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Technical Paper

Application of Fatigue Life Prediction Methods for GMAW Joints in Vehicle Structures and Frames

2011-04-12
2011-01-0192
In the North American automotive industry, various advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are used to lighten vehicle structures, improve safety performance and fuel economy, and reduce harmful emissions. Relatively thick gages of AHSS are commonly joined to conventional high strength steels and/or mild steels using Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) in the current generation body-in-white structures. Additionally, fatigue failures are most likely to occur at joints subjected to a variety of different loadings. It is therefore critical that automotive engineers need to understand the fatigue characteristics of welded joints. The Sheet Steel Fatigue Committee of the Auto/Steel Partnership (A/S-P) completed a comprehensive fatigue study on GMAW joints of both AHSS and conventional sheet steels including: DP590 GA, SAE 1008, HSLA HR 420, DP 600 HR, Boron, DQSK, TRIP 780 GI, and DP780 GI steels.
Journal Article

Correlation between Scatter in Fatigue Life and Fatigue Crack Initiation Sites in Cast Aluminum Alloys

2012-04-16
2012-01-0920
High cycle fatigue tests at a constant positive mean stress have been performed on a Al-Si-Cu cast aluminum alloy. The Random Fatigue Limit (RFL) model was employed to fit the probabilistic S-N curves based on Maximum Likelihood Estimate (MLE). Fractographic studies indicated that fatigue cracks in most specimens initiate from oxide films located at or very close to specimen surface. The RFL model was proved to be able to accurately capture the scatter in fatigue life. The cumulative density function (CDF) of fatigue life determined by RFL fit is found to be approximately equal to the complementary value of the CDF of the near-surface fatigue initiator size.
Journal Article

Development of Corrosion Testing Protocols for Magnesium Alloys and Magnesium-Intensive Subassemblies

2013-04-08
2013-01-0978
Corrosion tendency is one of the major inhibitors for increased use of magnesium alloys in automotive structural applications. Moreover, systematic or standardized methods for evaluation of both general and galvanic corrosion of magnesium alloys, either as individual components or eventually as entire subassemblies, remains elusive, and receives little attention from professional and standardization bodies. This work reports outcomes from an effort underway within the U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership - ‘USAMP’ (Chrysler, Ford and GM) directed toward enabling technologies and knowledge base for the design and fabrication of magnesium-intensive subassemblies intended for automotive “front end” applications. In particular, subassemblies consisting of three different grades of magnesium (die cast, sheet and extrusion) and receiving a typical corrosion protective coating were subjected to cyclic corrosion tests as employed by each OEM in the consortium.
Technical Paper

Development of a Canning Method for Catalytic Converters using Ultra Thin Wall Substrates

2004-03-08
2004-01-0144
There are benefits of using ultra thin wall (UTW) substrates (i.e., 900/2, 400/4, etc) in lowering cost and emission level. However, the more fragile mechanical characteristics of the UTW present a challenge to design and manufacture of robust catalytic converters. This paper describes a method of canning trial, where a combined Design of Experiment / Monte-Carlo analysis method was used, to develop and validate a canning method for ultra thin wall substrates. Canning trials were conducted in two stages-- Prototype Canning Trial and Production Canning Trial. In Prototype Canning Trial, the root cause of substrate failure was identified and a model for predicting substrate failure was established. Key factors affecting scrap rate and gap capability were identified and predictions were performed on scrap rate and gap capability with the allowed variations in the key factors. The results provided guidelines in designing production line and process control.
Technical Paper

Effects of Pore Distributions on Ductility of Thin-Walled High Pressure Die-Cast Magnesium

2013-04-08
2013-01-0644
In this paper, a microstructure-based three-dimensional (3D) finite element modeling method is adopted to investigate the effects of porosity in thin-walled high pressure die-cast (HPDC) magnesium alloys on their ductility. For this purpose, the cross-sections of AM60 casting samples are first examined using optical microscope and X-ray tomography to obtain the general information on the pore distribution features. The experimentally observed pore distribution features are then used to generate a series of synthetic microstructure-based 3D finite element models with different pore volume fractions and pore distribution features. Shear and ductile damage models are adopted in the finite element analyses to induce the fracture by element removal, leading to the prediction of ductility.
Technical Paper

