogeneous air-fuel mixture. Moreover, the exhaust aftertreatment system causes a discontinuous operation with lean-burn absorption periods followed by short rich spikes for catalyst regeneration. Recent work on combustion system development has shown, that gasoline direct injection can create significant fuel economy benefits. Charge motion controlled combustion systems have proven to be of advantage in terms of low raw emissions compared to wall-guided concepts. Based on an initial single-cylinder development phase, a multi-cylinder engine was realized with excellent fuel economy, low raw emissions and operational robustness. Finally, the new engine''s potential has been demonstrated in a mid-class vehicle.
Technical Paper

Diesel Combustion Control with Closed-Loop Control of the Injection Strategy

Current and future emission legislations require a significant reduction of engine-out emissions for Diesel engines. For a further reduction of engine-out emissions, different measures are necessary such as: Especially an advanced emission and closed-loop combustion control has gained increased significance during the past years.