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Technical Paper

Airport, Airspace, and NAS System Capacity Studies

“As we handle more operations and passengers in the air, we must make certain we have the capacity to handle increased traffic on the ground.” - Jane Garvey, FAA Administrator (4/20/98) The FAA Technical Center (Aviation System Analysis and Modeling Branch, ACT-520) has been responsive to the FAA Airport Capacity Program customers for the past 22 years, developing, testing, and applying airfield and airspace simulation models. More than 90 capacity studies have been completed with ACT-520 personnel contributing their technical expertise to the Airport Design Teams. The teams are comprised of FAA personnel, airport operators, air carriers, other airport users and aviation industry representatives at major airports throughout the US. Initial studies focused on modeling airport operations from final approach, taxi, gate operations and departure processing. Later in the program, local airspace studies were included in some airport study efforts.
Technical Paper

Area Navigation in the Common System

Area navigation offers a means of establishing an air route system without the constraints entailed in flying toward or away from the signal source. In terminal areas, an area navigation system of routes, combined with ATC computer-aided sequencing and airborne collision-avoidance technology, offers possibilities for establishing future methods of moving high volumes of traffic on and off a complex of multiple parallel runways. Such a system would reduce air-ground communications and controller workloads which are serious limiting factors in today's system. In the en route system, the use of area navigation will result in more efficient utilization of airspace, although regimentation of traffic will continue to be necessary in areas of high traffic density. An area navigation system, based on VOR/DME inputs is possible in the near future.
Technical Paper

Canard Certification Loads — A Review of FAA Concerns

Since the first airplane was certified in 1927, the standard configuration has been with the main lifting surface or surfaces forward of the stabilizing surface. Although some of the advantages of the canard configuration were recognized quite early - by the Wright Brothers, for example - canard surfaces have been used to date only as additional control surfaces on some military airplanes, and on some amateur built airplanes. As a result, the Airworthiness Regulations of Reference 1 address only tail aft configurations. When FAA was first approached regarding certification of a canard configured small airplane, an FAA/Industry Empennage Loads Working Group was formed to develop technical proposals for the necessary rule changes and policy. The concerns addressed by this working group are discussed in the following sections.
Technical Paper

Certification Issues Regarding Advanced Technology Control Systems in Civil Rotorcraft

Microprocessor technology is allowing functions in aircraft to be implemented to a greater degree by digital process control than by conventional mechanical or electromechanical means. A review of this technology indicates a need for updated certification criteria. A high level of commitment to the technology such as fly-by-wire is completely beyond the scope of existing certification criteria. This paper emphasizes the areas of software validation levels, increased concern with basic power system qualification, and increased environmental concerns for electromagnetic interference and lightning.
Technical Paper

Certification Issues for a Tilt-Rotor Aircraft

Powered-lift aircraft, such as the V-22 tilt-rotor, are likely to spin-off a civil version. The present FAA airworthiness certification standards are not considered to be adequate for these unique aircraft. The FAA has drafted certification criteria and held a public conference to review the draft and identify significant technical certification issues that require further effort to establish correct standards for powered-lift aircraft. Some of those issues are discussed.
Technical Paper

Radar Detection of High Concentrations of Ice Particles - Methodology and Preliminary Flight Test Results

High Ice Water Content (HIWC) has been identified as a primary causal factor in numerous engine events over the past two decades. Previous attempts to develop a remote detection process utilizing modern commercial radars have failed to produce reliable results. This paper discusses the reasons for previous failures and describes a new technique that has shown very encouraging accuracy and range performance without the need for any modifications to industry’s current radar design(s). The performance of this new process was evaluated during the joint NASA/FAA HIWC RADAR II Flight Campaign in August of 2018. Results from that evaluation are discussed, along with the potential for commercial application, and development of minimum operational performance standards for future radar products.
Technical Paper

Review of Engine Maintenance Concepts Applied to Wide Body Jets

In the early design stages of the advanced technology high-bypass-ratio engines, it became evident that maintainability considerations and more effective maintenance concepts would be necessary to achieve higher reliability and more economically successful powerplants. This paper reviews the major design considerations from a maintainability standpoint. It describes the concepts developed specifically to provide more effective maintenance for the wide-body jets. It discusses the effectiveness of these programs, and provides an insight into new philosophies and trends envisioned by the Federal Aviation Administration for future maintenance management programs.
Technical Paper

Simulation's Potential Role in Advanced Aircraft Certification

In view of the fact that future generations of derivative or new aircraft will be faced with problems of increasing operating efficiency, new and more advanced technology will have to be introduced. To this end, the Federal Aviation Administration has been examining the certification question and has concluded that simulation may be increasingly important in the future certification activities. Through a contract with Lockheed Aircraft Company, the FAA will be able to review past use of industrial simulation in connection with certification.
Technical Paper

The Aviation Safety Analysis System (ASAS): An Overview

The Federal Aviation Administration has placed increasing emphasis on modern information systems to achieve safety improvements. The ASAS (Aviation Safety Analysis System) is a comprehensive new system to upgrade significantly the agency's ability to collect process and disseminate safety-related information.
Technical Paper

The Current and Future Basis for Aircraft Air Pollution Control

The present regulatory tool for assessment of aircraft smoke emission, the Ringelmann Chart, is described; some of the shortcomings associated with its use for aircraft are discussed; research and development efforts to improve on this system are described. The gaseous pollutants, their relative importance in an airport area and research underway or needed is also discussed.
Technical Paper

The FAA Regional/Commuter Aircraft Flight Loads Data Collection Program

As a part of its International Aging Aircraft Research Program, the Federal Aviation Administration is establishing a state-of-the-art Flight Loads Data Collection Program. Data collected in this program will provide the necessary mission profiles and load spectra information to characterize typical fleet service usage for the regional/commuter service life extension program. In addition, these data are applicable for both a safe life fatigue analysis and a damage tolerance fracture mechanics analysis. This paper describes the FAA approach and schedule for instrumenting fleet service aircraft, and the data reduction process.
Technical Paper

Training Solutions from FAA Maintenance Human Factors Research & Development

The FAA Office of Aviation Medicine has developed, delivered, and tested a variety of training systems over the past decade. The systems, their design, and guidance materials are directly transferable to the aviation industry at no cost. This paper describes the many training systems that are available.