Measure of Forming Limit Strain on the Aluminum Sheets Passed Through Draw-Bead by Digital Image Correlation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0598
Accurate determination of the forming limit strain of aluminum sheet metal is an important topic which has not been fully solved by industry. Also, the effects of draw beads (enhanced forming limit behaviors), normally reported on steel sheet metals, on aluminum sheet metal is not fully understood. This paper introduces an experimental study on draw bead effects on aluminum sheet metals by measuring the forming limit strain zero (FLD0) of the sheet metal. Two kinds of aluminum, AL 6016-T4 and AL 5754-0, are used. Virgin material, 40% draw bead material and 60% draw bead material conditions are tested for each kind of aluminum. Marciniak punch tests were performed to create a plane strain condition. A dual camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was used to record and measure the deformation distribution history during the punch test. The on-set necking timing is determined directly from surface shape change. The FLD0 of each test situation is reported in this article.
Technical Paper

Metal Stamping Presses Noise Investigation and Abatement

1980-02-01
800495
Noise generating mechanisms connected with steel-blanking operation has been identified and their engineering treatments developed and tested. Use of rubber-metal laminates proved to be successful for cushioning impacts in kinematic pairs and joints. Use of plastic for the stripper plate construction was recommended. The “die stiffener” concept was developed to reduce main noise peak associated with punch breakthrough. Screening of the die cavity by a transparent curtain of overlapping PVC strips was shown to be effective. A pulse load simulator with adjustable load rate and amplitude has been developed to facilitate testing of presses.
Technical Paper

Noise Abatement of In-Plant Trailers

1980-02-01
800494
In-plant trailers constitute a large portion of material handling system in manufacturing plants of the automotive industry. The trailers are among the most intensive noise sources, with radiated noise reaching 110 dBA (Leq). High dynamic loads are also generated on the floor and in the trailer structure. These dynamic loads lead to maintenance problems and inflated inventory of the trailers. Principal mechanisms responsible for generating noise and dynamic loads are identified and treatments to reduce noise and dynamic loads have been developed and investigated on standard trailers. Test results show: for an empty trailer, application of the proposed nonlinear suspension reduces noise 16–18 dBA (Leq) and dynamic load 10 times; for a trailer with an empty rack, application of the proposed nonlinear rack cushion leads to 3–5 dBA (Leq) noise reduction in addition to 8–10 dBA (Leq) reduction due to the suspension.
Technical Paper

Noise Abatement of Sliding Chutes for Metal Stamping Production

1980-02-01
800493
Identification of the noise generating mechanisms of gravity action and vibrator stimulated sliding chutes has resulted in the development of practical and effective noise abatement treatments for both. In the case of gravity action chutes the application of foam-backed thin and narrow spring steel plates on the chute surface achieves the desired effect with noise reduction of 14 to 25 dB(A). With vibrator stimulated chutes progressive steps were taken to attenuate source noise, chute radiation noise and the non-productive component of the force vector from the vibrator, resulting in noise reduction of 25 to 30 dB(A).
Journal Article

Optimized AHSS Structures for Vehicle Side Impact

2012-04-16
2012-01-0044
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have been widely accepted as a material of choice in the automotive industry to balance overall vehicle weight and stringent vehicle crash test performance targets. Combined with efficient use of geometry and load paths through shape and topology optimization, AHSS has enabled vehicle manufacturers to obtain the highest possible ratings in safety evaluations by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). In this study, vehicle CAE side impact models were used to evaluate three side impact crash test conditions (IIHS side impact, NHTSA LINCAP and FMVSS 214 side pole) and the IIHS roof strength test condition and to identify several key components affecting the side impact test performance. HyperStudy® optimization software and LS-DYNA® nonlinear finite element software were utilized for shape and gauge optimization.
Journal Article

Regenerative Braking Control Enhancement for the Power Split Hybrid Architecture with the Utilization of Hardware-in-the-loop Simulations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1466
This study presents the utilization of the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) approach for regenerative braking (regen) control enhancement efforts for the power split hybrid vehicle architecture. The HIL stand used in this study includes a production brake control module along with the hydraulic brake system, constituted of an accelerator/brake pedal assembly, electric vacuum booster and pump, brake hydraulic circuit and four brake calipers. This work presents the validation of this HIL simulator with real vehicle data, during mild and heavy braking. Then by using the HIL approach, regen control is enhanced, specifically for two cases. The first case is the jerk in deceleration caused by the brake booster delay, during transitions from regen to friction braking. As an example, the case where the regen is ramped out at a low speed threshold, and the hydraulic braking ramped in, can be considered.
Technical Paper

Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) Evaluation of Electro Galvanized (EG) 1.0 mm Dual Phase 780 (DP780) to Uncoated 1.0 mm Boron Steel for Automotive Body Structure Applications

2010-04-12
2010-01-0445
There has been a substantial increase in the use of advanced high strength steel (AHSS) in automotive structures in the last few years. The usage of these materials is projected to grow significantly in the next 5-10 years with the introduction of new safety and fuel economy regulations. AHSS are gaining popularity due to their superior mechanical properties and use in parts for weight savings potential, as compared to mild steels. These new materials pose significant manufacturing challenges, particularly for welding and stamping. Proper understanding of the weldability of these materials is critical for successful application on future vehicle programs. Due to the high strength nature of AHSS materials, higher weld forces and longer weld times are often needed to weld these advanced strength steels.
Technical Paper

Select Strength Steel Bumper System

1983-02-01
830397
The SS Bumper is a new concept in automobile systems that achieves a very significant weight reduction in steel bumper construction and is capable of meeting the 5 mph FMVSS U.S. Government impact standard. It offers a low cost method of achieving a double digit weight reduction with no cost premium for aluminum or plastic materials. This paper concentrates on describing the configuration of the SS Bumper and a simple, easy to apply procedure for car application which includes discrete equations for bending strengths, torsional strength and the new dent strength relationships which have been recently developed. One version of the SS Bumper applied to the 1983 Thunderbird is also described.
Technical Paper

Sheet Forming with Pulsating Blankholder Modeling and Experiments

1999-09-28
1999-01-3157
Robust processing window and subsequent quality of part are major concerns during sheet metal stamping. The sheet restraining force is a key parameter controlling metal flow, thus influencing formability and quality of the resulting part. Recent advances in press and die building provided capability of altering the restraining force (RF) during a stamping stroke via pulsating blankholder force (PBF). An outcome of this technology would be an increase in the maximum drawing depth resulting from a decrease in the average blankholder force. In this study, laboratory and numerical experiments were performed in an effort to better understand the effect of various PBF trajectories on stamping performance. A working numerical model using explicit code was successfully developed for time effective simulation of drawn cups with pulsating binder force. Preliminary results of this ongoing project are presented. The pulsating force trajectory was found to have a beneficial effect on drawability.
Journal Article

The Effect of Welding Dimensional Variability on the Fatigue Life of Gas Metal Arc Welded Joints

2011-04-12
2011-01-0196
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) is widely employed for joining relatively thick sheet steels in automotive body-in-white structures and frames. The GMAW process is very flexible for various joint geometries and has relatively high welding speed. However, fatigue failures can occur at welded joints subjected to various types of loads. Thus, vehicle design engineers need to understand the fatigue characteristics of welded joints produced by GMAW. Currently, automotive structures employ various advanced high strength steels (AHSS) such as dual-phase (DP) and transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels to produce lighter vehicle structures with improved safety performance and fuel economy, and reduced harmful emissions. Relatively thick gages of AHSS are commonly joined to conventional high strength steels and/or mild steels using GMAW in current body-in-white structures and frames.
Technical Paper

The Measurement of Impact Forces under Dynamic Crush using a Drop Tower Test Facility

1983-02-01
830467
The design of structural components requires a knowledge of their crush characteristics, particularly the load-carrying capacity during dynamic crash. Although many attempts have been made to develop analytical techniques or methods for predicting these characteristics, experimental tests are still needed to provide data for real structures for either development or validation. This report describes an experimental method for determining the force-deflection characteristics during dynamic crush of square steel columns using a drop tower test facility. The custom-designed load cells were used for the measurements of the impact and the reaction forces at both ends of specimens, which were subjected to a 30 mph impact. Instrumentation for data acquisition and detailed data reduction for analysis are also presented.
Journal Article

Very High Cycle Fatigue of Cast Aluminum Alloys under Variable Humidity Levels

2015-04-14
2015-01-0556
Ultrasonic fatigue tests (testing frequency around 20 kHz) have been conducted on four different cast aluminum alloys each with a distinct composition, heat treatment, and microstructure. Tests were performed in dry air, laboratory air and submerged in water. For some alloys, the ultrasonic fatigue lives were dramatically affected by the environment humidity. The effects of different factors like material composition, yield strength, secondary dendrite arm spacing and porosity were investigated; it was concluded that the material strength may be the key factor influencing the environmental humidity effect in ultrasonic fatigue testing. Further investigation on the effect of chemical composition, especially copper content, is needed.
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